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Paul Samuelson

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Paul Samuelson
Samuelson in 2009
Paul Anthony Samuelson

(1915-05-15)May 15, 1915
DiedDecember 13, 2009(2009-12-13) (aged 94)
EducationUniversity of Chicago (BA)
Harvard University (MA, PhD)
Marion Crawford
(m. 1938; died 1978)
Risha Clay
(m. 1981)
Academic career
InstitutionMassachusetts Institute of Technology
School or
Neo-Keynesian economics
Joseph Schumpeter
Wassily Leontief
Lawrence Klein[1][2]
Robert C. Merton[3]
InfluencesKeynes • Schumpeter • Leontief • Haberler • Hansen • Wilson • Wicksell • Lindahl
ContributionsNeoclassical synthesis
Mathematical economics
Economic methodology
Revealed preference
International trade
Economic growth
Public goods
AwardsJohn Bates Clark Medal (1947)
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (1970)
National Medal of Science (1996)
Information at IDEAS / RePEc

Paul Anthony Samuelson (May 15, 1915 – December 13, 2009) was an American economist who was the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. When awarding the prize in 1970, the Swedish Royal Academies stated that he "has done more than any other contemporary economist to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory".[6]

Samuelson was one of the most influential economists of the latter half of the 20th century.[7][8] In 1996, when he was awarded the National Medal of Science.[6] Samuelson considered mathematics to be the "natural language" for economists and contributed significantly to the mathematical foundations of economics with his book Foundations of Economic Analysis.[9] He was author of the best-selling economics textbook of all time: Economics: An Introductory Analysis, first published in 1948.[10] It was the second American textbook that attempted to explain the principles of Keynesian economics.

Samuelson served as an advisor to President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson, and was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Samuelson wrote a weekly column for Newsweek magazine along with Chicago School economist Milton Friedman, where they represented opposing sides: Samuelson, as a self described "Cafeteria Keynesian",[7] claimed taking the Keynesian perspective but only accepting what he felt was good in it.[7] By contrast, Friedman represented the monetarist perspective.[11] Together with Henry Wallich, their 1967 columns earned the magazine a Gerald Loeb Special Award in 1968.[12]


Samuelson in 1997

Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana, on May 15, 1915, to Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and Ella née Lipton. His family, he later said, was "made up of upwardly mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered considerably in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel-town when my family went there".[13] In 1923, Samuelson moved to Chicago where he graduated from Hyde Park High School (now Hyde Park Career Academy).

Samuelson attended the University of Chicago as an undergraduate, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1935. He said he was born as an economist at 8:00 am on January 2, 1932, in the University of Chicago classroom.[7] The lecture mentioned as the cause was on the British economist Thomas Malthus, who most famously studied population growth and its effects.[13] Samuelson felt there was a dissonance between neoclassical economics and the way the system seemed to behave; he said Henry Simons and Frank Knight were a big influence on him.[14] He next completed his Master of Arts degree in 1936, and his Doctor of Philosophy in 1941 at Harvard University. He won the David A. Wells prize in 1941 for writing the best doctoral dissertation at Harvard University in economics, for a thesis titled "Foundations of Analytical Economics", which later turned into Foundations of Economic Analysis. As a graduate student at Harvard, Samuelson studied economics under Joseph Schumpeter, Wassily Leontief, Gottfried Haberler, and the "American Keynes" Alvin Hansen.

Samuelson moved to MIT as an assistant professor in 1940 and remained there until his death.[15] Samuelson's biographer argues that a central reason for Samuelson's move from Harvard to MIT was the anti-Semitism that was famously widespread at Harvard at the time. In a 1989 letter to his friend Henry Rosovsky, Samuelson blamed anti-Semitism in Harvard economics above all on chair Harold Burbank, as well as on Edward Chamberlin, John H. Williams, John D. Black, and Leonard Crum.[16]

Samuelson's family included many well-known economists, including brother Robert Summers, sister-in-law Anita Summers, brother-in-law Kenneth Arrow and nephew Larry Summers.

