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Invincible (Michael Jackson album)

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Studio album by
ReleasedOctober 30, 2001 (2001-10-30)
RecordedOctober 1997 – September 2001
Michael Jackson chronology
20th Century Masters – The Millennium Collection: The Best of Michael Jackson
Love Songs
Michael Jackson studio album chronology
HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I
Singles from Invincible
  1. "You Rock My World"
    Released: August 22, 2001 (2001-08-22)
  2. "Cry"
    Released: December 3, 2001 (2001-12-03)
  3. "Butterflies"
    Released: February 8, 2002 (2002-02-08)

Invincible is the final studio album by American singer Michael Jackson released October 30, 2001, on Epic Records. It was Jackson's sixth studio album released through Epic, and his last released before his death in 2009. Invincible incorporates R&B, pop and soul.[1][2][3] Similarly to Jackson's previous material, Invincible explores themes such as love, romance, isolation, media criticism, and social issues.

An extensive and laborious album to make, Jackson started the multi genre production in 1997, and did not finish until eight weeks before the album's October 2001 release. Invincible peaked at number one in eleven countries worldwide, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France and Switzerland.[4][5] The album spawned three singles: "You Rock My World", which peaked at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100, "Cry" and "Butterflies". Invincible received mixed reviews; critics praised the production, but were divided in their responses towards Jackson's lyrics and performance. However, it was the 9th best-selling album worldwide making it one of the best-selling albums of 2001.[6]

Invincible received one Grammy Award nomination, with "You Rock My World" being nominated for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance. Having sold approximately 6 million copies worldwide, and receiving double-platinum certification in the US, sales for Invincible were notably low compared to Jackson's previous releases, due in part to a diminishing pop music industry, the lack of promotion, no supporting world tour and the label dispute.[7][8][9] In December 2009, Invincible was voted by readers of Billboard as the best album of the decade.[10]


Jackson had been recording solo studio albums since Got to Be There for Motown in 1971. During his time as a member of the Jacksons, he frequently wrote material for the group after they left Motown in 1975 and began working on more projects as a solo artist, which eventually led to recording his own solo albums for Epic Records, notably Off the Wall (1979), Thriller (1982), Bad (1987), and Dangerous (1991). The success of Thriller, which, as of 2018, still holds its place as the best selling album of all time with a reported 66 million units sold, often over-shadowed Jackson's other projects. Prior to the release of Invincible, Jackson had not released any new material since Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix in 1997, or a studio album since HIStory in 1995. Invincible was thus looked at as Jackson's 'career come back'.[2]

Invincible is dedicated to the fifteen-year-old Afro-Norwegian boy Benjamin "Benny" Hermansen who was stabbed to death by a group of neo-Nazis in Oslo, Norway, in January 2001.[11] The reason for this tribute was partly due to the fact that another Oslo youth, Omer Bhatti, Jackson's friend, was also a good friend of Hermansen.[11] The dedication in the album reads, "Michael Jackson gives 'special thanks': This album is dedicated to Benjamin 'Benny' Hermansen. May we continue to remember not to judge man by the color of his skin, but the content of his Character. Benjamin ... we love you ... may you rest in peace."[11] The album is also dedicated to Nicholette Sottile and his parents Joseph and Katherine Jackson.[11]


Jackson began recording new material for the album in October 1997, and finished with "You Are My Life" being recorded only eight weeks before the album's release in October 2001 – the most extensive recording of Jackson's career.[12] The tracks with Rodney Jerkins were recorded at the Hit Factory in Miami, Florida.[13] Jackson had shown interest in including a rapper on at least one song, and had noted that he did not want a 'known rapper'.[12] Jackson's spokesperson suggested New Jersey rapper named Fats; after Jackson heard the finished product of the song, the two agreed to record another song together for the album.[12] Rodney Jerkins stated that Jackson was looking to record material in a different musical direction than his previous work, describing the new direction as "edgier".[12] Jackson received credit for both writing and producing a majority of the songs on Invincible. Aside from Jackson, the album features productions by Jerkins, Teddy Riley, Andre Harris, Andraeo "Fanatic" Heard, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, R. Kelly and Dr. Freeze Bill Gray and writing credits from Kelly, Fred Jerkins III, LaShawn Daniels, Nora Payne and Robert Smith.[14] The album is the third collaboration between Jackson and Riley, the other two being Dangerous and Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix. Invincible is Jackson's tenth and final studio album to have been recorded and released during his lifetime.[15] It was reported that it cost thirty million dollars to make the album,[16] making it the most expensive album ever made.[17]

