Ridge Racer (1993 video game)
|Platform(s)||Arcade, PlayStation, PlayStation Portable, mobile phone, Zeebo|
|Cabinet||Upright and sitdown|
|Arcade system||Namco System 22|
|CPU||1x Motorola 68020 @ 24.576 MHz,|
2x Texas Instruments TMS32025 @ 49.152 MHz
|Sound||1x C352 @ 16.384 MHz|
|Display||Horizontal orientation, raster, 640 x 480 resolution, 32768 palette colours|
Ridge Racer (リッジレーサー, Rijji Rēsā) is a 1993 racing video game developed and published by Namco. It was initially released on the Namco System 22 arcade system board, and later ported to the PlayStation console in 1994. It is the first title in the Ridge Racer series released for arcades and home consoles. The objective is to finish in first place in a series of races. The PlayStation version supports Namco's NeGcon controller.
Development took eight months, and the game is based on a trend among Japanese car enthusiasts. The first home version was released in Japan in 1994 as a launch title for the PlayStation; the versions for North America and Europe were released in 1995, with it also being a launch title for both regions. It was re-released in Japan for the PlayStation The Best range in 1997, and for the Greatest Hits and Platinum ranges in North America and PAL regions respectively the same year. Ridge Racer played a major role in establishing the new system and giving it an early edge over its nearest competitor, the Sega Saturn, and was considered a rival to Sega's Daytona USA.
Ridge Racer received a highly positive reception. Reviewers praised the graphics, audio, drifting mechanics, and arcade-like gameplay, although some were critical of the lack of strong artificial intelligence and multiplayer mode. The arcade version was followed by a sequel, Ridge Racer 2, in 1994, whereas the PlayStation sequel, Ridge Racer Revolution, was released in 1995 in Japan, and in 1996 in North America and PAL regions. The soundtrack was remixed and released on the Namco Game Sound Express Vol. 11 album.
Players choose a course, a car, a transmission (automatic or six-speed manual), and a song. The cars vary in their specifications: some have a high top speed, others excel at acceleration or turning, and others present a balance. Certain cars are named after other Namco games such as Solvalou, Mappy, Bosconian, Nebulasray, and Xevious. The racetrack can be observed from the first-person perspective or, for the PlayStation version, from the third-person perspective. Namco's NeGcon controller can be used to play. Because the game is an arcade-style racing game, collisions do no damage, and merely slow the player down. There is a time limit, which ends the race if counted down to zero.
A single course is featured, and it consists of four configurations of increasing difficulty: Novice, Intermediate, Advanced and Time Trial (the latter two are extended). The player races eleven opponents except in Time Trial, where there is only one. The higher the difficulty, the faster the cars run, with Time Trial being the fastest. Each race consists of three laps (two on the beginner course). Checkpoints that grant additional time when passed through are present throughout. In the PlayStation version, after every race is won, reversed ones become available, and an additional opponent is encountered in Time Trial: the 13th Racing (also known as the "Devil" car), the fastest car. On winning, the car is unlocked. The PlayStation version features hidden "mirror" version of the tracks. It becomes a "mirror image" of itself; left turns become right turns and vice versa, and the surroundings switch sides of the road. In the arcade version, the winning player's score is saved in action-replay highlights after finishing the game.
In the PlayStation version, a mini-game of Galaxian can be played as the game loads. If won, eight additional cars become available. Once the game has loaded, the CD is needed only to play six music tracks. The disc can be replaced at any time during gameplay, although the game does not update; regardless of what disc is inserted, there will always be six tracks, corresponding to the starting points of the tracks on the game disc.
Development and release
At JAMMA's 1992 Amusement Machine Show in Japan, held during 27–19 August 1992, Namco debuted a racing game called Sim Drive for the Namco System 22 arcade system board. It was a sequel to Eunos Roadster Driving Simulator, a Mazda MX-5 driving simulation arcade game that Namco developed with Mazda and released in 1990. Its 3D polygon graphics stood out for its use of Gouraud shading and texture mapping. After a location test at the show, where it was previewed by the November 1992 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly, Sim Drive had a limited Japanese release in December 1992, but did not get a mass-market release. It served as a prototype for Ridge Racer.
