Highways in Greece

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Rest area along Motorway 1 (A1) near Athens, Greece with a restaurant above the road

Highways in Greece are generally organized so that the odd-numbered highways are of north-south alignment and even numbered highways are of east-west alignment. However, there are many exceptions.

The designation of some important roads of Greece as "national" was decided by a 1955 decree, while a minister's decision in 1963 determined the numbering of these roads. In 1998, a survey of the Hellenic Statistical Authority defined some new national roads that were constructed after the 1963 decision. Furthermore, motorway numbers in Greece are different and irrelevant to other highways' numbers. For example, Motorway 6 (A6) refers to the Attiki Odos motorway, while "GR-6" refers to National Road 6.

With a total length of about 2.500 km as of 2017, Greece's motorway network is the biggest one in Southeastern Europe and one of the most advanced in Europe.[1]

Motorways[edit]

Map of Greece's motorway network as of 2017. Black=Completed routes, Blue=Under Construction, Grey=Planned routes
Highway sign in Greece

Greece's motorway network has been extensively modernized throughout the 2000s and part of it is still under construction. Most of it was completed by early 2017. There are a total of 10 main routes throughout the Greek mainland and Crete, from which some feature numerous branches/auxiliary routes, as described in the listing below.

Greek motorways according to ministerial decree of 2015[edit]

Name Connecting cities progress notes
Autokinetodromos A1 number.svg
Athens - Thessaloniki - Evzonoi
Athens, Thebes, Chalkis, Lamia, Volos, Larissa, Katerini, Thessaloniki 550/550 km

342/342 mi

Completed

Section Chalastra - Evzonoi is an expressway

Autokinetodromos A2 number.svg
Egnatia Odos
Igoumenitsa, Ioannina, Grevena, Kozani, Veria, Thessaloniki, Kavala, Xanthi, Komotini, Alexandroupoli 670/670 km.

416/416 mi.

Completed
Autokinetodromos A3 number.svg
Central Greece Motorway
Lamia, Karditsa, Trikala 80/175 km

50/109 mi

Sections Trikala - Autokinetodromos A2 number.svg & Lamia - Xyniada planned.
Autokinetodromos A5 number.svg
Ionia Odos
Patras, Missolonghi, Arta, Ioannina 196/196 km

122/122 mi

Completed

Section Ioannina - Kakavia is under planning.

Autokinetodromos A6 number.svg
Attiki Odos
Attica 48/48 km

30/30 mi

Completed
Autokinetodromos A7 number.svg
Central Peloponnese Motorway
Corinth, Argos, Tripoli, Kalamata 149/149 km

93/93 mi

Completed
Autokinetodromos A8 number.svg
Olympia Odos
Athens, Corinth, Patras 205/279 km

127/173 mi

74-kilometer section Patras - Pyrgos is under construction

Autokinetodromos A11 number.svg
Schimatari - Chalkis
Chalkis 11/26 km

7/16 mi

Chalkis bypass is under planning
Autokinetodromos A12 number.svg
Velestino - Volos
Volos 0/40 km

0/25 mi

Upgrade under planning
Autokinetodromos A13 number.svg
Thebes - Eleusis
Thebes, Eleusis 0/40 km

0/25 mi

Under planning.
Autokinetodromos A24 number.svg
Thessaloniki - Nea Moudania
Thessaloniki, Nea Moudania 72/72 km

45/45 mi

Completed

No emergency lane, green signs

Autokinetodromos A25 number.svg
Thessaloniki - Serres - Promachonas
Thessaloniki, Serres 105/105 km

62/62 mi

Completed

Section Kato Christos - Sidirokastro upgrade under planning

Autokinetodromos A27 number.svg
Kozani - Ptolemaida - Niki
Kozani, Ptolemaida, Florina 40/79 km