Music and lyrics[edit]

Invincible is an R&B[1], pop[2] and soul[3] record. The album's full length is seventy-seven minutes eight seconds, and it contains 16 songs – fifteen of which were written (or co-written) by Jackson. It was noted that the album shifts between aggressive songs and ballads.[18] Invincible opens with "Unbreakable"; the last line in the first verse recites the lyrics, "With all that I've been through/I'm still around".[19] In a 2002 interview with the magazine Vibe, Jackson commented on his inspiration for writing "Speechless", saying

You'll be surprised. I was with these kids in Germany, and we had a big water-balloon fight - I'm serious - and I was so happy after the fight that I ran upstairs in their house and wrote "Speechless". Fun inspires me. I hate to say that, because it's such a romantic song. But it was the fight that did it. I was happy, and I wrote it in it's [sic] entirety right there. I felt it would be good enough for the album. Out of the bliss comes magic, wonderment, and creativity.[20]

"Privacy", a reflection on Jackson's own personal experiences, is about media invasions and tabloid inaccuracies.[19] "The Lost Children" is about imperiled children.[19] Jackson sings in a third person in "Whatever Happens". The song's lyrics, described by Rolling Stone magazine as having a "jagged intensity", narrate the story of two people involved in an unnamed threatening situation.[19] Invincible features four ballads: "You Are My Life", "Butterflies", "Don't Walk Away" and "Cry".[19] "Cry", similar to Jackson's "Man in the Mirror", is about healing the world together.[2] The lyrics to "Butterflies" and "Break of Dawn" were viewed as "glaringly banal" and it was implied that they could have been written by anyone.[18] "Threatened" was viewed as being a story teller.[19] The song was viewed as a "Thriller redux".[18] The song "You Are My Life" is about Jackson's two children at the time, Prince and Paris.[21] The song features Jackson singing, "You are the sun, you make me shine, more like the stars."[18]

Promotion and singles[edit]

It was reported that the album had a budget of twenty five million dollars set aside for promotion.[16][22] Despite this, however, due to the conflicts between Jackson and his record label, little was done to promote the album.[23] The album spawned three singles, although all were given limited releases. "You Rock My World" was only released to radio airplay in the United States, consequently only peaking at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100. Internationally, where it was released as a commercial single, it was more successful, peaking at number one in France, number two in Norway, Finland, Denmark, Belgium and the United Kingdom, number three in Italy, number four in Australia, and five in Sweden and Switzerland.[24] The second single, "Cry", was not released in the United States. It was only moderately successful, with the song's most successful territories being Spain, Denmark, France and Belgium, charting at number six, sixteen, thirty and thirty one.[25]

The album's third single, "Butterflies", was only released in the United States to radio airplay, consequently only peaking at number fourteen on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number two for five weeks on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles Chart.[26] "Heaven Can Wait" also charted at the bottom of the R&B/Hip-Hop Charts, at number seventy two due to radio airplay without an official release; the song did not chart internationally.[26] "Unbreakable" was originally supposed to be released as a single, but it was ultimately cancelled.[27] Despite that, the song managed to chart inside the Romanian Top 100 chart, peaking at number sixty two.[28] It was later included on The Ultimate Collection box set in 2004.