Ridge Racer had a development cycle of eight months. The development team was under pressure to complete it before their rivals, and designer Fumihiro Tanaka commented that "the other company" was in the same position. Ridge Racer was originally planned to be an F1 racing game, but the concept was replaced with one based on a trend among Japanese car enthusiasts at the time. Namco Bandai's general manager Yozo Sakagami explained that they liked racing on mountain roads and did not want to slow down around corners, so drifted around them instead. The team therefore decided to create a game which allowed players to test their driving skills and experience cars' manipulation at high speeds while mastering drifting. The team did not worry about how Ridge Racer would be received outside Japan: Tanaka explained that it was a naïve time when Japanese developers could develop games for players in general, rather than for specific markets.
Development for the PlayStation version began in April 1994. Because of the differences, it essentially had to be produced from scratch, and took nearly as long to develop, being half-complete in November 1994. It was mostly complete by December, with the graphics 70 per cent finished. This version was developed by the same team. Due to technical limitations, it was difficult to program and runs at a lower resolution, lower framerate (30 frames per second for NTSC, 25 for PAL), and was less detailed. Specialised graphics libraries were developed because it was felt the standard ones provided by Sony were too limited. Visual director Yozo Sakagami remarked that the hardest element to port was the experience of driving a car. It was felt that the NeGcon controller would provide a more analogue feel than the standard PlayStation controller. Sakagami was concerned about loading times due to the CD-ROM format; the team countered this by having all the data loaded into memory by the time the title screen appeared, and having the player play a mini-game of Galaxian while waiting. Sakagami chose Galaxian because he was part of its arcade team, and wanted to honour his former boss. Due to CDs being cheaper to produce, the retail price was cheaper than cartridge games despite an increase in development costs. The 13th Racing's design was meant to be futuristic, according to Tanaka, because the team was considering the future of sports cars. The team settled on a black car "no-one had ever driven before", and at one point it was known as "The Cockroach" due to its performance. There was a rumour that the PlayStation version would include Ridge Racer 2's link-up mode, which was denied.
During release for arcade system board, Ridge Racer was described by Namco as "the most realistic driving game ever". It featured three-dimensional polygon graphics with texture mapping. The PlayStation version was shown at the 1995 Electronic Entertainment Expo event, and was an innovation in the use of three-dimensional polygons. Ridge Racer was released in Japan on 3 December 1994, in North America on 9 September 1995, and in Europe on 29 September as a launch title for the PlayStation.
The soundtrack was produced alongside the game by Shinji Hosoe, with contributions from Nobuyoshi Sano and Ayako Saso, as the development team did not have enough time to produce them separately. The team did not initially plan to have music, but ended up producing techno, which Tanaka believed helped players to enjoy a fun feeling while playing. Later Ridge Racer series composer Hiroshi Okubo believed techno would give a feeling of energy, journey, and speed, and commented that the genre was chosen because it embodied the game's "unrealistic speed and tension". This was commemorated by the release of Namco Game Sound Express Vol. 11 by Victor Entertainment on 21 January 1994 in Japan, which features remixed versions of the themes.
