Message in a bottle
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A message in a bottle is a form of communication whereby a message is sealed in a container (archetypically a glass bottle, but could be any medium, so long as it floats and remains waterproof) and released into the sea or ocean. Among other purposes they are used for scientific studies of ocean currents.
The first recorded messages in bottles were released around 310 BC by the Ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus, as part of an experiment to show that the Mediterranean Sea was formed by the inflowing Atlantic Ocean.
On his return to Spain following his first voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus' ship entered a severe storm. Columbus threw a report of his discovery along with a note asking it to be passed on to the Queen of Castile, in a sealed cask into the sea, hoping the news would make it back even if he did not survive. Columbus did survive and the sealed report was never found, or, at least, its discovery never reported.[verification needed]
In the 16th century, the English navy, among others, used bottle messages to send ashore information about enemy positions. Queen Elizabeth I created an official position of "Uncorker of Ocean Bottles", and anyone else opening the bottles could face the death penalty.[dubious ]
In 1784 Chunosuke Matsuyama sent a message detailing his and 43 shipmates' shipwrecking in a bottle that washed ashore and was found by a Japanese seaweed collector in 1935, in the village of Hiraturemura, the birthplace of Chunosuke Matsuyama.
In 1914, British World War I soldier Private Thomas Hughes tossed a green ginger beer bottle containing a letter to his wife into the English Channel. He was killed two days later fighting in France. In 1999, fisherman Steve Gowan dredged up the bottle in the River Thames. Although the intended recipient of the letter had died in 1979, it was delivered in 1999 to Private Hughes' 86-year old daughter living in New Zealand.
In February 1916 the doomed crew of Zeppelin L 19 dropped their last messages to their superiors and loved ones into the North Sea. These washed up on the Kattegat coast near Gothenburg, Sweden six months later.
In December 1945, American World War II veteran Frank Hayostek tossed a bottle over the side of his ship. It was recovered by an Irish milk maid, Breda O'Sullivan who set off an exchange of letters that lasted seven years before the two met. Amid an international media circus, the two were never able to get their romance off the ground.
On 10 June 1914, a scientist from the Glasgow (Scotland) School of Navigation cast 1,890 bottles into the ocean to test undercurrents in the seas around Scotland. One of those bottles was recovered in 2012, and was confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the oldest message in a bottle ever found — 98 years. The bottle was found east of Shetland by Andrew Leaper, skipper of the Shetland-based vessel Copious, the same fishing vessel involved in the previous record recovery.
That previous record was a find that spent 92 years 229 days at sea. A bottom drift bottle, numbered 423B, was released at 60° 50'N 00° 38'W (about halfway between Aberdeen, Scotland and the coast of Denmark) on 25 April 1914 and recovered by fisherman Mark Anderson of Bixter, Shetland, UK, on 10 December 2006.
The 2012 find of the 98-year-old bottle was in turn exceeded by an April 2015 find in the North Sea island of Amrum of a 108-year-old bottle sent by the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom in Plymouth, one of 1,020 released into the North Sea between 1904 and 1906 by former association president George Parker Bidder III.
On 13 March 2013 the world’s largest message in a bottle weighing 2.5 tons and measuring 30 by 8 feet (9.1 by 2.4 metres) was towed 200 nautical miles off the coast of Tenerife where it was released to the ocean currents. The bottle was registered as a boat and equipped with AIS and radar reflector and navigation lights. It was constructed by Bård Eker. Every eight hours it is uploading photos to its personal Twitter account live via satellite. The initiative was a PR-stunt from Solo who invited people to follow the journey online via a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in the bottle, and make a guess of where it would end up. In a press release on 14 August 2013, Solo announced that they had lost satellite contact with the bottle and reached out to Caribbean media in order to inspire locals to keep a look-out. The bottle was ceremonially launched in Marina San Miguel by explorer Jarle Andhøy.
On 17 April 2013, a bottle washed up on the shores of a beach on the mouth of the Neretva river, near Dubrovnik, in the far south of Croatia, a full twenty-eight years after being thrown into the sea in Nova Scotia, Canada — a great circle distance of around 4,000 miles, but this bottle probably made a journey at least five times longer.
On 8 April 2014, The Local reported the finding of the world's oldest bottle in the Baltic Sea. In the beer bottle, a postcard written by a German named Richard Platz dated 17 May 1913 asked for it to be delivered to his address. The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg located his granddaughter, Angela Erdmann, and delivered the message to her.
