Politehnica University of Timișoara
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|Universitatea Politehnica Timișoara|
Traian Vuia Polytechnic Institute
|Motto||It's not the walls that make a school, but the spirit living inside
King Ferdinand I, 1923
|Rector||Prof. eng. Viorel Aurel Șerban, Ph.D|
|Campus||16 dorms, 2 student restaurants, 1 central library, 1 student clinic, 2 hotels, 1 television studio, 2 sports units|
Politehnica University of Timișoara (Romanian: Universitatea Politehnica Timișoara) is a public university founded on November 11, 1920. Located in Timișoara, Romania, it is one of the largest technical universities in Central and Eastern Europe.
The university's research and scientific training is based on the strategy of promoting multidisciplinary research and the priority given to new technology. In 2011, Politehnica University of Timișoara was classified as an advanced research and education university by the Ministry of Education, thus becoming the only university in Western part of Romania categorized among the best 12 university in the country.
- 1 Historical Timeline
- 2 Ranking
- 3 Mission
- 4 Charter
- 5 Faculties
- 5.1 Faculty of Architecture and City Planning
- 5.2 Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering
- 5.3 Faculty of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering
- 5.4 Faculty of Civil Engineering
- 5.5 Faculty of Communication Sciences
- 5.6 Faculty of Electrical and Power Engineering
- 5.7 Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering
- 5.8 Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara
- 5.9 Faculty of Management in Production and Transportation
- 5.10 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
- 6 Departments
- 7 Admission
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Mobility and International Cooperation
- 10 Rectors
- 11 Personalities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 1920 The activity of the university begins, based on the Royal Decree no. 4822, from 11 November 1920.
- 1920 The Politehnica School’s Sports Society was founded.
- 1921 The Politehnica School’s Board for Professional Training and Advancement was appointed by virtue of the Decree no. 365/1921.
- 1921 The first Year - Book of the Politehnica School was issued.
- 1921 The first public scientific conferences and general knowledge conferences were initiated. The Politehnica School Student society was set up.
- 1921 The Mathematical Journal of Timișoara was founded under the supervision of professor Traian Lalescu, rector of the Politehnica School.
- 1923 The Mechanical Engineering Pavilion, i.e. the first building of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, was inaugurated on November 11.
- 1923 The scientific Society of Politehnica School was founded. In 1925, it published the first issue of the "Buletin Scientifique de l’Ecole Politechnique de Timișoara".
- 1923 The society of the Mathematics Students was set up. Three villas for the teaching staff were opened within the area of the Politehnica School.
- 1924 The Politehnica School conferred its first engineering degrees.
- 1927 The first Congress of the Politehnica School Graduate Engineers was organized.
- 1927 The first hostel accommodation was inaugurated, the building being able to accommodate 220 students.
- 1929 The first Romanian Society of Chemical Engineering Studies was set up.
- 1930 The first canteen, located next to the hostel accommodation was finished, being able to serve 450 students.
- 1933 Two distinct faculties were established: the Faculty of Electro-Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Mining and Metallurgy.
- 1934 The Association of Mathematics Professors was established.
- 1935 The Politehnica School was given the right to award the Engineer PhD degree, but the provisions of the procedure were approved by the Board of Professional Training in 1937.
- 1937 The Politehnica Sports Center was inaugurated.
- 1938 The Academy of High Agronomic Sciences of Cluj was converted into a faculty and was subordinated to the Politehnica School until 1945.
- 1941 The Faculty of Civil Engineering was established.
- 1945 The Faculty of Agronomic Sciences was established; it functioned under the management of the Politehnica School until 1948.
- 1948 Politehnica School was renamed as The Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara.
- 1948 The Faculty of Mining and Metallurgy became independent of the Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara.
- 1948 The Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara consisted of four faculties (the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the Faculty of Civil Engineering and the Faculty of Chemical Engineering) offering specialization in 12 fields.