Unlike with Jackson's post-Thriller adult studio albums, there was no world tour to promote the album; a tour was planned, but cancelled due to conflicts between Jackson and Sony, and the September 11th attacks (the latter of which had also motivated many other artists to cancel their then-upcoming concerts in late 2001 and early 2002). There was, however, a special 30th Anniversary celebration at Madison Square Garden in early September 2001 to mark Jackson's 30th year as a solo artist. The singer performed one song from Invincible ("You Rock My World") and marked his first appearance onstage alongside his brothers since the Jacksons' Victory Tour in 1984.[29] The show also featured performances by Britney Spears, Mýa, Usher, Whitney Houston, Tamia, Backstreet Boys, 'N Sync, 98 Degrees, and Slash, among other artists.[30] The show aired on CBS in November 2001 as a two-hour television special and garnered 29.8 million viewers.[31]

The album's promotion was met with trouble due to internal conflicts going on between Sony Music Entertainment and Jackson due to issues with his ownership with the company and the contract to this deal with Sony that was originally signed back in 1991. The issue stemmed back during production of Invincible when Jackson learned that the rights to the masters of his past releases, which were to revert to him in the early 2000s, wouldn't actually revert to him until much later in the decade. When Jackson went to the lawyer who worked with him in making the deal back in 1991, he learned that the same lawyer was also working for Sony, revealing a conflict of interest he was never aware of. Not wanting to sign away his ownership in Sony Music Entertainment, Jackson elected to leave the company shortly after the album's release.[32] After the announcement, Sony halted promotion on the album, cancelling single releases, including a 9/11 charity single that was intended to be released before Invincible.

Following Sony's decision to abruptly end all promotion for the album, Jackson made allegations in July 2002 that Mottola was a "devil" and a "racist" who did not support his African-American artists, but merely used them for his own personal gain.[16][33] The singer accused Sony and the record industry of racism, deliberately not promoting or actively working against promotion of his album.[34] Sony disputed claims that they had failed to promote Invincible with sufficient energy, maintaining that Jackson refused to tour in the United States.[35]

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic3/5 stars[2]
Blender2/5 stars[3]
Entertainment WeeklyC-[18]
The Guardian2/5 stars[36]
Q3/5 stars[38]
Rolling Stone3/5 stars[19]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide1/5 stars[39]
Slant Magazine2.5/5 stars[40]
The Village VoiceA–[41]

Invincible received mixed reviews from professional critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received a mixed score of 51 based on 19 reviews.[42] AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented that it has a "spark" and "sound better than anything Jackson has done since Dangerous."[2] Erlewine noted that while the album had good material it was "not enough to make Invincible the comeback Jackson needed - he really would have had to have an album that sounded free instead of constrained for that to work - but it does offer a reminder that he can really craft good pop."[2] David Browne of Entertainment Weekly, felt that Invincible is Jackson's "first album since Off the Wall that offers virtually no new twists" but remarked that the album "feels like an anthology of his less-than-greatest hits".[18] James Hunter of Rolling Stone critiqued that the album's later ballads made the record too long.[19] Hunter also commented that Jackson and Riley made "Whatever Happens" "something really handsome and smart", allowing listeners "to concentrate on the track's momentous rhythms" such as "Santana's passionate interjections and Lubbock's wonderfully arranged symphonic sweeps".[19] Mark Beaumont of NME called it "a relevant and rejuvenated comeback album made overlong",[37] while Blender also found it "long-winded".[43]

Reviewing for The Village Voice, Robert Christgau said that Jackson's skills as a musician are often forgotten, but noted that the album seemed too long compared to other Jackson albums. While Christgau felt some material was "offensive", he described the album's first three tracks as being the "Rodney Jerkins of the year" adding that he did not "believe the [album's] hype matters".[41] Nikki Tranter of PopMatters said that it is both innovative and meaningful because exceptional songs such as "The Lost Children" and "Whatever Happens" more than make up for overly sentimental songs like "Heaven Can Wait" and "You Are My Life".[44] Q magazine said that it is an aurally interesting, albeit inconsistent, album.[38] In a negative review for The New York Times, Jon Pareles suggested that the album is somewhat impersonal and humorless, as Jackson rehashes ideas from his past songs and is "so busy trying to dazzle listeners that he forgets to have any fun."[45] In a retrospective review for The Rolling Stone Album Guide, Pareles said that Invincible showed Jackson had lost his suave quality to "grim calculation".[39]

