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Mashriq

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Map depicting the area most conservatively known as the Mashriq[1][2][3][4]

The Mashriq (Arabic: مَـشْـرِق‎, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the historical region of the Arab world to the east of Egypt (sometimes including Egypt and Sudan).[5] This comprises the modern states of Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Iraq.[6][7][8][9] Poetically the "place of sunrise", the name is derived from the verb sharaqa (Arabic: شرق‎ "to shine, illuminate, radiate" and "to rise"), referring to the east, where the sun rises.[10][11]

Geography[edit]

As the word Mashriq refers to countries bounded between the Mediterranean Sea and Iran, it is the companion term to Maghreb (Arabic: مَـغْـرِب‎), the western part of North Africa. Egypt occupies an ambiguous position: while it has cultural, ethnic and linguistic ties to both the Mashriq and the Maghreb, it is different from both, and is usually seen as being part of neither; however, when it is grouped with one or the other, it is generally considered as a part of the Mashriq, due to its closer ties to the Levant. Egypt and the Levant were often ruled as a single unit, as under the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates, the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluk Sultanate, and for a time, under Muhammad Ali of Egypt. Similarly, Libya may itself be seen as bifurcated between Mashriq and Maghreb influences, with its eastern part (Cyrenaica) seen as linked more to Egypt and the Mashriq.[12]

These geographical terms date from the early Islamic expansion. This region is similar to the Bilad al-Sham and Mesopotamian regions combined.[13] As of 2014, the Mashriq is home to 1.7% of the global population.[14][15][16][17][18][19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About ANPGR". Arab Network of Plant Genetic Resources. 
  2. ^ "Mashreq". Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East & North Africa. 
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  4. ^ "لماذا يستثنى الأردن من التقسيم؟ الوضع الداخلي هو العنصر الحاسم*فهد الخيطان" [Why is Jordan exempted from the division? The internal situation is a critical component * Fahd strings] (in Arabic). Rasseen. 2014-07-13. 
  5. ^ bank, world. "Economic interrogation in the mashriq" (PDF). siteresources. 
  6. ^ "Mashriq GEOGRAPHICAL REGION, MIDDLE EAST". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  7. ^ "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Centre for European Policy Studies. 2005-09-01. 
  8. ^ Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq Archived February 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq Countries" (PDF). IOM International Organization for Migration. July 2002. 
  10. ^ Alvarez, Lourdes María (2009). Abu Al-Ḥasan Al-Shushtarī. Paulist Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8091-0582-3. 
  11. ^ Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2003-12-12). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3. 
  12. ^ Gall, Michel Le; Perkins, Kenneth (2010). The Maghrib in Question: Essays in History and Historiography. University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-292-78838-1. 
  13. ^ Clancy-Smith, Julia (2013-11-05). North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-31213-8. 
  14. ^ Official estimate of the Population of Egypt Archived May 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ UN estimate for Lebanon
  16. ^ Official Jordanian population clock Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "National Main Statistical Indicators". State of Palestine – Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 
  18. ^ UN estimate for Syria
  19. ^ "Iraq". The World Bank.