Rest in peace

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"Rest in peace" (Latin: Requiescat in pace (Classical Latin: [re.kʷiˈeːs.kat ɪn ˈpaːke], Ecclesiastical Latin: [re.kwiˈɛs.kat in ˈpa.tʃe])) is a phrase used in Christian funeral services to wish the soul of a decedent eternal rest and peace in Christ. It is also used on headstones, often abbreviated RIP.

Description[edit]

The phrase dormit in pace (English: "he sleeps in peace") was found in the catacombs of the early Christians and indicated that "they died in the peace of the Church, that is, united in Christ."[1][2][3] The acronym R.I.P., meaning "rest in peace", continues to be engraved on the gravestones of Christians,[4] especially in the Catholic, Lutheran, and Anglican denominations.[5]

In the Tridentine Requiem Mass of the Catholic Church the phrase appears several times.[6]

To satisfy a vogue for rhyming couplets on tombstones, the phrase has been parsed ungrammatically as:[7]

This verse has been found inscribed in Hebrew on gravestones dating from the 1st century BC, in the graveyard of Bet Shearim. It speaks of the righteous person who died because he could not stand the evil surrounding him. A recapture of these words, read as "come and rest in peace," has been transferred to the ancient Talmudic prayers, in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic of the 3rd century AD. It is used to this day in traditional Jewish ceremonies.[8]

History[edit]

Although commonly associated with Christianity, the phrase is also used in Judaism. This ancient Latin inscription from 688/689 AD begins with a Latin version of the phrase. There is a menorah in the upper left corner and the Hebrew calendar date is in the lower right.

The phrase was not found on tombstones before the eighth century.[9][10] It became ubiquitous on the tombs of Christians in the 18th century,[5] and for High Church Anglicans, Methodists,[11] as well as Roman Catholics in particular, it was a prayerful request that their soul should find peace in the afterlife.[4] When the phrase became conventional, the absence of a reference to the soul led people to suppose that it was the physical body that was enjoined to lie peacefully in the grave.[12] This is associated with the Christian doctrine of the particular judgment; that is, that the soul is parted from the body upon death, but that the soul and body will be reunited on Judgment Day.[13]

Other variations include "Requiescat in pace et in amore" for "May she rest in peace and love", and “In pace requiescat et in amore”. The word order is variable because Latin syntactical relationships are indicated by the inflexional endings, not by word order. If “Rest in peace” is used in an imperative mood, it would be “Requiesce in pace” (acronym R.I.P.) in the second person singular, or “Requiescite in pace” in the second person plural.[14] In the common phrase "Requiescat in pace" the "-scat" ending is appropriate because this is a "hortatory subjunctive": "May he/she rest in peace."

In 2017, members of the Orange Order in Northern Ireland called on Protestants to stop using the phrase "RIP" or "Rest in Peace".[15] Wallace Thompson, the secretary of the Evangelical Protestant Society, said on a BBC Radio Ulster programme that he would encourage Protestants to refrain from using the term "RIP".[16] Thompson said that he regards "RIP" as a prayer for the dead, which he believes contradicts biblical doctrine.[17][18] In the same radio programme, Presbyterian Ken Newell disagreed that people are praying for the dead when they use the phrase.

Image gallery[edit]

Linguistic analogues[edit]

Phrases in other languages:

  • Afrikaans: Rus in vrede
  • Albanian: U prehtë në paqe (P.N.P.)
  • Arabic: ارقد في سلام‎‎ (Orqod fi salaam)
  • Arabic: الله يرحمه‎‎ (Allah yarHamhu) for males, and Arabic: الله يرحمها‎‎ (Allah yarHamhaa) for females (More common, less literary than the above).
  • Azerbaijani: Allah Rəhmət eləsin
  • Basque: Goian Bego (G.B.)
  • Belarusian: Спачывай у спакоі (Spačyvaj u spakoi)
  • Bengali: তোমার আত্মার শান্তি কামনা করি (Tomar Aantmar Shanti Kamona Kori)
  • Bosnian: Počivaj u miru
  • Bulgarian: Почивай в мир (Pochivaj v mir)
  • Catalan: Descansi en pau (DEP)
  • Cebuano: Pahulay sa Kalinaw (PSK)
  • Chinese: 安息 (Mandarin: Ān xī, Cantonese: ngon1 sik1, Hakka: sit ôn)
  • Old Church Slavonic: Црⷭ҇ствїе Нбⷭ҇ное (Church-Slavic KingdomOfHeaven.PNG) ([ˈt͡sarsvije nʲɛˈbʲɛsnoje], “Kingdom of Heaven [for him/her]”)
  • Czech: Odpočívej v pokoji
  • Croatian: Počivao/počivala u miru.
  • Danish: Hvil i fred
  • Dutch: Rust in vrede
  • Esperanto: Ripozu pace (R.P.)
  • Estonian: Puhka rahus
  • Faroese: Hvíl í friði
  • Finnish: Lepää rauhassa
  • French: Repose en paix (R.E.P.)
  • Georgian: ცხონდეს, ღმერთმა აცხონოს (“May God grant him/her eternal life”)
  • German: Ruhe in Frieden
  • Greek: Αναπαύσου εν ειρήνη ([anaˈpafsu en iˈrini])
  • Hebrew: תהא נשמתו צרורה בצרור החיים‎‎ (Tehe nishmato tsrura bitsror hahayim) (תנצב"ה)
  • Hindi: दिवंगत आत्मा को शांति (Hindi, India) {divangat Atma ko shanti}
  • Hungarian: Nyugodjék békében
  • Icelandic: Hvíli í friði (H.Í.F.)
  • Indonesian: Beristirahat dengan Tenang (B.d.T.)
  • Malay: Berehat dengan Tenang (B.d.T.), Bersemadilah dengan aman
  • Irish: Ar dheis Dé go raibh a (h)anam (Lit. On God's right may his/her soul be)
  • Italian: Riposi in pace (R.I.P.)
  • Japanese: 安らかに眠れ (Yasuraka ni nemure)
  • Kannada: Atmakke shanti sigali (kannada, Karnataka)
  • Konkani: ಸಾಸ್ಣಚೊ ವಿಶೇವ್ (Konkani, India) {Sasnacho Vishev}
  • Korean: 삼가 고인의 명복을 빕니다 (Samga goinui myeongbogeul bimnida)
  • Kurdish: به ئارامی بمریت
  • Kyrgyz: Жаткан жери жайлуу болсун (Jatkan jeri jayluu bolsun)
  • Latvian: Dusi mierā
  • Lithuanian: Ilsėkis ramybėje
  • Macedonian: Почивај во мир (Pochivaj vo mir)
  • Maltese: Strieħ fis-sliem
  • Maltese: Strieħ fil-paċi
  • Marathi: मृतात्म्यास शांती लाभो {mrutatmyas shanti labho}
  • Mongolian: Гүн эмэгнэл илэрхийлье (Gün emegnel ilerkhiiliye)
  • Nepali: दिवंगत आत्माको चिरशान्तिको कामाना
  • Norwegian: Hvil i fred
  • Persian: روحش شاد‎‎ (Roohash shaad)
  • Polish: Spoczywaj w pokoju,
  • Portuguese: Descanse em Paz
  • Romanian: Odihnească-se în pace
  • Russian: Покойся с миром ([pɐˈkojsʲə sˈmʲirəm])
  • Scottish Gaelic: Gus am bris an là (lit. Until the day breaks)
  • Serbian: Почивај у миру.(Počivaj u miru)
  • Slovak: Odpočívaj v pokoji
  • Sinhalese: සමාදානයේ සැතපේවා
  • Slovene: Počivaj v miru
  • Spanish: Descanse en paz/Que en paz descanse (D.E.P./Q.E.P.D.)
  • Swedish: Vila i frid
  • Tagalog: Sumalángit Nawâ (S.L.N., “In heaven may [he/she/they] be”)
  • Tajik: ҷояш ҷаннад шавад (dʒojaʂ dʒanat ʂavad)
  • Tamil: பிரிந்த ஆத்துமா சாந்தி அடையட்டும் (Tamil, India) {Pirinta āttumā cānti adayattum}
  • Telugu: వెళ్ళిపోయాడు ఆత్మ శాంతి (Telugu, India) {Veḷḷipōyāḍu ātma śānti}
  • Thai: ขอให้ไปสู่สุคติ
  • Turkish: Huzur içinde yatsın
  • Ukrainian: Спочивай з миром
  • Urdu: امن سے آرام
  • Uzbek: Joying jannatdan bolsin