Ridge Racer received critical acclaim. The graphics and sound in particular were praised. In the April 1994 issue of the UK magazine Computer and Video Games, Paul Rand gave high marks, remarking that it was "far and away the most realistic arcade game ever seen" on reviewing the arcade machine (based on the full-scale unit). In a review of its Japanese console release, GamePro called the PlayStation version "a near carbon copy of the original" and praised the graphics, soundtrack, and the entire game being loaded into the PlayStation's RAM, eliminating mid-game loading and giving the option of removing the game disc and using the PlayStation as a music CD player during gameplay. Although they criticised the graphical glitches and slowdown, the game was recommended. Next Generation applauded the conversion's faithful recreation of the arcade version, smooth graphics, and additional cars. Although they noted the lack of variety in the different cars' performance and the absence of a multiplayer mode as downsides, they found the game overall remarkable and commented that the fact that Ridge Racer was an early game for the PlayStation, and a rushed project at that, made it "an excellent harbinger of what's to come". GamePro's review of the later North American release judged that the game surpassed competitor Daytona USA in graphics, audio, and control responsiveness, and called it "The best racing game to date for home systems". Commenting on the realism, Game Informer remarked that Ridge Racer "does a better job of capturing the feel of high performance car racing than any existing driving game".
The two sports reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly praised the gameplay and music. Maximum commented that "Ridge Racer isn't without its bad points – basically, there is only one track and the game lacks the awesome crash sequences of Daytona USA, but everything else in the title is sheer class". They commented positively on the "feeling of smoothness and speed", the "distinctly European" dance music, the engine sounds, and the unrealistically exaggerated driving manoeuvres. In 1996, IGN commented that despite two years of release the game "has definitely stood the test of time", but complained that "there is no two-player mode" and that "the cars don't really vary in performance that much". AllGame's Shawn Sackenheim praised the game, particularly the graphics and audio, and concluded that it "is a fun title that racing fans will love". Coming Soon Magazine praised its "ultra fluid and very realistic" graphics, but criticised the game for being too short. The Electric Playground's Victor Lucas gave top marks, remarking "The experience of playing RR supersedes the thrills generally attributed to playing other racing video games", and further commented "I really can't stress enough how deserving of your video game dollars Ridge Racer is". Edge praised the "dazzling" graphics and "arcade-perfect" music.
Despite positive reviews, the game was criticised by 1UP.com for the arcade style of gameplay. The lack of artificial intelligence has received criticism—the movement of the computer-controlled cars is restricted to predetermined waypoints. The game was reviewed in 1995 in Dragon No. 221 by Jay & Dee in the "Eye of the Monitor" column, where Dee called it "just another racing game".
Ridge Racer was awarded Best Driving Game of 1995 by Electronic Gaming Monthly. It was listed as one of the best games of all time by Game Informer in 2001, Yahoo in 2005, Electronic Gaming Monthly in 2006, Guinness World Records in 2008 and 2009, NowGamer in 2010, and FHM in 2012.
Ridge Racer has been followed by many sequels and helped establish the PlayStation's popularity. IGN stated that Ridge Racer had been "one of PlayStation's first big system pushers" and "an excellent port of the arcade version that showed the true potential of Sony's 32-bit wonder". UGO Networks's Michael Hess and Chris Plante said that it had "set the stage for Gran Turismo by adding an option to choose between automatic and manual transmission". John Davison of 1UP.com said that Ridge Racer was an "unbelievable demonstration of what the PlayStation could do".
The PlayStation version was re-released for The Best, Greatest Hits, and Platinum ranges in 1997. Ridge Racer received a number of ports and spin-offs:
Ridge Racer Full Scale
A Full Scale arcade version was released alongside the standard arcade version in 1993. This version was designed to give the player a more realistic driving experience. Players (a passenger could sit in the car next to the driver) sat inside an adapted red Eunos Roadster, the Japanese right-hand-drive version of the Mazda MX-5 Miata, and controlled the same car on-screen. The game was played in front of a 10 feet (3.0 m) wide, front-projected triple screen (which benefited from dimmed ambient lighting), with the wheel, gear stick and pedals functioning as the controls. The ignition key was used to start, the speed and RPM gauges were functional, and fans blew wind on the player from inside the air vents. Speakers concealed inside the car provided realistic engine and tyre sounds; overhead speakers provided surround music. The P.C.B. was located under the bonnet of the car.
Ridge Racer: 3 Screen Edition
A version with three screens was released in arcades to give a peripheral vision effect. The machine used multiple System 22 arcade boards to drive the additional monitors and was only available in the sit down version.