25/49 mi

Sections Kozani - Ptolemaida and Florina - Niki completed

Section Ptolemaida - Florina under planning to be upgraded

Autokinetodromos A29 number.svg
Siatista - Krystallopigi
Kastoria, Kozani, Florina 72/72 km

45/45 mi

Completed
Autokinetodromos A62 number.svg
Ymittos - Rafina
Attica 13,5/20 km

8,4/12 mi

Completed

Sections Pikermi - Rafina and southern expansion under planning

Autokinetodromos A64 number.svg
Koropi - Aerodromio
Athens International Airport 6/6 km

4/4 mi

Completed
Autokinetodromos A71 number.svg
Lefktro - Sparti
Tripoli, Sparta 45,5/45,5 km

28/28 mi

Completed
Autokinetodromos A90 number.svg
Northern Cretan Motorway
Chania, Rethymno, Heraklion 41/310 km

25/193 mi

Upgrade under construction/planning
Autokinetodromos A242 number.svg
Raidestos - Thessaloniki International Airport
Thessaloniki 3/3 km

2/2 mi

Completed

Pre-existing section is not a motorway

Autokinetodromos A621 number.svg
Attiki Odos western branch
Attica 2,5/2,5 km

1,6/1,6 mi

Completed

A1 (Athens - Thessaloniki - Evzonoi)[edit]

Motorway A1, Greece
Motorway A1 near Katerini, Greece
Motorway A1 near Agios Konstantinos

Motorway 1 (Autokinetodromos A1 number.svg) is the oldest and most important motorway of Greece, connecting the country's largest cities, Athens and Thessaloniki and passing through many important regions of Greece on a south-north direction. Section Chalastra - Evzonoi was constructed earlier as an expressway, with no upgrade planned.

The full length of this motorway is around 553 km or 346 miles, including 14 km or 8.7 miles of shared route with the A2 (Egnatia Odos). Note that until recently, the "P" in "PAThE" referred to Patras, but the Patra – Athens section has now become part of the A8 (Olympia Odos) motorway, belonging to a different project.[2][3]

A2 (Egnatia Odos)[edit]

A2 Motorway Tunnels between Kozani and Veria.

Motorway 2 (Autokinetodromos A2 number.svg), officially named Egnatia Odos, is a motorway situated in northern Greece, connecting several major cities on the way. It starts at the port of Igoumenitsa and ends at Kipoi border crossing with Turkey.

Specifically, there are auxiliary routes to Albania and Bulgaria, with the main route leading to Turkey. The Republic of Macedonia is accessed through the A1 (PAThE), as described above, or via Motorway A27 (see below). Another auxiliary route runs close to the Evros river in the prefecture of the same name, reaching a point where Greece's, Turkey's and Bulgaria's borders meet. Some of those auxiliary routes are not yet motorways, but typical 2-lane expressways, although they are of considerably higher quality than other similar expressways in the rest of Greece. The project (including most of the auxiliary routes), was completed in 2009, with the length of the main route being 670 kilometers or 416 miles, making it the longest motorway in Greece.

A3[edit]

Motorway 3 (Autokinetodromos A3 number.svg), or the Central Greece Motorway is currently under construction starting from Lamia (at the A1) and ending at the A2 (Egnatia Odos), close to Grevena. It will be part of the E65 and be 175 kilometers or 109 miles long.[2][3] Construction started in June 2007. Work was halted in 2011 due to economic problems of the construction companies but resumed in mid-2013. Construction of the section between Xyniada and Trikala is completed and was inaugurated on December 22, 2017, but construction date of the part from Kalampaka to the Egnatia Odos junction is yet unknown.[4]

A5 (Ionia Odos)[edit]

Motorway 5 (Autokinetodromos A5 number.svg), also referred to as the Ionia Odos, is a fully operational motorway since 3 August 2017 when its last section under construction was delivered to traffic. It starts from Ioannina at the A2 (Egnatia Odos) interchange, and ends at Rio, in Patras, after crossing the Corinthian Gulf through the Rio-Antirrio bridge. There, it connects to the A8 motorway (see below).

