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Mridanga 1.jpg
Mridanga bayan
Classification Avandhha Vadya
Mridanga 2.jpg

The khol (Assamese: খোল) also known as a mrudanga in the Odia language (lit. "mrit+anga" = "clay limb") or mridôngo (Bengali: মৃদঙ্গ) (not to be confused with mridangam) is a terracotta two-sided drum used in northern and eastern India for accompaniment with devotional music (bhakti). It originates from the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Manipur. The drum is played with palms and fingers of both hands.


Parts of the khol (mridanga)

The khol is a drum with a hollow earthen body, with drumheads at both ends, one far smaller than the other. The drumheads are made of cow or goat skin, and are three-layered and treated with a circle of rice paste, glue, and iron known as syahi. Some modern instruments are made with a fibreglass body and synthetic drumheads.


There are so many histories about its origin. Different types of Khol are available in north eastern India. Odisha, Manipur, Bengal and Assamese Khol are commonly found in different forms. The wooden khol was made into terracotta by the Assamese saint Sankardev.[1]


The drum is used in every visnu (Jagannath, Radha Krishna) temple in odisha during arati time. The drum is used to accompany Odia, Bengali kirtans by medieval poets like Chandidas, Govindadasa and Gyanadas. It is also used to accompany Gaudiya Nritya, one of the nine Indian classical dances (as recognized by Ministry of Culture, and not recognized by Sangeet Natak Akademi).

In the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON, "Hare Krishnas") and in Gaudiya Vaishnava societies, the khol is the primary drum for bhajan and kirtan.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Indian Literature. Sähitya Akademi. 1970. p. 84. Retrieved 23 December 2012.

External links[edit]