- 1948 The Bulletin de Science et Technique de Politechnique de Timișoara was published. Its name changed into Bulletin of Science and Technique of the Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara in 1949.
- 1952 Six year evening courses and no frequency courses were initiated.
- 1953 The Faculty of Rolling Stock was established; in 1954 it was transformed into a department within the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
- 1956 The Scientific Bulletin was renamed The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara.
- 1956 The five year day-time courses were introduced.
- 1961 The Computer Center was established.
- 1962 The Faculty of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering was transferred from Craiova.
- 1968 Three- year undergraduate degree programs were initiated at the Faculties of Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering.
- 1969 Three-year undergraduate degree programs were initiated at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
- 1970 The Department of Architecture within the Faculty of Civil Engineering and the Department of Applied Electronics within the Faculty of Electrical Engineering were founded.
- 1970 Celebrating its semi- centenary, the institute change its name to Traian Vuia Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara; at that time, it consisted of 5 faculties with 25 specializations for 3-year graduate engineers and 5-year graduate engineer, 537 teaching staff members and 5653 undergraduates.
- 1971 Three-year undergraduate degree programs were initiated in Hunedoara and Resita under the patronage of the Traian Vuia Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara.
- 1973 The Department of Prototypes and Electrical and Mechanical Microproduction was established.
- 1975 The Electronic Computing Centre was established.
- 1976 The new building of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering was built on Vasile Parvan Street. The Faculty needed educational facilities such as rooms for lectures and seminars. As a consequence of the significant efforts of the management of the institute (made up of the rector Ioan Anton and the vice rectors Gheorghe Silaș and Ioan De Sabata) the new building was built and also a large hall situated between The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
- 1977 The new wings of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering were completed.
- 1981 The new building of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and the Horology Pavilion of the Mechanical Engineering Faculty were inaugurated.
- 1982 The new wing of the Faculty of Chemistry was completed.
- 1991 The name Traian Vuia Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara is changed into the Technical University of Timișoara by virtue of the Government Notice from 4.01.1991 and the Order of the Minister of Education and Science.
- 1993 The College for Professional Communication was founded, as a short form of higher education; this is the future Department of Communication and Foreign Languages.
- 1995 The name of the University was changed to Politehnica University of Timișoara by virtue of the Government decision no. 568 published in the Official Monitor/ 16.08.1995.
- 2006 The construction of the new UPT Central Library begins, as a main element of the Centre for Documentation, Continuing Education and Technological Transfer.
- 2011 The Department of Communication and Foreign Languages becomes the Faculty of Communication Sciences, starting with October.
- 2014 The inauguration of the UPT Central Library takes place, moment marked through a human chain made up of over 1000 students from the old to the new library, students that passed from hand to hand the last 100 books.
The contribution of Traian Lalescu to the beginning of the school
Professor Traian Lalescu was the one who strove to fulfill the dream of the people from the Banat region: the Polytechnic School. His first care was to find suitable staff, given the fact that any school lives through its teachers. At the beginning, as the school did not have its own headquarters, it functioned as a secretariat of the city hall. At this office the first admission procedures were carried out. During the first year, the university started its activity with a number of 117 students: 89 enrolled in the first year and 28 in the preparatory year. Carrying out he first courses required a building. At that time, the classes were help at a former school from Timișoara which now belongs to the Faculty of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering. The cafeteria was located in an old sailing club called Regatta, on the banks of the Bega river. As far as the accommodation is concerned, unfortunately, at that time, the only place that could be used was a disused military prison.
At that time, Traian Lalescu offered the students the following services:
- in September 1921, for a year, a course related to machineries that was taught by the Professor Architect George Varisse from the Polytechnic School from Paris;
- he initiated a cycle of public conferences that helped the students in their intellectual development;
- he set up a circle for students similar to the one existent at the great European universities;
- even from the first year, he set up two laboratories: of Chemistry and Physics;
- he organized a series of school libraries.