The route passes through most of western continental Greece, along the Ionian Sea, hence its name "Ionia Odos". Work on the majority of the highway began in spring 2006 and would span six years, to be completed by 2012. Though, because of economic problems of the constructing companies, all construction works were halted in 2011, but since mid-2013 works on the whole of the 196 km motorway started again. The motorway was completed in August 2017.[5][2]

  • Motorway 52 (A52) is a branch of the A5 (Ionia Odos) connecting it with the island of Lefkada and the undersea-tunnel of Aktio, leading to Preveza. This motorway section is expected to serve the popular tourist region around the Ambracian Gulf. At 48.6 km (30.2 mi) long, the motorway was expected to finish in 2012, having started construction in 2009. Earthworks were largely completed by April 2012 but structures had not commenced as of that time. In mid-2013, works had begun again, but as of December 2016, problems with funding have kept the road largely behind schedule. The road is now expected to be completed by 2020.

A6 (Attiki Odos)[edit]

Interchange at the Attiki Odos Airport entrance

Motorway 6 (Autokinetodromos A6 number.svg), or Attiki Odos forms part of the urban motorway network of Athens's metropolitan area. Its full length is 65 kilometres (40 mi) and it is also planned to be extended to various directions, bringing its total length to 141 km (88 mi). The Attiki Odos has various auxiliary routes, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64), serving parts of western and eastern Athens respectively; while the 6 km (4 mi) section leading from the main route to the Athens International Airport is numbered as the A62.

  • Motorway 62 (A62) is a section of the Attiki Odos which branches off at the end of the main A6 route. It basically serves as a corridor from Attiki Odos and Koropi towards the Athens International Airport.
  • Motorway 64 (A64) is a section of the Attiki Odos which branches off the main A6 route. It is referred to as the Hymettus Beltway (A64) (Greek: Περιφερειακή Υμηττού), serving parts of eastern Athens, while it is also expected to be extended further southwards to Vouliagmeni and further eastwards towards Rafina.
  • Motorway 65 (A65) is a second auxiliary route that branches off the main A6 route. The A64 section of the Attiki Odos is referred to as the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) (Greek: Περιφερειακή Αιγάλεω) and serves parts of western Athens. A small part of the A65 remains still unconstructed, and it is yet unknown when it will be completed.[2][3]
  • Motorway 642 (A642) is a small branch of Attiki Odos which connects Attiki Odos with Hymettus Beltway. It serves as a small detour of the main route and its length is 2 km.

A7 (Moreas)[edit]

Motorway 7 (Autokinetodromos A7 number.svg), known as the Moreas Motorway or Eastern Peloponnese motorway starts from Corinth, at the interchange with the A8 (Olympia Odos) and continues to Kalamata, passing through Tripoli. It replaced the old GR-7 as the main road, with the section between Corinth and Tripoli, constructed between 1984 and 1990 and officially becoming part of the Greek road network in 1992.

The A7 has recently undergone extensive improvement to full motorway standards. As of December 2012, the motorway section between Corinth and Kalamata is fully constructed and operational. Its total length is 205 kilometers or 127 miles.[2][3]

  • Motorway 71 (A71) is a branch of the A7 (Moreas) motorway from Lefktro, connecting it with Sparta. It was opened on 18 April 2016.

A8 (Olympia Odos)[edit]

Motorway 8 (Autokinetodromos A8 number.svg), referred to as the Olympia Odos, is the motorway from Athens to Patras. It begins in Elefsina, at the interchange with A6 (Attiki Odos) and will end in Patras.