Pocket Racer (ポケットレーサー, Poketto Rēsā) is a super deformed version with cars resembling Choro-Q models, and aimed towards children. It was released in 1996 in Japan. It was only available in upright cabinet version, and uses Namco System 11 hardware. A similar game is included in Ridge Racer Revolution using the same cars under the name Pretty Racer (also known as buggy mode), the inspiration for this game.
Ridge Racer Turbo
R4: Ridge Racer Type 4 (released on 3 December 1998 in Japan, 1 May 1999 in North America, and on 1 September 1999 in Europe) includes a bonus disc containing a new version of the original Ridge Racer, called Ridge Racer Turbo in North America, Ridge Racer Hi-Spec Demo in Europe, and Ridge Racer Hi Spec Version (リッジレーサーハイスペックバージョン, Rijji Rēsā Hai Supekku Bājon) in Japan. It featured improved graphics, runs at 60 frames per second (50 for PAL), as opposed to the original 30, and supports vibration feedback and the Jogcon controller. There is only one opponent (two in time trial boss races), and the White Angel from Ridge Racer Revolution appears in addition to the 13th Racing as a boss and unlockable car. A Time Attack mode is added, in which the player attempts to beat the time record without any opponent cars. This is distinct from Time Trial, where there are opponent cars.
On 31 December 2005, a version for mobile phones was released. It received mixed reviews. GameSpot's Jeff Gerstmann gave the game 6.1/10. He praised graphics as "somewhat impressive for a mobile game", but criticised the steering, saying that "it doesn't take long to master the game." Levi Buchanan of IGN gave Ridge Racer 6.2/10, complaining about the problematic controls and saying that the game without the analogue control "feels really lacking". In 2005, a version of Ridge Racer was released for mobile phones under the name Ridge Racer 3D (not to be confused with the later Ridge Racer 3D for the Nintendo 3DS). On 11 August 2009, this version was ported to Zeebo.
- "Ridge Racer (1995)". IGN. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer (3)". The Arcade Flyer Archive. 1993. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Winning Strategy, pp. 84–90.
- SEGABits. "This is Playstation – Ridge Racer". Youtube. SEGABits. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Davison, John (13 September 2006). "Ridge Racer". 1UP. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Manual, p. 3.
- Winning Strategy, pp. 2.
- "Ridge Racer (2)". The Arcade Flyer Archive. 1993. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Manual, pp. 4–5.
- Winning Strategy, pp. 18,24,30,40.
- Manual, p. 5.
- Winning Strategy, p. 2.
- Victory Guide, p. 4.
- Winning Strategy, p. 84.
- Victory Guide, p. 56.
- Winning Strategy, p. 4.
- Winning Strategy, p. 10.
- Electronic Gaming Monthly, Ziff Davis (40): 78,80. November 1992. ISSN 1058-918X
- "System 16 – Namco System 22 Hardware (Namco)". System 16. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "System 16 – Namco Medium Sized Attractions Hardware (Namco)". System 16. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- McFerran, Damien (28 May 2015). "Throwback Thursday: Ridge Racer". Red Bull. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Namco Discuss the Making of Ridge Racer for the Sony PlayStation!". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 66. Ziff Davis. January 1995. pp. 170–171. ISSN 1058-918X.
- "The Making of Ridge Racer". NowGamer. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "History of Ridge Racer". The PlayStation Book. Bournemouth: Imagine Publishing Ltd. 2015. pp. 169–172. ISBN 978-1-78546-106-4.
- Jonti Davies; Fumihiro Tanaka (2015). "The Making of: Ridge Racer". Retro Gamer Book of Arcade Classics. Bournemouth: Imagine Publishing. pp. 150–155. ISBN 978-1-7854-6207-8.
- "Ridge Racer". Prescreen. Edge. No. 14. Bath: Future plc. November 1994. pp. 28, 29. ISSN 1350-1593.