Invincible received one Grammy Award nomination at the 2002 ceremony. The album's song "You Rock My World" was nominated for Best Pop Vocal Performance - Male, but lost to James Taylor's "Don't Let Me Be Lonely Tonight".[46] Due to the album's release in October 2001, it was not eligible for any other nomination from the 2002 Grammy Awards.[47]

Commercial performance[edit]

Invincible was Jackson's first studio album since HIStory six years earlier.[48] It debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, with first-week sales of 363,000 units.[48][49] It was Jackson's fifth Billboard 200 number-one,[48] and his fourth solo album to chart at number one in its first week; however, it sold less than HIStory in its opening week, which sold 391,000 units.[48] Invincible also charted at number one on the Billboard R&B/Hip Hop Albums Chart for four weeks.[50] After eight weeks of release, in December 2001, Invincible was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for the sales of five hundred thousand units.[51] In the same month, the album was certified platinum for the sale of one million units.[51] On January 25, 2002, it was certified two times platinum for the sales of two million units.[51]

Invincible peaked at number one in twelve countries worldwide,[48] including the United Kingdom, Australia, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.[48][52] It also charted within the top ten in several countries, including Austria, Canada, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, and Norway.[52] The album has sold around 6 million copies units worldwide.[7] Invincible was the 11th-bestselling album of 2001, shipping 5.4 million copies worldwide in that year.[53]

In December 2004, Invincible re-entered the Billboard charts, placing at 154.[54] It reached at number forty eight on Billboards R&B/Hip Hop Albums Chart that same week.[54]

Shortly after the release of the album, in a poll conducted by Billboard magazine, "an overwhelming majority" of people—79% of 5,195 voters—were not surprised by Invincible entering the Billboard 200 at number one.[55] Billboard also reported that 44% agreed with the statement, proclaiming that Jackson was "still the King of Pop". Another 35% said they were not surprised by the album's ranking, but doubted Invincible would hold on for a second week at the top of the chart.[55] Only 12% of people who responded to the poll said they were surprised by the album's charting debut because of Jackson's career over past six years and another 9% were taken aback by the album's success, in light of the negativity that preceded the album's release.[55]

Following Jackson's death in June 2009, his music experienced a surge in popularity.[56] Invincible charted at number twelve on the Billboard Digital Albums Chart on July 11, 2009.[57] Having not charted on the chart prior to its peak position, the album was listed as the ninth biggest jump on that chart that week.[57] It also charted within the top ten, peaking at number nine, on Billboard's Catalog Albums Chart on the issue date of July 18.[54] On the week of July 19, 2009, Invincible charted at number eighteen in Italy.[58] Invincible peaked at number sixty four on the European Albums Chart on the charts issue date of July 25.[59] The album also charted at number twenty nine in Mexico in July,[60] and eighty four on the Swiss Albums Chart on July 19, 2009.[61] In December 2009 readers of Billboard voted Invincible the best album of the decade.[62]

Invincible was certified platinum by the British Phonographic Industry, for the sales of over 300,000 units in the United Kingdom.[63] The album was certified platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) for the sales of 40,000 units in Switzerland. The IFPI also certified the album gold in Austria for the sales of 15,000 units. Australian Recording Industry Association certified Invincible two times platinum for the sales of 140,000 units in Australia. Other certifications include, a gold certification from Argentine Chamber of Phonograms and Videograms Producers for the sales of 20,000 units in Argentina.

