Paul Martin Sr.
|12th Secretary of State for External Affairs|
April 22, 1963 – April 19, 1968
|Prime Minister||Lester Pearson|
|Preceded by||Howard Charles Green|
|Succeeded by||Mitchell Sharp|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament|
for Essex East
October 14, 1935 – April 19, 1968
|Preceded by||Raymond Morand|
|Succeeded by||Riding abolished|
|Senator for Windsor-Walkerville, Ontario|
April 20, 1968 – October 30, 1974
|Appointed by||Pierre Trudeau|
Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin
June 23, 1903
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
|Died||September 14, 1992 (aged 89)|
Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Eleanor Alice "Nelly" Adams (m. 1937)
|Children||2, including Paul Martin|
|Alma mater||University of Toronto|
Osgoode Hall Law School
Graduate Institute of International Studies
|Occupation||Diplomat, lecturer, barrister, lawyer|
Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin, (June 23, 1903 – September 14, 1992), often referred to as Paul Martin Sr., was a noted Canadian politician and diplomat. He was the father of Paul Martin, who served as 21st Prime Minister of Canada from 2003 to 2006.
Martin was born in Ottawa, Ontario, the son of Lumina (née Chouinard) and Joseph Philippe Ernest Martin. His Irish Catholic paternal grandfather's family immigrated from County Mayo, and his mother and paternal grandmother were French Canadian with deep roots in the country.
Martin contracted polio in 1907. Martin was raised in Pembroke, Ontario, in the Ottawa River Valley, although he attended high school at Collège Saint-Alexandre in Gatineau, Quebec. He completed his university education at the University of Toronto, and earned his law degree from Osgoode Hall Law School. Later, Martin studied at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, on a scholarship.
Martin later opened a law practice in Windsor, Ontario.
Member of Parliament
A member of the Liberal Party of Canada, he was first elected to the House of Commons in 1935 and entered the cabinet in 1945. He went on to serve as a noted member of the cabinets of four Prime Ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent, Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau.
Martin was viewed as one of the most left-wing members of the Liberal cabinet, and as Minister of National Health and Welfare from 1946 to 1957 he played an important role in the fight against polio and overseeing the creation of hospital insurance in Canada, and is sometimes recognized as a father of medicare. Martin served as Secretary of State for External Affairs in the Pearson government, and was instrumental in the acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapons for Canadian Forces.
Liberal leadership bids
He ran for the Liberal leadership three times, in 1948, in 1958 and 1968, but was defeated at all three Liberal leadership conventions, first by Louis St. Laurent, then by Lester B. Pearson, then by Pierre Trudeau.
Senator and beyond
Trudeau appointed him to the Senate in 1968. He served as Leader of the Government in the Senate until 1974 when he was appointed High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. He also served as Chancellor of Wilfrid Laurier University from 1972–1977, as a result of which the university named the Paul Martin Centre in his honour. Until his death Paul Martin was an Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of Windsor.
In 1976 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In recognition of his accomplishments, Martin was granted the right to use the honorific Right Honourable in 1992, a rare honour for one who has never been Prime Minister, Governor-General or Chief Justice of Canada.
The University of Windsor has a Paul Martin Chair in law and political science, recently held by former Manitoba Premier Howard Pawley (until his retirement from the university), and the Paul Martin Law Library. The City of Windsor had also renamed their "Post Office Building" the Paul Martin Sr. Building in his honour on November 18, 1994.
- Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia (LL.D) in 1950
- University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia (LL.D) on June 2, 1966
- Algonquin College in Pembroke, Ontario on June 16, 2017
- Essex East
|1935 Canadian federal election|
|Conservative||MORAND, Hon. Raymond D.||6,493||33.71||-22.73|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||LEVERT, Joseph Ben||4,106||21.32|
|Reconstruction||MCPHARLIN, J. Gabriel||1,102||5.72|
|Total valid votes||19,263||100.00|
|1940 Canadian federal election|
|National Government||MORAND, Hon. Raymond D.||8,060||38.11||+4.40|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||LEVERT, Joseph Ben||2,879||13.62||-7.70|
|Canadian Labour||HICKS, Roy Robert||398||1.88|
|Total valid votes||21,148||100.00|
|1945 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||16,165||56.21||+9.82|
|Progressive Conservative||BYRNE, James E.||8,244||28.67||-9.44|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||MACDONALD, William C.||4,349||15.12||+1.50|
|Total valid votes||28,758||100.00|
|1949 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||16,709||52.89||-3.32|
|Progressive Conservative||TURNBULL, James Russell||8,204||25.97||-2.70|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||RIGGS, William Charles||5,213||16.50||+1.38|
|Total valid votes||31,590||100.00|
|1953 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||19,946||67.16||+14.27|
|Progressive Conservative||KENNEDY, Aloysius||5,530||18.62||-7.35|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||OWEN, Kenneth Edwin||3,013||10.14||-6.36|
|Labor–Progressive||KENNEDY, Michael J.||1,212||4.08||-0.56|
|Total valid votes||29,701||100.00|
|1957 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||22,023||57.15||-10.01|
|Progressive Conservative||HICKS, Roy R.||10,593||27.49||+8.87|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||METEER, Jack||5,917||15.36||+5.22|
|Total valid votes||38,533||100.00|
|1958 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||18,074||41.98||-15.17|
|Progressive Conservative||HICKS, Roy R.||16,451||38.21||+10.72|
|Co-operative Commonwealth||BURR, Fred A.||8,530||19.81||+4.45|
|Total valid votes||43,055||100.00|
|1962 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||24,969||58.69||+16.71|
|New Democratic||DRURY, George||8,888||20.89||+1.08|
|Progressive Conservative||DEMERS, Roland Lionel||8,210||19.30||-18.91|
|Social Credit||CORY, T.R.||476||1.12|
|Total valid votes||42,543||100.00|
|1963 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||25,727||59.82||+1.13|
|Progressive Conservative||GOURLIE, David||8,894||20.68||+1.38|
|New Democratic||MCCONVILLE, Hugh||7,648||17.78||-3.11|
|Social Credit||GIGNAC, Frank||740||1.72||+0.60|
|Total valid votes||43,009||100.00|
|1965 Canadian federal election|
|Liberal||MARTIN, Hon. Paul||26,094||63.78||+3.96|
|Progressive Conservative||GOURLIE, David||8,142||19.90||-0.78|
|New Democratic||MCCONVILLE, Hugh||6,133||14.99||-2.79|
|Communist||MAGNUSON, Bruce A.H.||543||1.33|
|Total valid votes||40,912||100.00|
- Martin, Paul (1983). A Very Public Life: Far from home. Deneau. p. 2. ISBN 0-88879-092-9.
- "Heads of Post List". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013.
- "A boy's life". CanWest MediaWorks Publications. November 16, 2004. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
- Disabled World[permanent dead link]
- Clearwater, J. "Canadian Nuclear Weapons.", Chapter 1. Dundurn Press, 1998.
- "Honorary Degrees". Dalhousie University. Archived from the original on August 16, 2006.
- "The Title and Degree of Doctor of Laws (honoris causa) Conferred at Congregation, June 2, 1966: Paul Martin". University of British Columbia. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- "Former Prime Minister Paul Martin to Speak at Pembroke Campus Convocation Ceremony as late Father Bestowed an Honorary Degree" (PDF). Algonquin College. February 27, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Donaghy, Greg. Grit: The Life and Politics of Paul Martin Sr. (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2015). Pp. 480
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