The ElefsinaCorinth section has been completed to motorway standards, while the CorinthPatras section begun construction in 2008, and was due to be completed in 2012. After construction works had begun again the whole motorway was completed in 2017. It includes the widening and general reconstruction of the GR-8A along with some new tunnels and bridges.[2][3]

A90[edit]

Motorway 90 (Autokinetodromos A90 number.svg) is a temporary name for a motorway under construction in Crete. It is more widely known as North Road Axis of Crete (Greek: Βόρειος Οδικός Άξονας Κρήτης, BOAK) and is Greece's only motorway that is not on its mainland, but on an island. Certain parts have already been completed, as of summer 2007, at Heraklion and Chania. In late 2014, the Agios Nikolaos - Kalo Chorio part (which also serves as a bypass of Agios Nikolaos) was opened to traffic. Its full length will be 310 kilometres or 193 miles. Other sources claim it to be 250 km or 156 mi.[2][3]

National Roads[edit]

A typical National Road (expressway) in Greece
National Road (expressway) sign in Greece
Expressway interchange sign in Greece

The National Roads in Greece (Greek: Εθνικές Οδοί) are single carriageway or limited-access roads with one or two traffic lanes for each direction, usually with an emergency lane on each side as well.


GR-EO-1.svg Greek National Road 1: AthensLamiaLarissaThessalonikiEvzonoi - Republic of Macedonia, replaced by Motorway 1
GR-EO-2.svg Greek National Road 2: Albania - KrystallopigiFlorinaEdessaThessalonikiKavalaXanthiKomotiniAlexandroupoliFeres - Turkey (runs parallel to Egnatia Odos from Thessaloniki to Alexandoupoli)
GR-EO-3.svg Greek National Road 3: ElefsinaThivaLivadeia - LamiaFarsalaLarissaElassonaKozaniFlorinaNiki - Republic of Macedonia
GR-EO-4.svg Greek National Road 4: KozaniVeriaChalkidona
GR-EO-5.svg Greek National Road 5: AntirrioAgrinio - AmfilochiaArtaIoannina
GR-EO-6.svg Greek National Road 6: IgoumenitsaIoanninaMetsovo - TrikalaLarissaVolos (runs parallel to Egnatia Odos from Igoumenitsa to Metsovo)
GR-EO-7.svg Greek National Road 7: CorinthArgosTripoliMegalopoliKalamata
GR-EO-8.svg Greek National Road 8: AthensCorinthAigio - Patras old road
GR-EO-9.svg Greek National Road 9: PatrasPyrgosMethoni
GR-EO-12.svg Greek National Road 12: ThessalonikiSerresDramaKavala
GR-EO-13.svg Greek National Road 13: ElassonaKaterini
GR-EO-14.svg Greek National Road 14: DramaXanthi
GR-EO-15.svg Greek National Road 15: KalambakaGrevenaNeapoliKastoria – junction with GR-2
GR-EO-16.svg Greek National Road 16: ThessalonikiArnaia - Ierissos
GR-EO-17.svg Greek National Road 17: Ioannina - Dodoni
GR-EO-18.svg Greek National Road 18: PrevezaFiliates
GR-EO-20.svg Greek National Road 20: IoanninaKonitsaNeapoliKozani
GR-EO-21.svg Greek National Road 21: PrevezaFilippiada
GR-EO-22.svg Greek National Road 22: Kakavia (Albanian border) – Kalpaki (junction with GR-20)
GR-EO-24.svg Greek National Road 24: Corfu (city) - Palaiokastritsa
GR-EO-25.svg Greek National Road 25: Corfu (city) - Lefkimmi
GR-EO-26.svg Greek National Road 26: ElassonaDeskati - Karpero (junction with GR-15)
GR-EO-27.svg Greek National Road 27: AmfissaLamia