During his seven decades as an economist, Samuelson's professional positions included:

  • Assistant professor of economics at MIT, 1940; associate professor, 1944.
  • Member of the Radiation Laboratory 1944–45.
  • Professor of international economic relations (part-time) at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1945.
  • Guggenheim Fellowship from 1948 to 1949
  • Professor of economics at MIT beginning in 1947 and Institute Professor beginning in 1962.
  • Vernon F. Taylor Visiting Distinguished Professor at Trinity University (Texas) in spring 1989.


Samuelson died after a brief illness on December 13, 2009, at the age of 94.[17] His death was announced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[13] James M. Poterba, an economics professor at MIT and the president of the National Bureau of Economic Research, commented that Samuelson "leaves an immense legacy, as a researcher and a teacher, as one of the giants on whose shoulders every contemporary economist stands".[17] Susan Hockfield, the president of MIT, said that Samuelson "transformed everything he touched: the theoretical foundations of his field, the way economics was taught around the world, the ethos and stature of his department, the investment practices of MIT, and the lives of his colleagues and students".[18] His second wife died in 2019.

Fields of interest[edit]

As professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Samuelson worked in many fields, including:


Samuelson is considered one of the founders of neo-Keynesian economics and a seminal figure in the development of neoclassical economics. In awarding him the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, the committee stated:

More than any other contemporary economist, Samuelson has helped to raise the general analytical and methodological level in economic science. He has simply rewritten considerable parts of economic theory. He has also shown the fundamental unity of both the problems and analytical techniques in economics, partly by a systematic application of the methodology of maximization for a broad set of problems. This means that Samuelson's contributions range over a large number of different fields.

He was also essential in creating the neoclassical synthesis, which ostensibly incorporated Keynesian and neoclassical principles and still dominates current mainstream economics. In 2003, Samuelson was one of the ten Nobel Prize–winning economists signing the Economists' statement opposing the Bush tax cuts.[19]

Aphorisms and quotations[edit]

Stanislaw Ulam once challenged Samuelson to name one theory in all of the social sciences that is both true and nontrivial. Several years later, Samuelson responded with David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage: "That it is logically true need not be argued before a mathematician; that is not trivial is attested by the thousands of important and intelligent men who have never been able to grasp the doctrine for themselves or to believe it after it was explained to them."[20]

For many years, Samuelson wrote a column for Newsweek. One article included Samuelson's most quoted remark and a favorite economics joke:

To prove that Wall Street is an early omen of movements still to come in GNP, commentators quote economic studies alleging that market downturns predicted four out of the last five recessions. That is an understatement. Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions! And its mistakes were beauties.[21]

In the early editions of his famous, bestselling economics textbook Paul Samuelson joked that GDP falls when a man "marries his maid".[22]


The competitive price system adapted from Samuelson, 1961

Foundations of Economic Analysis[edit]

Paul Samuelson's book Foundations of Economic Analysis (1946) is considered his magnum opus. It is derived from his doctoral dissertation, and was inspired by the classical thermodynamic methods.[23] The book proposes to:

  • Examine underlying analogies between central features in theoretical and applied economics and
  • Study how operationally meaningful theorems can be derived with a small number of analogous methods (p. 3),

in order to derive "a general theory of economic theories" (Samuelson, 1983, p. xxvi). The book showed how these goals could be parsimoniously and fruitfully achieved, using the language of the mathematics applied to diverse subfields of economics. The book proposes two general hypotheses as sufficient for its purposes:

  • Maximizing behavior of agents (including consumers as to utility and business firms as to profit) and
  • Economic systems (including a market and an economy) in stable equilibrium.

