|First issue||February 17, 1933|
|Company||Newsweek Media Group|
|Based in||New York City, New York, U.S.|
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine founded in 1933. It was published in four English language editions and 12 global editions written in the language of the circulation region.
Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek underwent internal and external contractions designed to shift the magazine's focus and audience while improving its finances. Instead, losses accelerated: revenue dropped 38 percent from 2007 to 2009. The revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities.
In November 2010, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company, after negotiations between the owners of the two publications. Tina Brown, The Daily Beast's editor-in-chief, served as the editor of both publications. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of the late Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC.
On August 3, 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC on terms that were not disclosed; the acquisition included the Newsweek brand and its online publication, but did not include The Daily Beast. IBT Media relaunched a print edition of Newsweek on March 7, 2014.
- 1 Circulation and branches
- 2 History
- 3 Highlights and controversies
- 4 Contributors and reporters
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Circulation and branches
In 2003, worldwide circulation was more than 4 million, including 2.7 million in the U.S; by 2010 it reduced to 1.5 million (with newsstand sales declining to just over 40,000 copies per week). Newsweek publishes editions in Japanese, Korean, Polish, Spanish, Rioplatense Spanish, Arabic, and Turkish, as well as an English language Newsweek International. Russian Newsweek, published since 2004, was shut in October 2010. The Bulletin (an Australian weekly until 2008) incorporated an international news section from Newsweek.
Based in New York City, the magazine claimed 22 bureaus in 2011: nine in the U.S.: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago/Detroit, Dallas, Miami, Washington, D.C., Boston and San Francisco, and others overseas in London, Paris, Berlin, Moscow, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Beijing, South Asia, Cape Town, Mexico City and Buenos Aires.
According to a published 2015 column in the NY Post("Media Ink": March 6, 2015), Newsweek's circulation had fallen to "just over 100,000" with staff at that time numbering "about 60 editorial staffers," up from a low of "less than 30 editorial staffers" in 2013, but with announced plans then to grow the number to "close to 100 in the next year." 
Founding and early years (1933–1961)
News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J.C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time. He obtained financial backing from a group of U.S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, and Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek apparently represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith.
Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek. The first issue of the magazine was dated 17 February 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover.
In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, which had been founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, and Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family. As a result of the deal, Harriman and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as president and editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, and launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary.
Under Post ownership (1961–2010)
Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969.
In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters. The women won, and Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement; the article was written by a woman who had been hired on a freelance basis since there were no female reporters at the magazine.
Richard M. Smith became Chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list; these are categorized instead as "Public Elite" High Schools. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites.
Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007.
Restructuring and new owner (2008–2010)
During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue. It shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and then to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year. Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine also laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down almost 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were also diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability.
The financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million.
By May 2010, Newsweek had been losing money for the past two years and was put up for sale. The sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company. Haykal later claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co.
The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the husband of Jane Harman, at that time a member of Congress from California.
Merger with The Daily Beast (2010)
At the end of 2010, Newsweek merged with the online publication The Daily Beast, following extensive negotiations between the respective proprietors. Tina Brown, The Daily Beast's editor-in-chief, became editor of both publications. The new entity, The Newsweek Daily Beast Company, was 50% owned by IAC/InterActiveCorp and 50% by Harman.
The goal of The Newsweek Daily Beast Company was to have The Daily Beast be a source of instant analysis of the news, while Newsweek would serve to take a look at the bigger picture, provide deeper analysis, and "connect the dots," in the words of Harman, and for both publications to ultimately be profitable.
During her tenure as editor-in-chief of Newsweek, Brown has taken the news weekly in a different direction from her predecessor. Whereas Jon Meacham looked to make the focus solely on politics and world affairs, Brown brought the focus back onto all of current events, not just politics, business, and world affairs (although these issues are still the focus of the magazine). This was evidenced by an increased attention to fashion and pop culture as seen in many of her covers since taking the job.
Newsweek was redesigned in March 2011. The new Newsweek moved the "Perspectives" section to the front of the magazine, where it served essentially as a highlight reel of the past week on The Daily Beast. More room was made available in the front of the magazine for columnists, editors, and special guests. A new "News Gallery" section featured two-page spreads of photographs from the week with a brief article accompanying each one. The "NewsBeast" section featured short articles, a brief interview with a newsmaker, and several graphs and charts for quick reading in the style of The Daily Beast. This is where the Newsweek staple "Conventional Wisdom" was located. Brown retained Newsweek's focus on in-depth, analytical features and original reporting on politics and world affairs, as well as a new focus on longer fashion and pop culture features. A larger culture section named "Omnivore" featured art, music, books, film, theater, food, travel, and television, including a weekly "Books" and "Want" section. The back page was reserved for a "My Favorite Mistake" column written by celebrity guest columnists about a mistake they made that defines who they are.