GR-EO-29.svg Greek National Road 29: Itea - Desfina - Steiri
GR-EO-30.svg Greek National Road 30: ArtaTrikalaKarditsaFarsalaVolos
GR-EO-31.svg Greek National Road 31: AigioKalavryta
GR-EO-33.svg Greek National Road 33: PatrasPanopouloPsofida - Vlacherna
GR-EO-34.svg Greek National Road 34: Volos - Argalasti - Platania
GR-EO-35.svg Greek National Road 35: Zakynthos - Keri
GR-EO-36.svg Greek National Road 36: MytileneKalloni - Mithymna
GR-EO-38.svg Greek National Road 38: Thermo - AgrinioKarpenisiLamia
GR-EO-39.svg Greek National Road 39: TripoliSpartaGytheio
GR-EO-42.svg Greek National Road 42: Vasiliki - LefkadaVonitsaAmfilochia
GR-EO-44.svg Greek National Road 44: ThivaChalcisKarystos
GR-EO-48.svg Greek National Road 48: AntirioNafpaktosGalaxidiLivadeia
GR-EO-50.svg Greek National Road 50: ArgostoliSámi
GR-EO-51.svg Greek National Road 51: FeresDidymoteicho - OrestiadaOrmenio - Bulgaria
GR-EO-53.svg Greek National Road 53: Alexandroupoli - Aisymi - MetaxadesOrmenio
GR-EO-55.svg Greek National Road 55: Xanthi - Kotyli - Bulgaria
GR-EO-56.svg Greek National Road 56: Athens - Piraeus
GR-EO-57.svg Greek National Road 57: DramaExochi - Bulgaria
GR-EO-59.svg Greek National Road 59: Nea ZichniAmfipoli
GR-EO-62.svg Greek National Road 62: KarlovasiSamos
GR-EO-63.svg Greek National Road 63: SerresSidirokastro - Promachonas - Bulgaria
GR-EO-65.svg Greek National Road 65: Thessaloniki - Kilkis
GR-EO-66.svg Greek National Road 66: NemeaLevidi
GR-EO-69.svg Greek National Road 69: Thasos ring road
GR-EO-70.svg Greek National Road 70: CorinthEpidavrosNafplioArgos
GR-EO-73.svg Greek National Road 73: Kratygos (Lesbos)MytileneThermi (Lesbos)
GR-EO-74.svg Greek National Road 74: PyrgosOlympiaTripoli
GR-EO-75.svg Greek National Road 75: KardamylaVrontadosKallimasia
GR-EO-76.svg Greek National Road 76: KrestenaAndritsainaMegalopoli
GR-EO-77.svg Greek National Road 77: ChalcisMantoudi - Istiaia - Aidipsos
GR-EO-79.svg Greek National Road 79: MalakasaSkala Oropou
GR-EO-81.svg Greek National Road 81: AfidnesKalamos
GR-EO-82.svg Greek National Road 82: PylosKalamataSparti
GR-EO-83.svg Greek National Road 83: AnoixiMarathonRafina
GR-EO-85.svg Greek National Road 85: RafinaLavrio
GR-EO-86.svg Greek National Road 86: KrokeesMonemvasia
GR-EO-87.svg Greek National Road 87: PalliniSpata
GR-EO-89.svg Greek National Road 89: Markopoulo MesogaiasLavrio
GR-EO-90.svg Greek National Road 90: KissamosChaniaRethymnoHeraklionAgios NikolaosSitia
GR-EO-91.svg Greek National Road 91: VouliagmeniSounio
GR-EO-95.svg Greek National Road 95: Rhodes (city)Lindos
GR-EO-97.svg Greek National Road 97: HeraklionTympaki
GR-EO-99.svg Greek National Road 99: HeraklionArkalochori
  • Additional National Roads according to the register of the National Roads 1998
GR-EO-8a.svg Greek National Road 8A: AthensCorinthPatras new road (partly motorway)
GR-EO-16a.svg Greek National Road 16A: Greek National Road 16Polygyros
GR-EO-empty.svg Greek National Road 34A: VolosPortaria - Horefto
GR-EO-111.svg Greek National Road 111: Agia TriadaLambia - Lalas - Ancient Olympia

Current construction projects in Greece[edit]

As of autumn 2017, most motorway construction projects all over Greece are completed.