The first tenet suggests that all actors, whether firms or consumers, are striving to maximize something. They could be attempting to maximize profits, utility, or wealth, but it did not matter because their efforts to improve their well-being would provide a basic model for all actors in an economic system.[24] His second tenet focuses on providing insight on the workings of equilibrium in an economy. Generally in a market, supply would equal demand. However, he noted that this isn't always the case and that the important thing to look at was a system's natural resting point. Foundations presents the question of how an equilibrium would react when it is moved from its optimal point.[24] Samuelson was also influential in providing explanations on how the changes in certain factors can affect an economic system. For example, he could explain the economic effect of changes in taxes or new technologies.

In the course of analysis, comparative statics, (the analysis of changes in equilibrium of the system that result from a parameter change of the system) is formalized and clearly stated.

The chapter on welfare economics "attempt(s) to give a brief but fairly complete survey of the whole field of welfare economics" (Samuelson, 1947, p. 252). It also exposits on and develops what became commonly called the Bergson–Samuelson social welfare function. It shows how to represent (in the maximization calculus) all real-valued economic measures of any belief system that is required to rank consistently different feasible social configurations in an ethical sense as "better than", "worse than", or "indifferent to" each other (p. 221).


Samuelson is also author (and from 1985 co-author) of an influential principles textbook, Economics, first published in 1948 (19th ed. as of 2010; multiple reprints). The book sold more than 300,000 copies of each edition from 1961 through 1976 and was translated into forty-one languages. As of 2018, it had sold over four million copies. William Nordhaus joined as co-author on the 12th edition (1985). Sometime before 1988, it had become the best-selling economics textbook of all time.[25][26]

Samuelson was once quoted as saying, "Let those who will write the nation's laws if I can write its textbooks."[27] Written in the shadow of the Great Depression and the Second World War, it helped to popularize the insights of John Maynard Keynes. A main focus was how to avoid, or at least mitigate, the recurring slumps in economic activity.

Samuelson wrote: "It is not too much to say that the widespread creation of dictatorships and the resulting World War II stemmed in no small measure from the world's failure to meet this basic economic problem [the Great Depression] adequately."[28] This reflected the concern of Keynes himself with the economic causes of war and the importance of economic policy in promoting peace.[29][30][31]

Samuelson's book was the second to introduce Keynesian economics to a wide audience, and was by far the most successful. Canadian economist Lorie Tarshis, who had been a student attending Keynes's lectures at Harvard in the 1930s, published in 1947 an introductory textbook that incorporated his lecture notes, titled Elements of Economics.[32][33][34]

Other publications[edit]

There are 388 papers in Samuelson's Collected Scientific Papers. Stanley Fischer (1987, p. 234) writes that taken together they are "unique in their verve, breadth of economic and general knowledge, mastery of setting, and generosity of allusions to predecessors".

Samuelson was co-editor, along with William A. Barnett, of Inside the Economist's Mind: Conversations with Eminent Economists (Blackwell Publishing, 2007), a collection of interviews with notable economists of the 20th century.


Textbook influences in higher education[edit]

Samuelson's textbook was a watershed in introducing the serious study of business cycles to the economics curriculum. It was particularly timely because it followed the Great Depression. The study of business cycles along with the introduction of the Keynesian approach of aggregate demand set the stage for the macroeconomic revolution in America, which then diffused throughout the world through translations into every major language. Generations of students, who then became teachers, learned their first and most influential lessons from Samuelson's Economics. It attracted many imitators, who became successful in different niches of the college market.

The text was not without criticism. While it praised the "mixed economy" of market and government, some found that too radical and attacked it as socialist. As a precursor to criticisms of Samuelson's Economics textbook, Lorie Tarshis's textbook was attacked by trustees of, and donors to, American colleges and universities as preaching a "socialist heresy".[35] Piling on, William F. Buckley, Jr., in his 1951 book, God and Man at Yale, devoted an entire chapter, attacking both Samuelson's and Tarshis' textbooks. For Samuelson's book, Buckley drew from the Educational Examiner and credited it as an "excellent review of Samuelson's text." ("Note to Chapter Two." p. 234)[36][a] For Tarshis' book, Buckley drew from Merwin K. Hart's organization to wit: "I am also grateful to the National Economic Council for its telling analysis of the Tarshis." ("Note to Chapter Two." p. 234)[36] Buckley essentially characterized both as – in the words of Paul Davidson – "communist inspired".[36][34] Buckley, for the rest of his life, defended the criticisms set forth in his book.