As a teacher, Traian Lalescu was deeply engaged and taught an impressive number of courses having an extremely varied content; this was possible to his the trips to France and Germany, during which he deepened his studies and teaching techniques.
According to the Scimago Lab, based on data collected between 2007 and 2011, Politehnica University of Timișoara ranked 1251 in the World, 68 regionally and 6 in the country by number of publications. Moreover, the international evaluation carried out by the European University Association (EUA) concluded that "Politehnica University of Timișoara is a high-performance university which enjoys a distinguished reputation within the surrounding society".
The mission of Politehnica University of Timișoara is:
- to generate, respectively to transfer knowledge to the society through the advanced scientific research, through development and innovation and through the dissemination of the results by publishing and/ or implementing them;
- to provide superior training of university level: based on Bologna paradigm, at all its cycles — bachelor, masters, PhD — or based on a specially regulated system; as well as at the postgraduate level or within the lifelong learning concept, with the purpose of their personal development and their integration on the labor market and with the purpose of satisfying the need of competences of the societal environment;
- to contribute to the setup of the development directions of the society, at a local, regional and international level;
- to cultivate, promote and defend the fundamental values crystallized throughout the human evolution: freedom of thought, expression and action, justice, truth, fairness, honesty, fairness, dignity and honor.
The Charter of Politehnica University of Timișoara contains the principles underlying its structure, organization and functioning.
The principles at the basis of this university: • the principle of university autonomy; • the principle of academic freedom; • the principle of public accountability; • The principle of quality assurance; • the principle of equity; • the principle of managerial and financial efficiency; • transparency; • the principle of respect for the rights and freedoms of students and of academic staff; • the principle of independence of ideologies, religions and political doctrines; • the principle of freedom of national and international mobility of students, teachers and researchers; • the principle of consultation of social partners in decision-making; • principle of centering the activity on student learning.
The Charter was drawn up in accordance with the Magna Charta Universitatum.
After Preamble, Mission and General Provisions in the charter there are chapters that define the aspects of university life: the university autonomy, the structure, the structure of the academic year, the organization of university studies, the scientific research, the promotion of quality in education and scientific research, the support of individual excellence, the promotion of student-centered university, the university leadership, the university funding, the university staff and the insurance of ethics and deontology. The last chapter is dedicated to final provisions.
Politehnica University of Timișoara comprises 10 faculties and 25 departments which ensure modern, up-to-date, of a high professional level academic programs.
Faculty of Architecture and City Planning
The Faculty of Architecture and City Planning is one of the newest faculties of the university, being founded about twenty years ago. At this moment, the faculty offers two study programs at the undergraduate level: Architecture (with a master's degree integrated) and Interior Design and 2 study programs at the graduate level: Urbanism and Territorial Planning and Trend, Materials and New Technologies in Interior Architecture. The faculty has workshop rooms, classrooms and projection rooms adapted to the needs of the students.
Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering
The Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering is one of the most well-known faculties of Politehnica University of Timișoara, its foundation being established even from the year 1964, when the specialization Computers Engineering was created within the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, under the supervision of professor Alexandru Rogojan. In 1990, the Faculty of Computers Engineering and Automation was founded; the faculty changed its name in 1991 into the Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering, by aligning to the national level. At present, the faculty offers bachelor, masters and PhD studies in the areas Computers, Automation and Applied Informatics, Information Technology and Informatics, as well as the possibility to conduct the studies in a distance learning system. The faculty has very good cooperation agreements with several companies from its field. Within this faculty functions the Center of Scientific Research in Automation and Computers from Politehnica University of Timișoara., which is being recognized as a type C research center.
Faculty of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering
The Faculty of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering is part of Politehnica University of Timișoara starting from 1948. It is one of the most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe and it has cooperation agreements with several national and multinational companies. Moreover, it offers study programs at bachelor, master and Ph.D. level, in Romanian and English. Within this faculty two departments function: Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Organic and Natural Compounds Engineering. The research activity is carried out in 3 research centers: Research Centre for Inorganic Materials and Alternative Energies, Research Center for Environmental Science and Engineering and Research Center for Organic, Macromolecular and Natural Compounds ‘Chemistry and Engineering.