Track listing[edit]

1."Unbreakable" (featuring The Notorious B.I.G.)
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
2."Heartbreaker" (featuring Fats)
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
  • Jerkins III
  • Daniels
  • Mischke
  • Norman Gregg
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
3."Invincible" (featuring Fats)
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
  • Jerkins III
  • Daniels
  • Gregg
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
4."Break of Dawn"
  • Jackson
  • Straite
5."Heaven Can Wait"
  • Jackson
  • Riley
  • Heard (co)
  • N. Smith (co)
6."You Rock My World"
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
  • Jerkins III
  • Daniels
  • Payne
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
  • Jackson
  • Harris
9."2000 Watts"
  • Jackson
  • Riley
10."You Are My Life"
  • Jackson
  • Babyface
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
12."Don't Walk Away"
  • Jackson
  • Riley
  • Richard Carlton Stites
  • Reed Vertelney
  • Jackson
  • Riley
  • Stites (co)
13."Cry"Robert Kelly
  • Jackson
  • Kelly
14."The Lost Children"JacksonJackson4:00
15."Whatever Happens" (featuring Carlos Santana)
  • Jackson
  • Riley
  • Jackson
  • Riley
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
  • Jerkins III
  • Daniels
  • Jackson
  • Jerkins
Total length:77:01



Credits adapted from Invincible album liner notes.[14]

  • Michael Jackson – lead vocals (all tracks), background vocals (1-7, 9-12, 15, 16), arranger (8, 14), multiple instruments (1, 4, 6, 16), programming (2, 3), drum programming (4, 13), orchestral arrangements (8), conductor (8), keyboard programming (9, 13, 14), mixing (13)
  • Marsha Ambrosius – background vocals (track 7)
  • Maxi Anderson – vocals (track 8)
  • Gloria Augustus – vocals (track 8)
  • Babyface – acoustic guitar, bass guitar, background vocals, drum programming, and keyboards (track 10)
  • Tom Bahler – youth choir conductor (track 14)
  • Emanuel “Bucket” Baker – drums (track 11)
  • Rose Beatty – youth choir (track 14)
  • Edie Lehmann Boddicker – youth choir (track 14)
  • Robert Bolyard – youth choir (track 14)
  • Norman Jeff Bradshaw - horns (track 7)
  • Brandy – additional background vocals (track 1)
  • Stuart Brawley – whistle solo (track 15)
  • Mary Brown – additional background vocals (track 15)
  • Tim Brown – vocals (track 8)
  • Brad Buxer – drum programming (tracks 4, 13), keyboards (8), keyboard programming (9, 12, 14)
  • David Campbell – string arrangement (track 11)
  • Matt Cappy – horns (track 7)
  • Martha Cowan – youth choir (track 14)
  • Andraé Crouch – vocals (track 8)
  • Sandra Crouch – vocals (track 8)
  • Paulinho da Costa – percussion (track 13)
  • LaShawn Daniels – background vocals (tracks 2, 11)
  • Valerie Doby – vocals (track 8)
  • Dr. Freeze – background vocals (tracks 4, 5), multiple instruments (4)
  • Monique Donally – youth choir (track 14)
  • Kevin Dorsey – vocals (track 8)
  • Marja Dozier – vocals (track 8)
  • Alfie Silas Durio – vocals (track 8)
  • Nathan East – bass guitar (track 11)
  • Jason Edmonds – choir (track 10)
  • Geary Lanier Faggett – vocals (track 8)
  • Vonciele Faggett – vocals (track 8)
  • Fats - rap (tracks 2, 3)
  • Lynn Fiddmont-Lindsey – choir (track 10)
  • Kirstin Fife – violin (track 8)
  • Judy Gossett – vocals (track 8)
  • Harold Green – vocals (track 8)
  • Jonathon Hall – youth choir (track 14)
  • Justine Hall – youth choir (track 14)
  • Andre Harris – multiple instruments (track 7)
  • Scottie Haskell – youth choir (track 14)
  • Micha Haupman – youth choir (track 14)
  • Gerald Heyward – drums (track 11)
  • Tabia Ivery – choir (track 10)
  • Luana Jackman – youth choir (track 14)
  • Prince Jackson – narrative (track 14)
  • Rodney Jerkins – multiple instruments (1, 4, 6, 16), programming (2, 3)
  • Tenika Johns – vocals (track 8)
  • Angela Johnson – vocals (track 8)
  • Daniel Johnson – vocals (track 8)
  • Zaneta M. Johnson – vocals (track 8)
  • Laquentan Jordan – vocals (track 8)
  • R. Kelly – choir arrangement (track 13)
  • Peter Kent – violin (track 8)
  • Gina Kronstadt – violin (track 8)
  • Michael Landau – guitar (track 13)
  • James Lively – youth choir (track 14)
  • Robin Lorentz – violin (track 8)
  • Jeremy Lubbock – orchestral arrangements and conductor (tracks 5, 8, 15)
  • Brandon Lucas – youth choir (track 14)
  • Jonathon Lucas – youth choir (track 14)
  • Ricky Lucchse – youth choir (track 14)
  • Melissa MacKay – youth choir (track 14)
  • Alex Martinez – youth choir (track 14)
  • Howard McCrary – vocals (track 8)
  • Linda McCrary – vocals (track 8)
  • Sam McCrary – vocals (track 8)
  • Alice Jean McRath – vocals (track 8)
  • Sue Merriett – vocals (track 8)
  • Bill Meyers – string arrangements (track 10)
  • Mischke – background vocals (track 2)
  • Patrice Morris – vocals (track 8)
  • Kristle Murden – vocals (track 8)
  • The Notorious B.I.G. – rap (track 1)
  • Novi Novog – viola and contractor (track 8)
  • Nora Payne – background vocals (track 2)
  • Que - background vocals (track 5)
  • Teddy Riley – multiple instruments (4) additional background vocals (9)
  • John "J.R." Robinson – drums (track 13)
  • Baby Rubba - narrative (track 14)
  • Carlos Santana – guitar and whistle solo (track 15)
  • Deborah Sharp-Taylor – vocals (track 8)
  • F. Sheridan – youth choir (track 14)
  • Slash - guitar solo (track 11)
  • Andrew Snyder – youth choir (track 14)
  • Sally Stevens – youth choir (track 14)
  • Richard Stites – additional background vocals (track 12)
  • Thomas Tally – viola (track 8)
  • Brett Tattersol – youth choir (track 14)
  • Ron Taylor – vocals (track 8)
  • Michael Thompson – guitar (track 11)
  • Chris Tucker – introduction (track 6)
  • Mario Vasquez – additional background vocals (track 15)
  • Johnnie Walker – vocals (track 8)
  • Nathan “N8” Walton – choir (track 10)
  • Rick Williams – guitar (track 15)
  • Yvonne Williams – vocals (track 8)
  • Zandra Williams – vocals (track 8)
  • John Wittenberg – violin (track 8)


