Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate

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Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate[1]
Crystals of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate.png
Ball-and-stick model of the dihydrogenphosphate anion
Ball-andstick model of the ammonium cation
Names
IUPAC name
ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
Other names
monoammonium phosphate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.877
EC Number 231-764-5
E number E342(i) (antioxidants, ...)
Properties
H6NO4P
Molar mass 115.02 g·mol−1
Appearance white crystals
Density 1.80 g/cm3
Melting point 190 °C (374 °F; 463 K)
(g/dL) 28 (10 °C)
36 (20 °C)
44 (30 °C)
56 (40 °C)
66 (50 °C)
81 (60 °C)
99 (70 °C)
118 (80 °C)
173 (100 °C) [2][3]
Solubility insoluble in ethanol[2]
insoluble in acetone
1.525
Structure
tetragonal
Thermochemistry
−1445.07 kJ/mol
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
1
0
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
5750 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium phosphate
Diammonium phosphate
Other cations
Monosodium phosphate
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), commonly called monoammonium phosphate (MAP)[4] is a chemical compound with formula NH
6
PO
4
. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ammonium cations [NH
4
]+
and dihydrogen phosphate anions [H
2
PO
4
]
in equal proportions.

ADP is a major ingredient of agricultural fertilizers[5] and some fire extinguishers. It also has significant uses in optics[6] and electronics.[7]

Chemical properties[edit]

Monoammonium phosphate is soluble in water and crystallizes from it as the anhydrous salt in the tetragonal system, as elongated prisms or needles.[6] It is practically insoluble in ethanol.[2]

Solid monoammonium phosphate can be considered stable in practice for temperatures up to 200 °C, when it decomposes into gaseous ammonia NH
3
and molten phosphoric acid H
3
PO
4
.[8] At 125 °C the partial pressure of ammonia is 0.05 mm Hg.[9]

A solution of stoichometric monoammonium phosphate is acidic (pH 4.7 at 0.1% concentration, 4.2 at 5%).[10]

Preparation[edit]

Monoammonium phosphate is industrially prepared by the exothermic reaction of phosphoric acid and ammonia in the correct proportions:[11]

NH
3
+ H
3
PO
4
NH
6
PO
4

Crystalline MAP then precipitates.

Uses[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

The largest use of monoammonium phosphate by weight is in agriculture, as an ingredient of fertilizers. It supplies soil with the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in a form usable by plants. Its NPK label is 12-61-0 (12-27-0), meaning that it contains 12% by weight of elemental nitrogen and (nominally) 61% of phosphorus pentoxide P
2
O
5
, or 27% of elemental phosphorus.

Fire extinguishers[edit]

The compound is also a component of the ABC powder in some dry chemical fire extinguishers.

Optics[edit]

Monoammonium phosphate is a widely used crystal in the field of optics due to its birefringence properties. As a result of its tetragonal crystal structure, this material has negative uniaxial optical symmetry with typical refractive indices no = 1.522 and ne = 1.478 at optical wavelengths.[6]

Electronics[edit]

Monoammonium phospate crystals are piezoelectric, a property required in some active sonar transducers (the alternative being transducers that use magnetostriction). In the 1950s ADP crystals largely replaced the quartz and Rochelle salt crystals in transducers because they are easier to work than Quartz and, unlike Rochelle Salt, are not deliquescent.[7]

Toys[edit]

Being relatively non-toxic, MAP is also a popular substance for recreational crystal growing, being sold as toy kits mixed with dyes of various colors.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lide, David R. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 4–40. ISBN 0-8493-0594-2.
  2. ^ a b c Dejun Xu, Xing Xiong, Lin Yang, Zhiye Zhang, and Xinlong Wang (2016): "Determination of the Solubility of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate in Water-Ethanol System at Different Temperatures from 283.2 to 343.2 K". Journal of Chemincal Engineering Data, volume 61, issue 1, pages 78–82. doi:10.1021/acs.jced.5b00224
  3. ^ Chemical Book: "Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate". Accessed on 2018-08-14.
  4. ^ "Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP)" (PDF). www.mosaicco.com. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
  5. ^ IPNI. "Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP)" (PDF). www.ipni.net. International Plant Nutrition Institute. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  6. ^ a b c Amnon Yariv, Pochi Yeh (1984). Optical Waves in Crystals. Wiley, Inc.
  7. ^ a b Willem Hackmann (1984). Seek and Strike: Sonar, Anti-Submarine Warfare and the Royal Navy, 1914–1954. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-290423-8.
  8. ^ G. O. Guerrant and D. E. Brown (196): "Thermal Decomposition of High-Analysis Fertilizers Based on Ammonium Phosphate". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, volume 13, issue 6, pages 493-497. doi:10.1021/jf60142a002
  9. ^ John R Van Wazer (1958). Phosphorus And Its Compounds - Volume I: Chemistry. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. p. 503.
  10. ^ Haifa Chemicals Ltd.: "Mono-Ammonium Phosphate 12-61-0". Product fact sheet, accessed on 2018-08-13.
  11. ^ Martin Bäckman, Martin Gunnarsson, Linnea Kollberg, Martin Müller, and Simon Tallvod (2016): "Production of Monoammonium Phosphate at Yara AB". Technical Report, Lund University.