Faculty of Civil Engineering
The Faculty of Civil Engineering was founded by virtue of the decree number 3134/11 November 1941 of the Council of Ministers. At that point the specialization Civil and Industrial Constructions functioned and, starting from 1948 also the specialization Hydraulic Constructions. In 1990 this faculty emerges from the Faculty of Hydrotechnics, but at a later point, in 2011, they reunite. At present, the Faculty of Civil Engineering offers study programs in 7 domains at the bachelor level and in 5 domains at master level.
Faculty of Communication Sciences
The Faculty of Communication Sciences was founded on the 1st of October 2011. This Faculty offers at the undergraduate level the study programs Communication and Public Relations and Translation Interpreting and, at the postgraduate level, the study program Communication, Public Relations and Digital Media. The activity of this faculty is based on the formation of specialist in the communication and public relations field, in translating and interpreting; moreover, it contributes to the formation of the future engineers by teaching foreign languages (English, French and German) in the faculties of Politehnica University of Timișoara.
Faculty of Electrical and Power Engineering
The Faculty of Electrical and Power Engineering is one of the oldest faculties of the university, the Electro mechanics specialization being created in 1920. In 1948, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering was founded, offering the specializations in the following fields: electrical stations, electrification of agriculture and transport, mechanical energy, electrical energy. In February 1990, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering splits into 3 distinct faculties: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering and the Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering.
Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering
The Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering was founded in 1990, after two decades of functioning as a division within the broader Electrical Engineering Faculty. At present, it offers 2 study programs at the undergraduate level, Applied Electronics and Telecommunications Technologies and Systems, 6 study programs at graduate level, Communications Networks Engineering, Biomedical Electronics, Intelligent Electronic Systems, Telecommunications Networks Engineering, Advanced Electronics Techniques, Multimedia Technologies and the possibility to undertake post graduate studies. It is structured in 3 departments: Applied Electronics, Communications and Measurements and Optical Electronics. The Learning directions include the following: integrated voice and data transmissions, programming and computer networks, mobile and fixed, intelligent systems and manufacturing electronic audio, video and multimedia.
Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara
The Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara was founded in 1990. It offers 6 study programs at the undergraduate level, 5 at graduate level and the possibility to undertake post-graduate studies in the field of Materials Engineering.
Faculty of Management in Production and Transportation
The Faculty of Management in Production and Transportation was created in 1996. At present, it offers 5 study programs at undergraduate level, 3 study programs at graduate level and the possibility to undertake post graduate studies in the field of engineering and management. Starting from 2010, the Public Administration specialization became part of this Faculty.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
In a narrow sense, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering was founded in 1948, through the restructuring of Politehnica School and its transformation in the Polytechnical Institute of Timișoara. The Faculty of Electro mechanics, founded in 1929, split into the Faculty of Mechanics, which stayed in the official premises of the university and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, which was moved to the premises of the "Piarist" Highschool. This faculty has around 2400 students, the necessary equipment for this number and a rich tradition, the subjects of this faculty being taught since the establishment in 1920 of the Politehnica School.
Politehnica University of Timișoara has 25 departments:
- Automation and Applied Informatics
- Computer Science
- Fundamental of Physics for Engineers
- Overland Communication Ways, Foundations and Cadastral Survey
- Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Environmental
- Organic and Natural Compounds Engineering
- Communication and Foreign Languages
- Civil Engineering and Equipments
- Steel Structures and Structural Mechanics
- Physical Education and Sport
- Power Engineering
- Applied Electronics
- Hydrotechnical Engineering
- Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
- Electrical Engineering
- Electrical Engineering and Industrial IT of Hunedoara
- Engineering and Management of Hunedoara
- Mechanical Machines, Equipment and Transportation
- Measurements and Optical Electronics
- Mechanics and Strength of Materials
The Admission to Politehnica University of Timișoara is for each faculty separately.
