Order of the Rising Sun
|Order of the Rising Sun
|3rd Class Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon Order of the Rising Sun|
|Awarded by the Emperor of Japan|
|Awarded for||long and/or especially meritorious civil or military service|
|Sovereign||His Imperial Majesty The Emperor|
|Grades (w/ post-nominals)||1st through 8th Class|
|Established||10 April 1875|
|Next (higher)||Order of the Paulownia Flowers|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Sacred Treasure|
The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu-shō?) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government, created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State. The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan ("Land of the Rising Sun").
The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in the following fields: international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment. Beginning in 2003 the highest ranking medal for the Order of the Rising Sun became a separate order known as Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers.
It is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, however it is generally the highest ordinarily conferred order. The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, Order of the Paulownia Flowers is mostly reserved for politicians.
The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981 (although several foreigners were given the honor before World War II); and women were awarded the Order starting in 2003 (previously, women were awarded the Order of the Precious Crown). The awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of Office of the Prime Minister. It is awarded in the name of the Emperor and can be awarded posthumously.
It can be awarded to Japanese as well as non-Japanese nationals.
- 1 Classes
- 2 Insignia
- 3 Notable recipients
- 3.1 1st Class, Grand Cordon
- 3.2 2nd Class, Gold and Silver Star
- 3.3 3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon
- 3.4 4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette
- 3.5 5th Class, Gold and Silver Rays
- 3.6 6th Class, Silver Rays
- 3.7 7th Class, Green Paulownia Leaves Medal
- 3.8 8th Class, White Paulownia Leaves Medal
- 3.9 Class unknown
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, and the lowest two classes were abolished. Since then, it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, and in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added. As an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says:
By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial,
We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, and invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu."
The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays; the central emblem is identical to the badge. It is worn on the left chest for the Grand Cordon, on the right chest for the 2nd Class.
The badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points (1st-4th Classes), with four gilt and four silver points (5th Class), or with silver points (6th Class); each point comprises three white enamelled rays. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves (not chrysanthemum leaves as the Decoration Bureau page claims) on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes (with a rosette for the 4th Class).
The badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class. Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, and worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003.
1st Class, Grand Cordon
2nd Class, Gold and Silver Star
3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon
4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette
5th Class, Gold and Silver Rays
6th Class, Silver Rays
7th Class, Green Paulownia Leaves Medal
In 2003, this grade of the Order was abolished.
8th Class, White Paulownia Leaves Medal
In 2003, this grade of the Order was abolished.
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- Spotkanie z prof. Franciszkiem Ziejką
- Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). ''The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan, p. 393.
- Russian: «Полный послужной список Корпуса Инженер Механиков Генерал-Майора Зарубина 1-го» (ЦГАВМФ СССР Фонд 406 опись 3 дело 960 лист 21 (оборотный)); English: "A full track record of Mechanical Engineering Corps Major-General Zarubin 1st" (Central State Archive of the Navy of the Soviet Union (Russian State Naval Archives now), Fond 406 inventory 3 file 960 sheet 21 (reverse side)).
- Peterson, James W., Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley. (2001). Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9
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