Arcade game

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A player in Japan playing Police 911, an arcade game in which players use a light gun.
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An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost. The Eastern Hemisphere retains a strong arcade industry.[1]

History[edit]

Pong, one of the first commercially successful arcade games

Games of skill had been popular amusement-park midway attractions since the 19th century, and with the introduction of solid-state electronics and coin-operated machines, presented the opportunity for a viable business. When pinball machines with electronic lights and displays were introduced in 1933, but without the user-controller flippers which would not invented until 1947, these machines were seen as games of luck, as well as amoral playthings that drew the attention of rebellious young people to them, and numerous state and city bans were placed on these machines which lasted into the 1960s and 1970s.[2]

Spacewar!, recognized as the first video game, inspired to the first two arcade games; Galaxy Game, a demonstration coin-operated unit run at Stanford University in November 1971, Computer Space, the first commercial arcade game created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney in the same month. Bushnell and Dabney followed their success of Computer space with the help of Allan Alcorn to create a table tennis game Pong, released in 1972. Pong was a commercial success, leading to numerous other coin-op manufacturers to enter the market and create the arcade game industry.[3]

The industry entered a "Golden Age" in 1978 with the release of Taito's Space Invaders, which introduced a number of novel gameplay features including tracking the highest score, leading to its popularity. From 1978 to 1982 several other major arcade games from Namco, Atari, Williams Electronics, Stern Electronics, and Nintendo were all considered blockbuster titles, particularly with Namco's Pac-Man in 1980 as the game became a popular culture fixture. Across North America and Japan, dedicated video game arcades appeared and arcade game cabinets appeared in many smaller storefronts. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion[4] The novelty of the arcade game waned sharped after 1982 from several factors, including an oversaturation of the market with the number of arcade titles and arcades themselves, a moral panic created over video games due to similar fears that had been raised over pinball machines in the decades prior, and the 1983 video game crash in the home console market that impacted arcades. By 1991, US arcade video game revenues had fallen to US$2.1 billion.[5]

Arcade games continued to improve with technology and gameplay evolutions. In the early 1990s, the release of Capcom's Street Fighter II established the modern style of fighting games and led to a number of similar titles such as Mortal Kombat, The King of Fighters, Virtua Fighter, and Tekken, creating a new renaissance in the arcade.[6][7] Convergence of computer technology and features such as 3D graphics also led to more advanced games, with arcade publishers able to make titles comparable to games on computers and consoles.[8]

Since the 2000s, the arcade game field has taken different routes globally. In the United States, arcades have become niche markets as they compete with the home console market, and they have had to adapt other business models, such as providing other entertainment options or adding prize redemptions.[9] On the other hand, arcades continue to flourish in Japan and China, where arcade games like Dance Dance Revolution and The House of the Dead are tailored to experiences that players cannot easily have at home.[10]

Technology[edit]

Inside of a Neo Geo

Virtually all modern arcade games (other than the very traditional Midway-type games at county fairs) make extensive use of solid state electronics, integrated circuits and cathode-ray tube screens. In the past, coin-operated arcade video games generally used custom per-game hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips, and the latest in expensive computer graphics display technology. This allowed arcade system boards to produce more complex graphics and sound than what was then possible on video game consoles or personal computers, which is no longer the case in the 2010s. Arcade game hardware in the 2010s is often based on modified video game console hardware or high-end PC components. Arcade games frequently have more immersive and realistic game controls than either PC or console games, including specialized ambiance or control accessories: fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of automobile or airplane cockpits, motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually what set modern video games apart from other games, as they are usually too bulky, expensive, and specialized to be used with typical home PCs and consoles. Currently with the advent of Virtual reality, arcade makers have begun to experiment with Virtual reality technology. Arcades have also progressed from using coin as credits to operate machines to cards that hold the virtual currency of credits.

