Palochka

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Cyrillic Palochka
Cyrillic letter palochka - uppercase and lowercase.svg
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
А Б В Г Ґ Д Ђ
Ѓ Е Ѐ Ё Є Ж З
З́ Ѕ И Ѝ І Ї Й
Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ
О П Р С С́ Т Ћ
Ќ У Ў Ф Х Ц Ч
Џ Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э
Ю Я
Non-Slavic letters
Ӑ А̄ А̊ А̃ Ӓ Ӓ̄ Ә
Ә́ Ә̃ Ӛ Ӕ Ғ Г̧ Г̑
Г̄ Ҕ Ӻ Ӷ Ԁ Ԃ
Ԫ Ԭ Ӗ Е̄ Е̃
Ё̄ Є̈ Ӂ Җ Ӝ Ԅ
Ҙ Ӟ Ԑ Ԑ̈ Ӡ Ԇ Ӣ
И̃ Ҋ Ӥ Қ Ӄ Ҡ Ҟ
Ҝ Ԟ Ԛ Ӆ Ԯ Ԓ Ԡ
Ԉ Ԕ Ӎ Ӊ Ң Ԩ Ӈ
Ҥ Ԣ Ԋ О̆ О̃ О̄ Ӧ
Ө Ө̄ Ӫ Ҩ Ԥ Ҧ Р̌
Ҏ Ԗ Ҫ Ԍ Ҭ
Ԏ У̃ Ӯ Ӱ Ӱ́ Ӳ
Ү Ү́ Ұ Х̑ Ҳ Ӽ Ӿ
Һ Һ̈ Ԧ Ҵ Ҷ
Ӵ Ӌ Ҹ Ҽ
Ҿ Ы̆ Ы̄ Ӹ Ҍ Э̆ Э̄
Э̇ Ӭ Ӭ́ Ӭ̄ Ю̆ Ю̈ Ю̈́
Ю̄ Я̆ Я̄ Я̈ Ԙ Ԝ Ӏ
Archaic letters
Ҁ Ѻ
ОУ Ѡ Ѽ Ѿ
Ѣ Ѥ Ѧ
Ѫ Ѩ Ѭ Ѯ
Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ѷ

The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (Russian: палочка, tr. palochka; IPA: [ˈpɑɫət͡ɕkə], literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.[1] The letter usually has only a capital form, which is also used in lowercase text. The capital form of the palochka often looks like the capital form of the Cyrillic letter soft-dotted I (І і), the capital form of the Latin letter I (I i), and the lowercase form of the Latin letter L (L l). The letter was introduced in the late 1930s.

History[edit]

In the early times of the Soviet Union, many of the non-Russian Cyrillic alphabets contained only letters found in the Russian alphabet in order to keep other orthographies compatible with Russian typewriters. For this reason, sounds absent in Russian were marked with digraphs and other letter combinations. The palochka was the only exception because the numerical digit 1 was used instead of this letter. In fact, on Russian typewriters this character did not look like the digit 1 but like the Roman numeral I with serifs. That is still common because the palochka is not present in most standard keyboard layouts (and, for some of them, not even the soft-dotted I) or common fonts so it cannot be easily entered or reliably displayed on many computer systems.

Usage[edit]

In the alphabets of Abaza, Adyghe, Avar, Dargwa, Ingush, Lak, Lezgian, and Tabassaran, the palochka has no independent phonetic value but signals that the preceding consonant is an ejective. An exception is the Abkhaz language, which does not use palochka for rendering ejectives.

In Adyghe, the palochka is also a glottal stop /ʔ/.

In Avar

  • Example from Avar: кӏалъазе [kʼaˈɬaze], "to speak"

In Chechen, the palochka makes a preceding voiceless stop or affricate ejective, but also represents the voiced pharyngeal fricative /ʕ/ when it does not follow a voiceless stop or affricate. As an exception, in the digraph ⟨хӏ⟩, it produces the voiceless glottal fricative /h/.

  • Examples from Chechen: йоӏ [jo:ʕ], "girl" and хӏорд [/ho:rd/], "sea"

Computing codes[edit]

Character Ӏ ӏ
Unicode name CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1216 U+04C0 1231 U+04CF
UTF-8 211 128 D3 80 211 143 D3 8F
Numeric character reference Ӏ Ӏ ӏ ӏ
The lowercase form of palochka was added to Unicode 5.0 in July 2006.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. 2010. pp. 42, 43. Retrieved 2011-05-23.