Cessation of print format (2013)
On July 25, 2012, the company operating Newsweek indicated the publication was likely to go digital to cover its losses and could undergo other changes by the next year. Barry Diller, Chairman of the conglomerate IAC/InterActiveCorp, said his firm was looking at options since its partner in the Newsweek/Daily Beast operation had pulled out.
On October 18, 2012, the company announced that the American print edition would be discontinued at the end of 2012 after 80 years of publication, citing the increasing difficulty of maintaining a paper weekly magazine in the face of declining advertising and subscription revenues and increasing costs for print production and distribution. The online edition is named "Newsweek Global". The magazine is still available in hardcopy in the UK and Europe, but is published by a different company, AG Castillo Media Ltd. of London, under license from the Newsweek/Daily Beast company.
Spin-off to IBT Media, return to print and profitability (2013–present)
In April 2013, IAC Chairman and Founder Barry Diller stated at the Milken Global Conference that he "wished he hadn't bought" Newsweek because his company had lost money on the magazine and called the purchase a "mistake" and a "fool's errand."
On August 3, 2013, IBT Media acquired Newsweek from IAC on terms that were not disclosed; the acquisition included the Newsweek brand and its online publication, but did not include The Daily Beast.
IBT Media returned the publication to profitability on October 8, 2014.
In February 2017, IBT Media appointed Matt McAllester, then Editor of Newsweek International, as Global Editor-in-chief of Newsweek.
Highlights and controversies
Allegations of sexism
In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters. The women won, and Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement; the article was written by Helen Dudar, a freelancer, on the belief that there were no female writers at the magazine capable of handling the assignment. Those passed over included Elizabeth Peer, who had spent five years in Paris as a foreign correspondent.
The 1986 cover of Newsweek featured an article that said "women who weren't married by 40 had a better chance of being killed by a terrorist than of finding a husband". Newsweek eventually apologized for the story and in 2010 launched a study that discovered 2 in 3 women who were 40 and single in 1986 had married since. The story caused a "wave of anxiety" and some "skepticism" amongst professional and highly educated women in the United States. The article was cited several times in the 1993 Hollywood film Sleepless in Seattle starring Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan. Comparisons have been made with this article and the current rising issues surrounding the social stigma of unwed women in Asia called sheng nu.
Former Alaska Governor and 2008 Republican Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin was featured on the cover of the November 23, 2009, issue of Newsweek, with the caption "How do you Solve a Problem Like Sarah?" featuring an image of Palin in athletic attire and posing. Palin herself, the Los Angeles Times and other commentators accused Newsweek of sexism for their choice of cover in the November 23, 2009 issue discussing Palin's book, Going Rogue: An American Life. "It's sexist as hell," wrote Lisa Richardson for the Los Angeles Times. Taylor Marsh of The Huffington Post called it "the worst case of pictorial sexism aimed at political character assassination ever done by a traditional media outlet." David Brody of CBN News stated: "This cover should be insulting to women politicians." The cover includes a photo of Palin used in the August 2009 issue of Runner's World. The photographer may have breached his contract with Runner's World when he permitted its use in Newsweek, as Runner's World maintained certain rights to the photo until August 2010. It is uncertain, however, whether this particular use of the photo was prohibited.
Minnesota Republican Congresswoman and presidential candidate Michele Bachmann was featured on the cover of Newsweek magazine in August 2011, dubbed "the Queen of Rage". The photo of her was perceived as unflattering, as it portrayed her with a wide eyed expression some said made her look "crazy". Sources called the depiction "sexist", and Sarah Palin denounced the publication. Newsweek defended the cover's depiction of her, saying its other photos of Bachmann showed similar intensity.
Quran desecration controversy
In the May 9, 2005, issue of Newsweek, an article by reporter Michael Isikoff stated that interrogators at Guantanamo Bay "in an attempt to rattle suspects, flushed a Qur'an down a toilet." Detainees had earlier made similar complaints but this was the first time a government source had appeared to confirm the story. The news was reported to be a cause of widespread rioting and massive anti-American protests throughout some parts of the Islamic world (causing at least 15 deaths in Afghanistan).
Claims of bias
A 2004 study by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo asserted that Newsweek, along with all other mainstream news outlets except for Fox News and the Wall Street Journal, exhibited a "liberal bias" . However, media watchdog Media Matters for America described Groseclose's and Milyo's study as "riddled with flaws". Eric Alterman, writing for the Center for American Progress, criticized the study for its "shockingly desultory intellectual underpinnings and almost comically obvious ideological imperatives". Berkeley linguist Geoffrey Nunberg stated that Groseclose's and Milyo's work was "based on unsupported, ideology-driven premises" and suffered from "severe issues of data quality".
Newsweek's Washington Bureau Chief and later Assistant Managing Editor Evan Thomas stated: "I think Newsweek is a little liberal," and, in 1996, "there is a liberal bias at Newsweek, the magazine I work for."