Economic growth of USSR[edit]

One criticism – of a concept that Samuelson added to his Economics textbook – was the comparison of USA growth rates with those of the USSR, which, according to the criticism, was inconsistent with historical GNP differences.[37] The textbook's 1967 edition (7th ed.) extrapolates (projects) the possibility of USSR/US real GNP parity between 1977 and 1995. Each subsequent edition extrapolates a date range further in the future until those graphs were dropped from the 1985 edition (12th ed.).[38]

Phillips Curve[edit]

Samuelson, together with Robert Solow, helped develop and popularize the mathematics of the Phillips Curve. The curve suggested that unemployment and inflation were inversely related; with the advent of stagflation in the 1970s some economists including Milton Friedman and Friedrich Hayek attacked the economics based on the Phillips Curve as questionable or mistaken.


List of publications[edit]

  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1947), Enlarged ed. 1983. Foundations of Economic Analysis, Harvard University Press.
  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1948), Economics: An Introductory Analysis, ISBN 0-07-074741-5; with William D. Nordhaus (since 1985), 2009, 19th ed., McGraw–Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-126383-2
  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1952), "Economic Theory and Mathematics – An Appraisal", American Economic Review, 42(2), pp. 56–66.
  • Samuelson, Paul A (1954). "The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure". Review of Economics and Statistics. 36 (4): 387–89. doi:10.2307/1925895. JSTOR 1925895. S2CID 153571905.
  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1958), Linear Programming and Economic Analysis with Robert Dorfman and Robert M. Solow, McGraw–Hill. Chapter-preview links.
  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1960). "Efficient paths of capital accumulation in terms of the calculus of variations". In Arrow, Kenneth J.; Karlin, Samuel; Suppes, Patrick (eds.). Mathematical models in the social sciences, 1959: Proceedings of the first Stanford symposium. Stanford mathematical studies in the social sciences, IV. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 77–88. ISBN 9780804700214.
  • Samuelson, Paul A. (1982). "Quesnay's 'Tableau Economique' as a theorist would formulate it today". In Meek, Ronald (author); Bradley, Ian C.; Howard, Michael C. (eds.). Classical and Marxian political economy: essays in honour of Ronald L. Meek. London: Macmillan. pp. 45–78. ISBN 9780333321997. {{cite book}}: |editor-first1= has generic name (help)
  • The Collected Scientific Papers of Paul A. Samuelson, MIT Press. Preview links for vol. 1–3 below. Contents links for vol. 4–7. OCLC 1079936608 (all editions).
Samuelson, Paul A. (1966), Vol. 1 → via Google Books, 1937–mid-1964.
Samuelson, Paul A. (1966), Vol. 2 → via Google Books, 1937–mid-1964.
Samuelson, Paul A. (1972), Vol. 3 → via Google Books, mid-1964–1970.
Samuelson, Paul A. (1977), Vol. 4 → via Internet Archive (registration required), 1971–76.
Samuelson, Paul A. (1986), Vol. 5 → via Google Books, 1977–1985 Description → via
Samuelson, Paul A. (2011), Vol. 6[permanent dead link], 1986–2009. Description → via Wayback Machine
Samuelson, Paul A. (2011), Vol. 7[permanent dead link], 1986–2009.

See also[edit]


Explanatory annotations[edit]

  1. ^ The Educational Reviewer was founded in 1949 by Lucille Cardin Crain (née Marie Lucille Gabrielle Cardin; 1901–1983), a conservative activist whose primary interest was in – as she stated in 1951 – "rooting out radical influences in American education." In each issue, arch-conservative academicians and writers offered their views of high school and college textbooks as evidence of collectivist content and the like. The publication, for the first three years, was chiefly financed by William F. Buckley, Jr. Crain's husband, Kenneth Cardwell Crain (1883–1969), was a brother of Gustavus Demetrious Crain, Jr. (1885–1973), founder of Crain Communications.