- "Namco". Prescreen. Edge. No. 15. Bath: Future plc. December 1994. pp. 51–53. ISSN 1350-1593.
- "Maximum Invades Namco R&D Headquarters! Ridge Racer Revolution Development Team Quizzed!". Maximum: the Video Game Magazine. No. 3. Emap International Limited. January 1996. p. 121. ISSN 1360-3167.
- Leadbetter, Richard. "20 years of PlayStation: the Ridge Racer revolution". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- "Ridge Racer (1)". The Arcade Flyer Archive. 1993. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Hess, Michael & Plante, Chris (27 April 2009). "E3 Retrospective: Past Games of the Show". UGO. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "PlayStation/リッジレーサー バンダイナムコゲームス公式サイト バンダイナムコゲームス公式サイト". Namco Bandai Entertainment (in Japanese). Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Cifaldi, Frank (9 September 2010). "This Day in History: Sony's PlayStation Launches in the U.S." 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer (1995) – PlayStation". IGN. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "15 Years of PlayStation Memories". playstation.com. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Higton, Rich. "Ready to Launch: The PS1 Launch Games". PSGamer. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Roberts, Dave (29 September 2005). "The day our world changed". MCV. Intent Media. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
The original PlayStation launched on September 29th 1995 priced £299. Launch software comprised Ridge Racer, WipEout, Toshinden, Jumping Flash, Kileak The Blood (from SCE) [...] .
- "Interview with Shinji Hosoe". Square Enix Music Online. January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Greening, Chris (11 August 2014). "Nobuyoshi Sano Interview: Musical and Technical Innovator". Video Game Music Online. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Greening, Chris (19 May 2010). "Ayako Saso Interview: Love of Dance". Video Game Music Online. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Greening, Chris. "Namco Game Sound Express Vol. 11 – Ridge Racer :: Review by Chris". Video Game Music Online. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Ridge Racer for PlayStation". GameRankings. 9 September 1995. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Sackenheim, Shawn. "Ridge Racer Review". allgame. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer arcade game review". Solvalou.com. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Jay & Dee (September 1995). "Eye of the Monitor". Dragon. No. 221. pp. 115–118.
- "Ridge Racer is the killer app that Namco – and Sony – can be proud of". EDGE. 22 December 1994. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Ridge Racer (PlayStation) by Namco". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 74. Ziff Davis. September 1995. p. 114.
- Electronic Gaming Monthly, 1998 Video Game Buyer's Guide, p. 74.
- "PlayStation ProReview: Ridge Racer". GamePro. No. 68. IDG. March 1995. p. 37. ISSN 1042-8658.
- "ProReview: Ridge Racer". GamePro. No. 84. IDG. September 1995. p. 42. ISSN 1042-8658. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- "Game Informer Magazine September 1995 Issue". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 11 August 1997. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Ridge Racer". IGN. 26 November 1996. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer". Maximum: the Video Game Magazine. No. 1. Emap International Limited. October 1995. pp. 141, 150, 151. ISSN 1360-3167.
- "Ridge Racer – Sony Playstation Review". Coming Soon Magazine. 1996. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Lucas, Victor (18 September 1995). "Ridge Racer published by Namco for PlayStation". The Electric Playground. Archived from the original on 6 August 1997. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- "Ridge Racer". Next Generation. No. 4. Imagine Media. April 1995. p. 86.
- "Electronic Gaming Monthly's Buyer's Guide". 1996. Cite magazine requires
- "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. 2001. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "100 Greatest Games The Best Computer Games Ever Made". Yahoo!. 2005. Archived from the original on 31 July 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time". Electronic Gaming Monthly. 6 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Top 100 Arcade Games". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records Limited. 2008. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
- "Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition reveals the Top 50 console games of all time". Guinness World Records. 27 February 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- "100 Greatest Retro Games part 1". NowGamer. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Howitt, Grant (28 March 2012). "The 10 Greatest arcade games of ALL TIME". FHM. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012.