Between 1904 and 1906 George Parker Bidder III conducted research that proved the East-to-West flow of North Sea currents, by releasing some 1,000 messages in bottles, designed to float a short distance above the sea bed. Finders were requested, in English, Dutch and German, to send a postcard enclosed in the bottle to the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (MBA) in Plymouth. The majority were recovered just a few months later, but one was found on the German island of Amrum, as late as April 2015, and its postcard was duly returned to the MBA. This message is at least seven years older than the one found in the Baltic Sea in 2014. In August 2015, the MBA reported that Guinness World Records had been contacted to verify the new record.
Similar methods using other media
Balloon mail is a similar method of sending undirected messages through the air. The advantage of balloon mail is that it can be launched anywhere and can in principle reach any point on Earth. A further advantage is that it can be launched more effectively, since a bottle dropped into the ocean could be washed back to land by the surf.
The glass interior shell of the Westinghouse Time Capsules of the 1939 New York World's Fair and 1964 New York World's Fair was made of Pyrex, where the exterior metal casing was a special copper alloy of "Cupaloy" (1939) or "Kromarc" stainless steel (1964) to withstand the effects of 5000 years of time, when they are expected to arrive to the people intended.
The United States space agency NASA launched several interstellar "messages in bottles". A graphic message in the form of a 6 by 9-inch gold-anodized aluminium plaque, known as the Pioneer plaque, was bolted to the frames of the Pioneer 10 (launched on 2 March 1972) and Pioneer 11 (launched on 5 April 1972) spacecraft.
In August and September 1977, NASA launched two spacecraft, together called the Voyager Project. Each carries a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Voyager Golden Record, containing recorded sounds and images representing human cultures and life on Earth.
In 1999, 2001, 2003 and 2008 the Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope has transmitted messages to any potential extraterrestrial civilizations:
- Drifter (floating device)
- Flotsam, jetsam, lagan, and derelict
- Friendly Floatees, plastic bath toys accidentally released in the Pacific in 1992. Their recovery on land validated oceanographers' models of ocean currents.
- Ice rafting
- Swallow float
- Time capsule
- "Sending out an S.O.S. - The History of Messages in a Bottle". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Kraske, Robert (1977). The twelve million dollar note: Strange but true tales of messages found in seagoing bottles. T. Nelson; 1st ed. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-8407-6575-4.
- Robert Kraske, "The Twelve Million Dollar Note: Strange but True Tales of Messages Found in Seagoing Bottles" (1977), pp.30-32. ISBN 0-8407-6575-4.
- "St Kilda - Fascinating Facts". The National Trust for Scotland. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Sweet message in a bottle". BBC News. 1999-05-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Das Tragödie von L19" (in German). Zeppelin-Museums Tondern. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
Der Kommandant, Kapitänleutnant L wkireugqire qei bqehr bqrdfw3qbh qfe o e w e, an seine Vorgesetzten: Mit fünfzehn Mann auf der Plattform ... versuche ich eine letzte Berichterstattung. ... Am 2. Februar 1916 nachmittags, etwa ein Uhr - ist wohl die letzte Stunde. Loewe ... an seine Frau: 2.2.16, mittags 12 Uhr. Letzte Stunde
- "Message in bottle saves drifting migrants". CNN. 2005-05-31. Archived from the original on 2005-07-29. Retrieved 2006-05-27.
- Pfeiffer, Eric, "98-year-old message in bottle sets world record", Yahoo News, August 30, 2012; and Madrigal, Alexis C., "Found: World's Oldest Message in a Bottle, Part of 1914 Citizen-Science Experiment" (WebCite archive), The Atlantic, September 5, 2012.
- "World record as message in bottle found after 98 years near Shetland", BBC, 30 August 2012.
- "Oldest Message in a Bottle". Guinness World Records.
- Huggler, Justin (August 20, 2015). "World's oldest message in a bottle washes up in Germany after 108 years at sea". The Telegraph. Retrieved August 24, 2015. Archive.org archive.
- "Hot off the press!". Grand Manner. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Andrew Woodall (22 March 2013). "We love a message in a bottle". Guinness World Records. PR Newswire. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "The World's Largest Message-In-A-Bottle". PR News Wire.
- "Message in a bottle from Nova Scotia turns up in Croatia", Digital Journal, 17 April 2013.
- "'World's oldest' message in a bottle arrives home". The Local. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "'Oldest' message in a bottle found more than 108 years on - BBC News". BBC Online. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Huggler, Justin (20 August 2015). "World's oldest message in a bottle washes up in Germany after 108 years at sea - Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Älteste Flaschenpost der Welt auf Amrum gefunden" [World's oldest message in a bottle found at Amrum] (in German). Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 19 August 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Message in a bottle.|
- NASA Pioneer Project Archive.org
- NASA Voyager Project
- Hume, Mark (15 September 2013). "B.C. man unearths a message in a bottle dated to 1906". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2013-09-16.