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This article is about a geographical region. For other uses, see Mashriq (disambiguation).

The Mashriq (مشرق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the region of Arab countries to the east of Libya. This composes the countries of Egypt, Sudan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Syria and Iraq.[1][2][3][4] Poetically the ‘place of sunrise’, the name is derived from the verb sharaqa (شرق ‘to shine, illuminate, radiate’ and ‘to rise’), referring to the direction where the sun rises, namely, the east.[5][6]

As it refers to countries bounded between the Mediterranean Sea and Iran,[citation needed] it is therefore the companion term to Maghreb (western part of North Africa). Egypt occupies an ambiguous position: while it has cultural, ethnic and linguistic ties to both the Mashriq and the Maghreb, it is unique and different from both.[citation needed] Therefore, Egypt is located at the center/heart of the Arab world and that is why the headquarters of the Arab League is located in the Egyptian capital of Cairo.[citation needed] Thus, it is usually seen[by whom?] as being part of neither; however, when it is grouped with one or the other, it is generally considered[by whom?] part of the Mashriq on account of its closer ties to the Levant. Egypt and the Levant were often ruled as a single unit, as under the ancient Egyptian New Kingdom, the Umayyad, Abbasid, the Fatimid caliphates, the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, and for a time under Muhammad Ali Pasha.[citation needed] There are also similarities between the Egyptian and the nearby Levantine dialects.[citation needed]

Similarly, Libya is finds itself bifurcated between Mashriq and Maghrib influences, with its eastern part linked more to Egypt and the rest to the Maghrib.[7]

These geographical terms date from the early Islamic expansion.[citation needed] This region is similar to the Bilad al-Sham and Mesopotamia regions combined.[citation needed]

As the Mashriq is home to several pilgrimage sites, some Muslims elsewhere view it as a source of religious legitimacy.[8] Mashriqi learning is also esteemed by scholars from the Maghrib.[9]

As of 2014, the Mashriq is home to 1.7% of the global population.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Mashriq". Britannica. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  3. ^ Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq
  4. ^ Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq Countries
  5. ^ Alvarez, Lourdes María (2009). Abu Al-Ḥasan Al-Shushtarī. Paulist Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8091-0582-3. 
  6. ^ Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2003-12-12). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3. 
  7. ^ Gall, Michel Le; Perkins, Kenneth (2010). The Maghrib in Question: Essays in History and Historiography. University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-292-78838-1. 
  8. ^ El Mansour, Mohamed (2013). "Maghribis in the Mashriq". In Julia Clancy-Smith. North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-31206-0. The Mashriq always represented for the Maghribis a source of religious legitimacy. It was the land of divine revelation. 
  9. ^ El Mansour, Mohamed (2013). "Maghribis in the Mashriq". In Julia Clancy-Smith. North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-135-31206-0. [...] the respect Maghribis had for the religious authorities of the Arab East. In reality one of the basic motivations that drove Maghribi scholars eastward was their eagerness to meet these authorities and benefit from their knowledge. 
  10. ^ Official estimate of the Population of Egypt
  11. ^ UN estimate for Lebanon
  12. ^ "New Page 1". Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  13. ^ Official estimate of the population of Palestine
  14. ^ UN estimate for Syria
  15. ^ "Iraq". Retrieved 15 April 2015.