  • Executive Producer: Michael Jackson
  • Produced by Michael Jackson (all tracks), Rodney Jerkins (1-3, 6, 11, 16), Dr. Freeze (4), Teddy Riley (tracks 5, 9, 12, 15), Andre Harris (7), Babyface (10), R. Kelly (13)
  • Recorded by Bruce Swedien (tracks 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 14, 15), Teddy Riley (5, 9, 12, 15), Rodney Jerkins (6, 11), Stuart Brawley (1-3, 6, 8, 14, 16), Brad Gilderman (4, 6, 11, 13), Dexter Simmons (4, 6), George Mayers (4, 5, 9, 12, 15), Jean-Marie Horvat (6, 11), Brad Buxer (8, 14), Mike Ging (4, 13), Paul Boutin (10), Andre Harris (7), Humberto Gatica (4, 13)
    • Assistant Engineers: Rob Herrera, Craig Durrance, Kevin Scott, Steve Robillard, Franny Graham, Chris Carroll, Dave Ashton, Christine Tramontano, Vidal Davis (track 7)
  • Rap Recorded by Bob Brown (tracks 2, 3)
  • Strings Recorded by Tommy Vicari (track 10)
    • Assisted by Steve Genewick
    • Production Coordinator: Ivy Skoff
  • Mixed by Bruce Swedien (tracks 1-3, 5-9, 12, 14-16), Teddy Riley (4, 5, 9, 12, 15), Rodney Jerkins (1-3, 6, 11, 16), Mick Guzauski (13), Stuart Brawley (1-3, 16), George Mayers (4, 5, 9, 12, 15), Jean-Marie Horvat (11), Jon Gass (10), Humberto Gatica (4)
    • Assisted by Kb and EQ (track 10)
  • Mastered by Bernie Grundman
  • Digital Editing by Stuart Brawley (tracks 1-4, 6, 8, 14, 16), Brad Buxer (8, 14), Rob Herrera, Harvey Mason, Jr. (4, 6, 11), Alex Greggs (2), Fabian Marasciullo (2), Paul Cruz (11), Paul Foley (1), George Mayers (5, 9, 12, 15)
    • Additional Digital Editing and Engineering by Michael Prince
  • Art Direction: Nancy Donald, David Coleman, Adam Owett
  • Cover Design: Steven Hankinson
  • Photography: Albert Watson
  • Illustration: Uri Geller
  • Make-Up and Hair: Karen Faye
  • Vocal Consultant: Seth Riggs
  • Archivist: Craig Johnson