Fareed Zakaria, a Newsweek columnist and editor of Newsweek International, attended a secret meeting on November 29, 2001, with a dozen policy makers, Middle East experts and members of influential policy research organizations that produced a report for President George W. Bush and his cabinet outlining a strategy for dealing with Afghanistan and the Middle East in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. The meeting was held at the request of Paul D. Wolfowitz, then the Deputy Secretary of Defense. The unusual presence of journalists, who also included Robert D. Kaplan of The Atlantic Monthly, at such a strategy meeting was revealed in Bob Woodward's 2006 book State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. Woodward reported in his book that, according to Mr. Kaplan, everyone at the meeting signed confidentiality agreements not to discuss what happened. Mr. Zakaria told The New York Times that he attended the meeting for several hours but did not recall being told that a report for the President would be produced. On October 21, 2006, after verification, the Times published a correction that stated:
An article in Business Day on Oct. 9 about journalists who attended a secret meeting in November 2001 called by Paul D. Wolfowitz, then the deputy secretary of defense, referred incorrectly to the participation of Fareed Zakaria, the editor of Newsweek International and a Newsweek columnist. Mr. Zakaria was not told that the meeting would produce a report for the Bush administration, nor did his name appear on the report.
The cover story of the January 15, 2015, issue, titled What Silicon Valley Thinks of Women proved controversial, due to both its illustration, described as "the cartoon of a faceless female in spiky red heels, having her dress lifted up by a cursor arrow," and its content, described as "a 5,000-word article on the creepy, sexist culture of the tech industry." Among those offended by the cover were Today Show co-host Tamron Hall, who commented "I think it’s obscene and just despicable, honestly." Newsweek editor in chief James Impoco explained "We came up with an image that we felt represented what that story said about Silicon Valley ... If people get angry, they should be angry." The article's author, Nina Burleigh, asked, "Where were all these offended people when women like Heidi Roizen published accounts of having a venture capitalist stick her hand in his pants under a table while a deal was being discussed?"
In January, 1998, Newsweek reporter Michael Isikoff was the first reporter to investigate allegations of a sexual relationship between U.S. President Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky, but the editors spiked the story. The story soon surfaced online in the Drudge Report.
Contributors and reporters
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Notable regular contributors to Newsweek have included:
- List of magazines by circulation
- Newsweek Argentina
- Newsweek Pakistan
- Newsweek gay actor controversy
- Russky Newsweek
- "eCirc for Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media. December 31, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Peter Grove; Lloyd Grove (August 3, 2010). "How Newsweek Blew It". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Vega, Tanzina; Peters, Jeremy W. (August 2, 2010). "Audio Pioneer Buys Newsweek". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Tina Brown (November 11, 2010). "Daily Beast, Newsweek to Wed!". The Daily Beast. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- "The Daily Beast and Newsweek confirm merger". The Spy Report. November 12, 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- "A Turn of the Page for Newsweek". The Daily Beast. October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Douglas A. McIntyre (October 18, 2012). "First Person: Reflections on Newsweek". USA Today. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Newsweek's future:Goodbye ink". Economist. October 18, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "IBT Media to Acquire Newsweek". Press release. August 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- Haughney, Christine (December 3, 2013). "Newsweek Plans Return to Print". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Kaufman, Leslie; Cohen, Noam (7 March 2014). "Newsweek Returns to Print and Sets Off a Bitcoin Storm". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Publisher Shuts Russian Weekly". The Wall Street Journal. October 19, 2010.
- "New editor Impoco has Newsweek back in the black". The New York Post. March 6, 2015.("The New York Post: Media Ink, "Accessed August 5, 2015))
- America's 60 Families by Ferdinand Lundberg
- "Instant History: Review of First Newsweek with Cover Photo". BZTV. February 17, 1933. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Salisbury, Harrison E. (March 10, 1961). "Washington Post Buys Newsweek. It Acquires 59% of Stock From Astor Foundation for $8,000,000.". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
The Washington Post Company bought control of Newsweek magazine yesterday from the Vincent Astor Foundation. The sale ended several weeks of intensive negotiation involving a number of publishing companies.
- "Newsweek Agrees to End Sex Discrimination Policy". Eugene Register-Guard, via Google News. Associated Press. August 28, 1970.
- Lynn Povich (2013). The Good Girls Revolt: How the Women of Newsweek Sued their Bosses and Changed the Workplace. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1610393263.