  • Part of the Central Greece Motorway was completed in late 2017 at a cost of 1,4 bn euros.
  • Olympia Odos and Ionia Odos were both finished and opened to traffic in mid-2017 at a cost of 2,2 bn euros and 1,118 bn euros respectively.
  • Moreas Motorway was completed in November 2016, costing a total of 1 bn euros.
  • The final construction point of Motorway 1 at the Tempe Valley opened to traffic in April 2017, costing 1,3 bn euros.

Correlation with European routes[edit]

This is a list of European routes that shows which parts of them run through Greece.

Major routes:

European Road 55 number DE.svg GR-EO-18.svg Autokinetodromos A5 number.svg PrevezaRio - Autokinetodromos A8 number.svgPatras - GR-EO-9.svg - Pyrgos - GR-EO-7.svgKalamata
European Road 65 number DE.svg GR-EO-3.svg Medžitlija-Níki (border with the Republic of North Macedonia) – FlorinaAutokinetodromos A27 number.svg FlorinaKozani - GR-EO-3.svg KozaniElassonaLarissaLamia - GR-EO-27.svg AmfissaGalaxidi - GR-EO-48.svg GalaxidiAntirio - Autokinetodromos A8 number.svg RioCorinth - Autokinetodromos A7 number.svg CorinthKalamata - GR-EO-90.svg KissamosChania
European Road 75 number DE.svg Autokinetodromos A1 number.svg border with the Republic of MacedoniaThessalonikiAthens - GR-EO-90.svg ChaniaAghios Nikolaos (will be replaced by Autokinetodromos A90 number.svg)
European Road 79 number DE.svg Autokinetodromos A25 number.svg Bulgarian border – Serres through GR-57, SerresThessaloniki
European Road 85 number DE.svg GR-EO-51.svg Greek National Road 51
European Road 86 number DE.svg GR-EO-2.svg Albanian border at KrystallopigiFlorinaEdessaGiannitsaGefyra (west of Thessaloniki)
European Road 90 number DE.svg Autokinetodromos A2 number.svg Egnatia Odos or Via Egnatia, Igoumenitsa - Thessaloniki - border with Turkey
European Road 92 number DE.svg GR-EO-6.svg Greek National Road 6 (will be replaced by Autokinetodromos A4 number.svg)
European Road 94 number DE.svg Autokinetodromos A6 number.svg Attiki Odos - Autokinetodromos A8 number.svg AthensCorinth

Other routes:

European Road 853 number DE.svg Kakavia (Albanian border) - GR-EO-20.svg
European Road 951 number DE.svg GR-EO-5.svg Greek National Road 5 (will be replaced by Autokinetodromos A5 number.svg)
European Road 952 number DE.svg GR-EO-5.svg Preveza-Amfilochia - GR-EO-38.svg KarpenisiLamia
European Road 961 number DE.svg GR-EO-39.svg Greek National Road 39
European Road 962 number DE.svg GR-EO-3.svg ElefsinaThiva (will be replaced by Autokinetodromos A13 number.svg)

Note: When certain highways that carry European routes are replaced with motorways, the European routes will be reassigned to the new motorways. For example, GR-7 carried the E65 from Tripoli to Kalamata. When the Corinth – Tripoli – Kalamata motorway was completed, the E65 numbering was reassigned to it.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Αυτοκινητόδρομοι: Δίκτυο 2.500 χιλιόμετρα μέχρι το 2017 - ypodomes.com".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Υποδομές - Το μοναδικό website για όλες τις υποδομές στην Ελλάδα - ypodomes.com". www.ypodomes.com.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Motorways - Exit Lists Page". motorways-exitlists.com.
  4. ^ ypodomes.com
  5. ^ Dervou, Angeliki (2017-08-02). "The last section of "Ionia Odos" motorway to be fully put into operation". ERT International. Retrieved 2017-08-03.

External links[edit]