Weekly charts[edit]

Chart (2001–02) Peak
Australian Albums (ARIA)[52] 1
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria)[66] 2
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders)[67] 2
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia)[68] 1
Canadian Album (Billboard)[69] 3
Danish Albums (Hitlisten)[70] 1
Finnish Albums (Suomen virallinen lista)[71] 7
French Albums (SNEP)[72] 1
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)[73] 1
Italian Albums (FIMI)[74] 2
Japan Albums (Oricon)[75] 5
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ)[76] 4
Norwegian Albums (VG-lista)[77] 1
Portuguese Albums (AFP)[78] 8
Spanish Albums (AFYVE)[79] 2
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)[80] 1
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade)[81] 1
UK Albums (OCC)[63] 1
US Billboard 200[69] 1
US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums[69] 1
Chart (2009) Peak
Australian Albums Chart[82] 43
European Albums Chart[59] 64
Italian Albums Chart[58] 18
Mexican Albums Chart[60] 29
Swiss Albums Chart[61] 84
US Catalogue Albums Chart[54] 9
US Digital Albums Chart[57] 12

Year-end charts[edit]

Chart (2002) Position
US Billboard 200[83] 43


Region Certification Certified units/sales
Australia (ARIA)[84] 2× Platinum 140,000^
Austria (IFPI Austria)[85] Gold 20,000*
Belgium (BEA)[86] Platinum 50,000*
Finland (Musiikkituottajat)[87] Gold 10,000[87]
France (SNEP)[89] Platinum 683,000[88]*
Germany (BVMI)[90] Platinum 300,000^
Italy (FIMI)[91] Gold 50,000*
Macao (IFPI Macao)[92] 2× Platinum 60,000[92]
Netherlands (NVPI)[93] Platinum 80,000^
New Zealand (RMNZ)[94] Gold 7,500^
Norway (IFPI Norway)[95] Platinum 50,000*
Poland (ZPAV)[96] Gold 50,000*
South Africa (RISA)[97] 2× Platinum 100,000
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[98] Platinum 100,000^
Sweden (GLF)[99] Gold 40,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[100] Platinum 40,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[101] Platinum 300,000^
United States (RIAA)[102] 2× Platinum 2,000,000^
Europe (IFPI)[103] 2× Platinum 2,000,000*

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone


  1. ^ a b c "Michael Jackson : 'Invincible'". NME. September 12, 2005. Retrieved September 16, 2018. On first listen, ‘Invincible’ is a good R&B record, but certainly not pioneering
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Invincible at AllMusic. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
  3. ^ a b c d Aizlewood, John (January 2002). "Jacko spends a fortune on an attempt at relevance". Blender. Archived from the original on April 17, 2002. Invincible is a long-winded (77 minutes, 16 tracks), soulless soul album of the kind Levert might have once turned in
  4. ^ Hombach, Jean-Pierre. Michael Jackson: King Of Pop. ISBN 9781471623226.
  5. ^ "Michael Jackson's Album Catalog". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-06-26. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  6. ^ "Top 50 Global Best Selling Albums for 2001" (PDF). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
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