- 2013 America's Best High Schools
- Newsweek (2008): List of Public Elites
- "Richard M. Smith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (January 16, 2009). "The Popular Newsweekly Becomes a Lonely Category". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- Kathleen Deveny (May 18, 2009). "Reinventing Newsweek". Newsweek. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "A Smaller But Better Newsweek?". Howard Kurtz. The Washington Post, May 18, 2009
- Richard Pérez-Peña. "Glimmers of Progress at a Leaner Newsweek". The New York Times. November 15, 2009
- Post Financial Release February 24, 2010
- "Newsweek magazine is sold by Washington Post". BBC News. August 2, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Andrew Vanacore. "Newsweek Sale: Washington Post Looking To Sell Newsweek". The Huffington Post.
- Joe Pompeo. "Syrian Bidder Who Wanted To Buy Newsweek Was Ignored". Business Insider. August 5, 2010
- Jeremy W. Peters. Newsweek Deal to Be Announced Today. The New York Times, August 2, 2010
- Ahrens, Frank (August 3, 2010). "Harman Media buys Newsweek from Washington Post Co. for Undisclosed Amount". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Paul Farhi (November 12, 2010). "Struggling Newsweek joins with fledging Web site Daily Beast". The Washington Post. p. C8.
- Josh Klenert (March 7, 2011). "First Look: The Newsweek Redesign". Grids. Society of Publication Designers. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Newsweek likely to become digital magazine". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- Bloomberg Television. Barry Diller: It Was a Mistake to Buy Newsweek. Houston Business Journal, April 29, 2013.
- "Newsweek announces it's profitable". Capital. October 8, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
- "Adria Media Group to launch Newsweek Serbia". FIPP. December 16, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
- "'Newsweek Appoints Matt McAllester as Global Editor in Chief, Newsweek". PR Newswire. February 14, 2017.
- Lynn Povich (2013). The Good Girls Revolt: How the Women of Newsweek Sued their Bosses and Changed the Workplace. PublicAffairs. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1610393263.
- Magistad, Mary Kay (20 February 2013). "BBC News - China's 'leftover women', unmarried at 27". BBC News. Beijing. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "China investing big in convincing 'leftover women' to get married". Public Radio International. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- Newsweek Staff (5 July 2006). "Marriage by the Numbers". Newsweek. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- Dr. Karl S. Kruszelnicki (4 September 2008). "Marriage statistics not without a hitch". ABC News. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- "Newsweek's sexism and Sarah Palin." Los Angeles Times. November 17, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Marsh, Taylor. "What Was Newsweek Thinking?" The Huffington Post. November 18, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Brody, David. "Newsweek Photo of Palin Shows Media Bias and Sexism." CBN News. November 16, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Snead, Elizabeth. "Sarah Palin hates her 'sexist' Newsweek cover. Does she really?" Zap2it. November 17, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010. Archived November 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Clift, Eleanor. "Payback Time: Why Right-Wing Men Rush to Palin's Defense." Newsweek. Monday November 16, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010. Archived November 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Palin angered by 'sexist' Newsweek cover." Yahoo! News. November 17, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010. Archived November 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Bercovici, Jeff. "Palin photographer breached contract with sale to Newsweek." Daily Finance. November 18, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- "Michele Bachmann's Newsweek outtakes - Maggie Haberman". Politico.Com. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Mirkinson, Jack (August 8, 2011). "Newsweek's Michele Bachmann Cover Raises Eyebrows (PHOTO, POLL)". The Huffington Post.
- "Newsweek Michele Bachmann cover 'sexist' and in bad form?". The Washington Post. August 9, 2011.
- "Bachmann Newsweek Cover Goes for Insult But Gets Criticism in Return". Fox News. August 9, 2011.
- "Karzai condemns anti-US protests". BBC. May 14, 2005. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Groseclose, Tim; Milyo, Jeff (December 2004). "A Measure of Media Bias".
- Ludwig, Mark (Spring 2009). "Papers Endorse Republicans In Nearly 60 Percent of Races". Newspaper Research Journal. 30 (2): 84–96.
- "Former fellows at conservative think tanks issued flawed UCLA-led study on media's "liberal bias", Media Matters for America, Dec 21, 2005
- Eric Alterman, "Think Again: Rigging the Numbers", Center for American Progress, January 12, 2006
- Geoffrey Nunberg, "Liberal Bias," Noch Einmal, Language Log, July 05, 2004
- Cal Thomas. "Turner Misreads His Non-audience". Los Angeles Times Syndicate.
- Julie Bosman. "Secret Iraq Meeting Included Journalists". The New York Times. October 9, 2006.
- Burleigh, Nina (2015-01-28). "What Silicon Valley Thinks of Women". Newsweek. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
- Grove, Lloyd (2015-01-29). "Is Newsweek's 'Red Heels' Cover Image Sexist?". Daily Beast. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
- Tam, Ruth (2015-01-30). "Artist behind Newsweek cover: it's not sexist, it depicts the ugliness of sexism". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
- "Scandalous scoop breaks online". BBC. January 25, 1998. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- "The O-Team: A Response". Newsweek. May 11, 2008. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Paul Samuelson". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
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