Genres[edit]

Arcade games often have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. This is due to the environment of the Arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive (or until they run out of tokens). Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities or are direct ports of arcade titles. Many independent developers are now producing games in the arcade genre that are designed specifically for use on the Internet. These games are usually designed with Flash/Java/DHTML and run directly in web-browsers. Arcade racing games have a simplified physics engine and do not require much learning time when compared with racing simulators. Cars can turn sharply without braking or understeer, and the AI rivals are sometimes programmed so they are always near the player (rubberband effect).

Arcade flight games also use simplified physics and controls in comparison to flight simulators. These are meant to have an easy learning curve, in order to preserve their action component. Increasing numbers of console flight video games, from Crimson Skies to Ace Combat and Secret Weapons Over Normandy indicate the falling of manual-heavy flight sim popularity in favor of instant arcade flight action.[11] Other types of arcade-style games include fighting games (often played with an arcade controller), beat 'em up games (including fast-paced hack and slash games), light gun rail shooters and "bullet hell" shooters (intuitive controls and rapidly increasing difficulty), music games (particularly rhythm games), and mobile/casual games (intuitive controls and often played in short sessions).

Action[edit]

The term "arcade game" is also used to refer to an action video game that was designed to play similarly to an arcade game with frantic, addictive gameplay.[12] The focus of arcade action games is on the user's reflexes, and the games usually feature very little puzzle-solving, complex thinking, or strategy skills. Games with complex thinking are called strategy video games or puzzle video games.

Emulation[edit]

Emulators such as MAME, which can be run on modern computers and a number of other devices, aim to preserve the games of the past. Emulators enable game enthusiasts to play old video games using the actual code from the 1970s or 1980s, which is translated by a modern software system. Legitimate emulated titles started to appear on the Macintosh (1994)[13][14] with Williams floppy disks, Sony PlayStation (1996) and Sega Saturn (1997), with CD-ROM compilations such as Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits and Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1, and on the PlayStation 2 and GameCube with DVD-ROM titles such as Midway Arcade Treasures. Arcade games are currently being downloaded and emulated through the Nintendo Wii Virtual Console Service starting in 2009 with Gaplus, Mappy, Space Harrier, Star Force, The Tower of Druaga, Tecmo Bowl, Altered Beast and many more. Other classic arcade games such as Asteroids, Tron, Discs of Tron, Yie Ar Kung-Fu, Pac-Man, Joust, Battlezone, Dig Dug, Robotron: 2084, and Missile Command are emulated on PlayStation Network and Xbox Live Arcade. The emulators have evolved to be used in mobile phones (APPS) or websites that function as an online emulator.

Industry[edit]

In addition to restaurants and video arcades, arcade games are also found in bowling alleys, college campuses, video rental shops, dormitories, laundromats, movie theaters, supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, ice rinks, corner shops, truck stops, bars/pubs, hotels, and even bakeries. In short, arcade games are popular in places open to the public where people are likely to have free time.[15]

Arcade machines spawned various communities and industries such as Fighting game community, and popular tournaments such as Evolution Championship Series.

The American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA) is a trade association established in 1981[16] that represents the coin-operated amusement machine industry,[17] including 120 arcade game distributors and manufacturers.[18]

Often averaging the amount paid per game based on the length of the game play, knowing people are likely to try more than one game.

Highest-grossing[edit]

For arcade games, success was usually judged by either the number of arcade hardware units sold to operators, or the amount of revenue generated, from the number of coins (such as quarters, dollars or 100 yen coins) inserted into machines,[19] or the hardware sales (with arcade hardware prices often ranging from US$1000 to US$4000 or more). This list only includes arcade games that have either sold more than 1000 hardware units or generated a revenue of more than US$1 million. Most of the games in this list date back to the golden age of arcade video games, though some are also from before and after the golden age.