The Faculty of Architecture and City Planning organizes an entrance examination that evaluates the knowledge in the following fields: Mathematics, Technical Design and Drawing.
The Faculty of Automation and Computers Engineering organizes an entrance examination for the field Systems Engineering, Computers and Information Technology, evaluating the knowledge of Mathematics, while for the field Informatics, the admission is done on the basis of the average obtained at the baccalaureate examination.
The Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Technology organizes for the undergraduate programs with a duration of studies of 4 years, an entrance examination that evaluates the knowledge in Mathematics. After this evaluation, the successful candidates have the possibility to choose between the following specializations: Applied Electronics and Telecommunications Technologies and Systems. For the graduate programs, the admission is done through an interview, but also taking into account the average for the graduation exam and the field of former studies.
For the rest of the faculties from the university, the admission is done through a series of documents. The admission is mainly based on the average of the baccalaureate exam.
The infrastructure of the university is impressive through its dimensions, complexity and in up-to-date services. Therefore, students and employees can enjoy accommodation (dorms and hotels), canteens, sport facilities (swimming pools, football and tennis courts, gym etc.), a publishing house and a printing center, technical and administrative services (e-learning centre, private television etc.), as well as a student medical center.
The campus of the university, situated close to the center of Timișoara, gives students the opportunity to enjoy the university life side by side with all the facilities of this cosmopolitan city. Politehnica University of Timișoara accommodates about 5500 students in 2000 student rooms from 16 dorms, all equipped with Internet connection, cable TV, refrigerator and new furniture.
The University owns two hotels, located in the city center, namely Casa Politehnicii 1 (17 rooms) and Casa Politehnicii 2 (31 rooms). They are 3 stars hotels equipped with phone, TV, refrigerator, air conditioning, Internet and with their own restaurants.
In the city Campus, the university has 2 restaurants: Politehnica University Canteen and Fast-Food 1MV. Moreover, there are snack bars in several buildings of the university.
Using modern specific devices, the Central Library of the Politehnica University of Timișoara offers to its users access to the documentary resources and services necessary in the process of education and research, aiming at their professional instruction and fulfilment of human personality. The library was inaugurated in 2014. Among the services offered are the following: e-services, online catalog, self-check, interlibrary loans, bibliographical requests, printing, photocopy, etc.
The Politehnica University of Timișoara has numerous sports facilities, providing probably the best choice in Central and Eastern Europe. It comprises 3 sports units, with 2 indoor halls fully equipped for ball games, 2 competition standard football grounds, one indoor artificial turf football ground, 6 tennis courts with floodlights, 2 handball courts, swimming pools, fitness rooms and provision for many other games. Sports complex 1 includes: fitness hall, football pitch, running track (tartan), covered mini-football fields. Sports complex 2 includes: swimming pools (indoors, with fitness equipment and sauna, and outdoors), sports halls (tennis, basketball, and volleyball), tennis courts (bitumen and tartan), basketball courts, football fields, multipurpose buildings.
Mobility and International Cooperation
Politehnica University of Timișoara has cooperation agreements with several universities from Europe, USA, Asia, Canada, South America and Canada, translated in over 200 partnerships within some EU programs or bilateral partnerships.
Among the international programs in which the university is involved are the following:
- Leonardo da Vinci
Coleta de Sabata, former rector of the university, has rendered homage in one of her books, in this order the following personalities: Traian Lalescu, Victor Vlad, Victor Vâlcovici, Marin Bănărescu, Pompiliu Nicolau, Valeriu Alaci, Ștefan Nădășan, Plautius Andronescu, Corneliu Micloși, Koloman Bakony, Remus Răduleț, Aurel Bărglăzan, Nicolae Maior, Ioan Vlădea, Coriolan Drăgulescu, Alexandru Cișman, Constantin Avram and Ștefan Căproiu. They are all former professors of the university.
