Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)
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Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is defined as removed pavement materials containing asphalt and aggregates. These materials are generated when asphalt pavements are removed for reconstruction, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. When properly crushed and screened, RAP consists of high-quality, well-graded aggregates coated by asphalt cement. Asphalt pavement has been America's most recycled material for a long time. Using RAP material has well-recognized financial and environmental benefits. Although most of the produced RAP is recycled, a large portion of it is wasted or down-graded when used in landfills, embankment or base layers.
- "Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement - Material Description - User Guidelines for Waste and Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction - FHWA-RD-97-148". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-18.
- A Study of the Use of Recycled Paving Material: Report to Congress, June 1993, Federal Highway Administration and United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. FHWA-RD-93-147 and EPA/600/R-93/095.
- Al-Qadi, Imad L., Mostafa Elseifi, and Samuel H. Carpenter. "Reclaimed asphalt pavement—a literature review." FHWA-ICT-07-001 (2007).
- H. Ali and M. Mohammadafzali (2017), "Long-Term Aging of Asphalt Binders used with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement", Florida Department of Transportation