Game Release year Hardware units sold Estimated gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Estimated gross revenue
(US$ with 2019 inflation)[20]
Pac-Man 1980 400,000 (up to 1982)[21] $3.5 billion (up to 1999)[22][n 1] $10.9 billion
Space Invaders 1978 360,000 (up to 1980)[23] $2.702 billion (up to 1982)[n 2] $10.6 billion
Street Fighter II 1991 200,000 (up to 1992)
(The World Warrior: 60,000
Champion Edition: 140,000)
[n 3]
$2.312 billion (up to 1995)
(The World Warrior
Champion Edition)
[22]
$4.34 billion
(The World Warrior
Champion Edition)
Donkey Kong 1981 132,000 (up to 1982)[n 4] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[28]
$787 million
(US hardware sales)
Ms. Pac-Man 1981 125,000 (up to 1988)[29][30]
Asteroids 1979 100,000 (up to 2001)[30][31] $800 million (up to 1991)[32][33] $1.5 billion
Defender 1981 60,000 (up to 2002)[34][35] $1 billion (up to 2002)[36][37] $1.42 billion
Galaxian 1979 40,000 (in the US up to 1982)[38][39]
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[40]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[41]
Popeye 1982 20,000 (in the US up to 1982)[27]
Out Run 1986 20,000 (up to 1987)[42]
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (up to 2005)[43]
NBA Jam 1993 20,000 (up to 2013)[44] $1 billion (up to 2010)[45] $1.17 billion
Gun Fight 1975 8,000 (up to 1976)[46][47]
Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 2005 7,608 (up to 2006)[48]
Hang-On 1985 7,500 (up to 1985)[49]
Dinosaur King 2005 7,000 (up to 2006)[50]
Speed Race 1974 7,000 (up to 1975)[51][52]
Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 2003 5,486 (up to 2005)[55]
Donkey Kong 3 1983 5,000 (in the US up to 1982)[n 4]
Sangokushi Taisen 2 2006 4,041 (up to 2007)[n 5]
Initial D Arcade Stage 4 2007 3,904 (up to 2007)[n 6]
Mario Bros. 1983 3,800 (in the US up to 1983)[58]
Dance Dance Revolution 1998 3,500 (in Japan as of 1999)[59]
Zoo Keeper 1982 3,000 (in the US up to 1983)[60]
Initial D Arcade Stage 2001 2,534 (up to 2004)[61]
World Club Champion Football 2002 2,479 (up to 2009)[n 8] $706.014 million (up to 2012)[66] $1 billion
Mortal Kombat 1992 24,000 (up to 2002)[24] $570 million (up to 2002)[24] $810 million
Jungle Hunt 1982 18,000 (in the US up to 1983)[60]
Scramble 1981 15,136 (up to 1981)[67]
Mushiking: King of the Beetles 2003 13,500 (up to 2005)[68] $530 million (up to 2007)[n 10] $737 million
Mahjong Fight Club 3 2004 13,000 (up to 2004)[71]
Super Cobra 1981 12,337 (up to 1981)[67]
Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (up to 2006)[72][73] $302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 11] $410 million
Centipede 1981 55,988 (up to 1991)[74] $115.65 million (up to 1991)[74] $217 million
Shining Force Cross 2009 2,389 (up to 2009)[75]
Pengo 1982 2,000 (in the US up to 1983)[60]
Sangokushi Taisen 2005 1,942 (up to 2006)[76]
World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008 1,689 (up to 2009)[n 7] $150.1 million (up to 2012)[n 9] $178 million
Dragon's Lair 1983 16,000 (up to 1983)[83][84] $68.8 million (up to 1983)[83][85] $177 million
Mortal Kombat II 1993 27,000 (up to 2002)[24] $100 million (up to 1994)[86] $172 million
Pole Position 1982 21,000 (in the US up to 1983)[58] $60.933 million (up to 1983)[58][74]
(US hardware sales)
$161 million
(US hardware sales)
StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins 2011 $132.18 million (up to 2012)[n 12] $150 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (up to 2009)[75] $107 million (up to 2012)[n 13] $128 million
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[74] (in the US up to 1983)[60] $46.3 million (up to 1983)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$123 million