  1. ^ Business Cycles and Depressions: An Encyclopedia, p. 361, at Google Books
  2. ^ De Vroey, Michel; Malgrange, Pierre (2012). "From The Keynesian Revolution to the Klein–Goldberger model: Klein and the Dynamization of Keynesian Theory". History of Economic Ideas. 20 (2): 113–36.
  3. ^ Merton, Robert C. (1970). Analytical Optimal Control Theory as Applied to Stochastic and Non-Stochastic Economics (PhD dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/13875.
  4. ^ "Marion Crawford Samuelson". The New York Times. February 15, 1978. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  5. ^ "Risha Clay Samuelson: Obituary". The Boston Globe. June 4, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Frost, Greg (December 13, 2009). "Nobel-winning economist Paul A. Samuelson dies at age 94". MIT News. "In a career that spanned seven decades, he transformed his field, influenced millions of students and turned MIT into an economics powerhouse"
  7. ^ a b c d e "Paul Samuelson: The last of the great general economists died on December 13th, aged 94", The Economist, December 17, 2009
  8. ^ Dixit, Avinash (September 1, 2012). "Paul Samuelson's Legacy". Annual Review of Economics. 4 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-080511-110957. ISSN 1941-1383.
  9. ^ Solow, Robert (2010). "On Paul Samuelson". Challenge. 53 (2): 113–116. doi:10.2753/0577-5132530207. S2CID 155020549.
  10. ^ Skousken, Mark (Spring 1997). "The Perseverance of Paul Samuelson's Economics". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 11 (2): 137–152. doi:10.1257/jep.11.2.137.
  11. ^ Szenberg, Michael; Gottesman, Aron A.; Ramrattan, lall (2005). Paul Samuelson: On Being an Economist. New York: Jorge Pinto Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-9742615-3-9.
  12. ^ Devaney, James J. (May 22, 1968). "'Playboy', 'Monitor' Honored". Hartford Courant. Vol. 131, no. 143 (Final ed.). p. 36. Retrieved March 20, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^ a b c Weinstein, Michael M. (December 13, 2009). "Paul A. Samuelson, Economist, Dies at 94". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  14. ^ Parker, Randall E. (2002). Reflections on the Great Depression. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-84376-335-2.
  15. ^ Backhouse, R. E. (2014). "Paul A. Samuelson's Move to MIT". History of Political Economy. 46: 60. doi:10.1215/00182702-2716118.
  16. ^ Backhouse, Roger (2017). Founder of Modern Economics: Paul Samuelson, vol. 1: Becoming Samuelson, 1915–1948. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 300–307. ISBN 9780190664091.
  17. ^ a b "Nobel economics laureate Samuelson died at 94". Reuters. December 14, 2006.
  18. ^ "Economics revolutionary Paul Samuelson dies aged 94", The Daily Telegraph, December 14, 2009
  19. ^ "Economists' statement opposing the Bush tax cuts". April 3, 2003. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
  20. ^ Samuelson, Paul (1969). "The Way of an Economist". In Samuelson, P. A. (ed.). International Economic Relations: Proceedings of the Third Congress of the International Economic Association. London: Macmillan. pp. 1–11.
  21. ^ Samuelson, Paul (September 19, 1966). "Science and Stocks". Newsweek. p. 92.
  22. ^ "The Trouble With GDP". The Economist. April 30, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  23. ^ Liossatos, Panagis, S. (2004). "Statistical Entropy in General Equilibrium Theory", (p. 3). Department of Economics, Florida International University.
  24. ^ a b Solow, Robert (January 15, 2010). "Paul A. Samuelson (1915–2009)". Science. 327 (5963): 282. Bibcode:2010Sci...327..282S. doi:10.1126/science.1186205. PMID 20075240. S2CID 206525085.
  25. ^ Rosalsky, Gregory Ellis (March 14, 2018). "Freeing Econ 101: Beyond the Grasp of the Invisible Hand". Behavorial Scientist (non-profit digital magazine). Broad Street, Lower Manhattan. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  26. ^ Sanyal, Amal (2018). "After Keynes – Box 6.3: Paul Samuelson". Economics and Its Stories. London: Routledge, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. p. 174. ISBN 9781351581691. ISBN 1-1380-9960-0, 978-1-1380-9960-9 (hard copy); ISBN 978-1-3150-9896-8 (e-book); OCLC 989032184 (all editions).