Moreover, several teachers of the university are part of the Romanian Academy:
- Professor Emeritus Victor Vâlcovici, Ph.D. (1885-1970): Correspondent Member of the Academy starting from 28 May 1936 and Titular Member of the Academy from 23 March 1965
- Professor Eugen Macovschi, Ph.D. (1906-1985): Correspondent Member of the Academy starting from June 1948 and Titular Member from August 1948
- Professor Emeritus Caius Iacob, Ph.D. (1912-1992): Correspondent Member of the Academy starting from 1948 and Titular Member from 1963
- Professor Emeritus Ilie Murgulescu, Ph.D. (1902-1991): Correspondent Member of the Academy starting from 1948, Titular Member from 1952, President of the Academy (1963-1966)
- Professor Coriolan Drăgulescu, Ph.D. (1907-1977): Correspondent Member starting from 1955 and Titular Member from March 1963.
- Professor Emeritus Constantin Dinculescu, Ph.D. (1898-1990): Correspondent Member starting from 23 March 1952 and Titular Member from 1990
- Professor Corneliu Micloși, (1887-1963): Titular Member starting from July 1955
- Professor Ștefan Nădășan, Ph.D. (1901-1967) Correspondent Member starting from 1955, Titular member from 21 March 1963 and Vice-president of the Academy (1963-1966)
- Professor Remus Răduleț, Ph.D. (1904-1984): Correspondent Member starting from 1955, Titular Member from 21 March 1963 and Vice-president of the Academy (1996-1974)
- Professor Aurel Bărglăzan (1905-1960): Correspondent Member starting from 1955
- Professor Toma Dordea, Ph.D.: Correspondent Member starting from 1991, from 1993 he becomes Academician and President of the Romanian Academy, Timișoara Branch
At present, the members of the Romanian Academy part of Politehnica University of Timișoara are:
- Professor Ion Boldea, Ph.D.: Correspondent Member starting from 2011
- Professor Dan Dubină, Ph.D.: Correspondent Member starting from 2010
- Ilieșiu, Nicolae (2006) . Timișoara: Monografie istorică [Timișoara: Historical Monograph] (in Romanian) (2nd ed.). Timișoara: Planetarium. p. 202. ISBN 978-973-97327-8-9.
- Institutii de invatamant superior clasificate ca universitati de cercetare avansata si educatie (Romanian)
- de Sabata, 1997, pp. 150-151 (cuprins)
- de Sabata, 1997, p. 19
- Scimago Institutions Rankings
- Centrul de cercetare științifică în Automatică și Calculatoare din cadrul Universității Politehnica Timișoara
- Prezentare Facultate de Chimie Industrială și Ingineria Mediului 2013, chim.upt.ro, accesat 2013-10-18
- Facultate de Chimie Industrială și Ingineria Mediului, chim.upt.ro, accesat 2013-10-18>
- Facultatea de Construcții din Timișoara, ct.upt.ro accesat 2013-10-18>
- Facultatea de-Științe ale Comunicării, sc.upt.ro, accesat 2013-10-18>
- Admitere Arhitectură
- Admitere Automatică și Calculatoare
- Admitere Licenta Electronică și Telecomunicații
- Admitere Master Electronică și Telecomunicații
- Coleta de Sabata, Ioan Munteanu - Remember: Profesori ai Școlii Politehnice Timișorene, Timișoara: Editura Helicon, 1993, ISBN 973-9133-44-4, p. 4
- de Sabata, 1993, p. 325 (cuprins)
- Membrii Academiei Române, „V”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „M”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „I”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Președinți ai Academiei Române, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „D”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „N”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „R”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- Membrii Academiei Române, „B”, acad.ro, accesat 2014-04-25
- de Sabata, 1997, p. 241
- Prof.dr.ing. membru al Academiei Romane Dordea Toma, astr.ro, accesat 2015-04-14