  • Vietnamese: Hãy An Nghỉ
  • Welsh: Gorffwys mewn hedd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yaggy, Levi W.; Haines, Thomas Louis (1886). Museum of Antiquity: A Description of Ancient Life--the Employments, Amusements, Customs and Habits, the Cities, Places, Monuments and Tombs, the Literature and Fine Arts of 3,000 Years Ago. Law, King & Law. p. 885. 
  2. ^ Tuker, Mildred Anna Rosalie; Malleson, Hope (1900). "Introduction to the Catacombs". Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome: The Christian monuments of Rome. A. and C. Black. p. 411. Dormit, he sleeps, as an expression for death is proper to Christianity. Dormitio, in somno pacis, dormivit are therefore very frequently found. These and the expression Dormierit in Domino (may he sleep in the Lord) are to be seen especially in loculi of the II. and II. centuries, and occur in S. Agnese. 
  3. ^ Leahy, Brendan (2012). His Mass and Ours: Meditations on Living Eucharistically. New City Press. p. 53. ISBN 9781565484481. Signs such as "RIP" (Rest in Peace) on the tombs of the early Christians didn't just mean they died "peacefully" but that they died in the peace of the Church, that is, united in Christ in the Church and not apart from it. 
  4. ^ a b Mytum, H. C. (31 December 2003). "Christian Denominations". Mortuary Monuments and Burial Grounds of the Historic Period. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 139. ISBN 9780306480768. 
  5. ^ a b Tarling, Nicholas (16 May 2014). Choral Masterpieces: Major and Minor. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 87. ISBN 9781442234536. 
  6. ^ Holy See (1961), Graduale Romanum, 1961 Edition by the Benedictines of the Solesmes Monastery, Desclée, p. 94*-112* 
  7. ^ Francis Edward Paget (1843), A tract upon tomb-stones, p. 18 
  8. ^ El male rachamim
  9. ^ The Church of England magazine. Church Pastoral-aid Society. 1842. p. 208. 
  10. ^ Robert Jefferson Breckinridge, Andrew Boyd Cross. "Antiquity of the Religion". The Baltimore literary and religious magazine. 3. p. 206. 
  11. ^ Gould, James B. (2016-08-04). Understanding Prayer for the Dead: Its Foundation in History and Logic. Wipf and Stock. p. 58. ISBN 9781620329887. Retrieved 2017-07-25. 
  12. ^ Joshua Scodel (1991), The English poetic epitaph, Cornell University Press, p. 269, ISBN 978-0-8014-2482-3 
  13. ^ Karl Siegfried Guthke (2003), Epitaph culture in the West, p. 336 
  14. ^ Expert: Maria - 7/31/2009 (2009-07-31). "Experts on Latin phrase". En.allexperts.com. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  15. ^ Edwards, Rodney (2017-07-20). "Orangemen warned to 'reject Rome' and not use RIP on social media". The Impartial Reporter. Retrieved 2017-07-25. 
  16. ^ William Crawley (2017-07-24). "Protestants should not use the phrase 'RIP', Orange Order says". BBC Radio Ulster (Podcast). Talkback. Retrieved 2017-07-24.  Segment begins at 42:20 into the podcast, and ends at 1:00:11.
  17. ^ "Orange Order calls on Protestants not to use the phrase 'RIP'". BBC News. 2017-07-24. Retrieved 2017-07-24. 
  18. ^ Thompson, Wallace (2013-12-15). "Why Protestants Should not Use 'RIP'". Truth Tracts. The redeemed do not need our prayers, and the lost cannot benefit from them once they have passed from us. We would be better to pray more for them while they are alive.