  27. ^ "Paul Anthony Samuelson: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics | Library of Economics and Liberty". www.econlib.org. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  28. ^ See Mankiw, Gregory (January 10, 2009). "Is government spending too easy an answer?". The New York Times.
  29. ^ See Markwell, Donald (2006). John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829236-4.
  30. ^ Samuelson, Paul (1989). Economics (13th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 837. ISBN 9780070547865.
  31. ^ "Paul A. Samuelson Biographical".
  32. ^ Tarshis, Lorie (1947). The Elements of Economics: An Introduction to the Theory of Price and Employment. Houghton Mifflin CompanyThe Riverside Press. OCLC 989388561. Retrieved April 23, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  33. ^ Harcourt, G. C. (July 1982). "An Early Post Keynesian: Lorie Tarshis (or: Tarshis on Tarshis by Harcourt)". Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 4 (4). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.: 609–619. doi:10.1080/01603477.1982.11489324. JSTOR 4537699. Retrieved November 19, 2022. ISSN 0160-3477 (publication); OCLC 222424878, 5550180927, 7323662377 (article).
  34. ^ a b Davidson, Paul (Autumn 2005). "Galbraith and the Post Keynesians". Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 28 (1). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.: 103–113. JSTOR 4538962. Retrieved April 22, 2021 ("William F. Buckley [ ... ] attacked Tarshis's book as being communist inspired." p. 107){{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) ISSN 0160-3477 (print publication); ISSN 1557-7821 (online publication); OCLC 5550151503, 192224991 (article).
  35. ^ Davidson, Paul (Spring 2015). "What Was the Primary Factor Encouraging Mainstream Economists to Marginalize Post Keynesian Theory?". Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 37 (3). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.: 369–383. doi:10.1080/01603477.2015.1000093. S2CID 154780517. ISSN 0160-3477 (print publication); ISSN 1557-7821 (online publication); ProQuest 1673822215 (abstract; database → ABI/INFORM Collection); OCLC 8504916331 (article).
  36. ^ a b c Buckley, William F. Jr. (December 1951) [September 1951]. "Chapter 2: Individualism at Yale". God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of "Academic Freedom (4th printing). Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. pp. 45–113. ISBN 9780895266927. Retrieved April 22, 2021 – via Internet Archive (Buckley's criticism of Tarshis's textbook, The Elements of Economics, begins at p. 49 and is expanded in Appendix VII → pp. 227, 230–231) {{cite book}}: External link in |postscript= (help)CS1 maint: postscript (link). OCLC 189667 (all editions).
  37. ^ Levy, David M.; Peart, Sandra J. (December 3, 2009). "Soviet Growth & American Textbooks". SSRN Working Paper: 8–12. SSRN 1517983. the optimistic forecast of time before the Soviet overtaking is 23 years; the more pessimistic time to overtaking in the max-max world is 36 years. The non-overtaking trajectory is constructed on the specification that something reduces Soviet growth in out years below what simple extrapolation would have it.
  38. ^ Bethell, Tom (October 1999). "The Soviet Experiment". The noblest triumph: property and prosperity through the ages. Palgrave MacMillan. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-312-22337-3.
  39. ^ "Paul Anthony Samuelson". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  40. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  41. ^ "Paul A. Samuelson". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved December 15, 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by Laureate of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics
Succeeded by