- Levy, Stuart; Semrad, Ed (January 1997). "Rage Racer". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 90. Ziff Davis. p. 112.
- "Top 25 Games of All Time: Complete List". IGN. 23 January 2002. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer: Full Scale (3)". The Arcade Flyer Museum. 1993. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "System 16 – Namco System 11 Hardware (Namco)". System 16. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Rijji Rēsā Reboryūshon (Pureisutēshon hisshouhou supesharu) リッジレーサーレボリューション （プレイステーション必勝法スペシャル） [Ridge Racer Revolution (PlayStation winning strategy special)] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Keibunsha. 1996. p. 94. ISBN 978-4-7669-2427-5.
- 100 pāsento asobu Rijji Rēsā Reboryūshon denju! saisoku rappu e no nouhau (Pureisutēshon 100% shirīzu) １００パーセント遊ぶリッジレーサーレボリューション 伝授！最速ラップへのノウハウ （プレイステーション１００％シリーズ） [100 percent play Ridge Racer Revolution instruction! Fastest lap know-how (PlayStation 100% series)] (in Japanese). Tokyo. 6 March 1996. p. 5. ISBN 978-4-87465-290-9.
- "PlayStation/-R4 RIDGE RACER TYPE 4". Bandai Namco Entertainment. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "R4: Ridge Racer Type 4 – PlayStation". IGN. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Barker, Sammy (11 August 2010). "Feature: Late To The Party #2: Ridge Racer Type 4 on PSone". Push Square. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Ridge Racer Type 4 manual (PAL ed.). Namco. 1998.
- "R4 RIDGE RACER TYPE 4®". PlayStation.Store. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Scott Alan Marriott. "R4: Ridge Racer Type 4 – Overview". allgame. allgame. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Games with 3D graphics running at 60 fps – 5th Generation Consoles:". Gamepilgrimage. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Rijji Rēsā Taipu 4 ofisharu gaido bukku リッジレーサータイプ４オフィシャルガイドブック [Ridge Racer Type 4 Official Guide Book] (in Japanese). Tokyo: アスペクト. 7 January 1999. p. 139. ISBN 978-4-7572-0307-5.
- "R4 Ridge Racer Type 4 Guran Puri Hisshou Kouryaku Pureisutēshon Magajin Tokubetsu Furoku" R4 Ridge Racer Type 4 グランプリ必勝攻略 プレイステーションマガジン 特別付録 [R4 Ridge Racer Type 4 Grand Prix Victory Guide PlayStation Magazine Special Extra]. PlayStation Magazine (Booklet) (in Japanese). 17 December 1998. p. 54.
- Buchanan, Levi (11 January 2006). "Ridge Racer (2005) – Wireless". IGN. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Namco Games – IGN". IGN. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Gerstmann, Jeff (15 December 2005). "Ridge Racer Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Ridge Racer 3D". Namco Bandai Entertainment. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "R i d g e R a c e r ™ b y N A M C O" (PDF). Namco Bandai Entertainment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Zeebo ganha investimento, "Resident Evil" e "Ridge Racer"". UOL Jogos (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Ridge Racer (2009)". GameSpot. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Ridge Racer saisoku ou (Pureisutēshon hisshouhou supesharu) ＲＩＤＧＥ ＲＡＣＥＲ最速王 （プレイステーション必勝法スペシャル） [Ridge Racer fastest champion (PlayStation winning strategy special)] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Keibunsha. 1995. ISBN 4-7669-2166-6.
- Rijji Rēsā hisshou kouryaku hou (Pureisutēshon kanpeki kouryaku shirīzu) リッジレーサー必勝攻略法 （プレイステーション完璧攻略シリーズ） [Ridge Racer Victory Guide (PlayStation complete guide series)] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Futabasha. 31 January 1995. ISBN 978-4-575-28423-2.
- Ridge Racer Instruction Manual (PAL ed.). Namco. 1994.