(US hardware sales)
Tempest 1981 29,000 (up to 1983)[58] $62.408 million (up to 1991)[74] $117 million
TV Basketball (Basketball) 1974 1,400 (up to 1974)[88]
The House of the Dead 4 2005 1,008 (up to 2005)[89]
Radar Scope 1980 1,000 (in the US up to 1980)[90]
Tron 1982 800 (in the US up to 1982)[91] $45 million (up to 1983)[92] $102 million
Sengoku Taisen 2010 $94.04 million (up to 2012)[n 14] $110 million
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $96.4 million
Starhorse2 2005 38,614 (up to 2009)[n 16] $59.321 million (up to 2011)
(Fifth Expansion)[n 17]
$77.7 million
(Fifth Expansion)
Q*bert 1982 25,000 (up to 2001)[96]
Robotron: 2084 1982 23,000 (up to 1983)[58]
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (up to 2000)[97] $47.11 million (up to 2000)[98] $72.3 million
Asteroids Deluxe 1981 22,399 (up to 1999)[99] $46.1 million (up to 1999)[99] $70.8 million
Missile Command 1980 19,999 (up to 2010)[100] $36.8 million (up to 1991)[99] $69.1 million
Berzerk 1980 15,780 (up to 1981)[67]
Sangokushi Taisen 3 2007 $54.4 million (up to 2011)[n 18] $67.1 million
Pong 1972 8,500–19,000[101][102] $11 million (up to 1973)[103] $63.4 million}
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 19] $59.9 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 2008 12,892 (up to 2009)[104] $47 million (up to 2010)[n 20] $55.8 million
Kangaroo 1982 9,803[74] (up to 1983)[60] $20.58 million (up to 1983)
(US hardware sales)[74]
$54.5 million
(US hardware sales)
Battlezone 1980 15,122 (up to 1999)[99] $31.2 million (up to 1999)[99] $47.9 million
Stargate 1981 15,000 (up to 1983)[58]
Space Duel 1982 12,038 (up to 1991)[74]
Big Buck Hunter Pro 2006 10,000 (up to 2009)[105][106]
Snake Pit 1983 9,000 (up to 1983)[107]
Bagman 1983 5,000 (in the US up to 1983)[60]
Big Buck Safari 2008 5,500 (up to 2009)[105]
Hard Drivin' 1989 3,318 (up to 1989)[74] $22.9 million (up to 1989)[74] $47.2 million
Gauntlet 1985 7,848 (up to 1985)[74] $18.01 million (up to 1985)[74] $42.8 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ5 2011 $34.87 million (up to 2012)[n 21] $39.6 million
Millipede 1982 9,990 (up to 1991)[74] $20.669 million (up to 1991)[74] $38.8 million
Race Drivin' 1990 3,525 (up to 1991)[74] $20.03 million (up to 1991)[74] $37.6 million
Time Traveler 1991 $18 million (up to 1991)[85] $33.8 million
Space Ace 1984 $13 million (up to 1984)[85] $32 million
Xevious 1982 5,295 (in the US up to 1983)[74] $11.1 million (up to 1983)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$29.4 million
(US hardware sales)
Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season 2009 3,000 (up to 2010)[108]
Silver Strike Live 2010 3,000 (up to 2010)[109]
H2Overdrive 2009 2,000 (up to 2010)[110]
Atari Football 1978 11,306 (up to 1999)[99] $17.266 million (up to 1999)[99] $26.5 million
Final Lap 1987 1,150 (in the US up to 1988)[74] $9.5 million (up to 1988)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$21.4 million
(US hardware sales)
Paperboy 1984 3,442 (up to 1991)[74] $8.6 million (up to 1991)[74] $16.1 million
Star Wars 1983 12,695 (up to 1991)[74] $7.595 million (up to 1991)[74] $14.3 million
Beatmania 1997 25,000 (up to 2000)[111] $12.4 million (up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 22]
$19.7 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Sprint 2 1976 8,200 (up to 1999)[99] $12.669 million (up to 1999)[99] $19.4 million
Championship Sprint 1986 3,595 (up to 1991)[74] $8.26 million (up to 1991)[74] $15.5 million
Pole Position II 1983 2,400 (in the US up to 1983)[74] $7.43 million (up to 1983)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$19.1 million
(US hardware sales)
Breakout 1976 11,000 (up to 1999)[99] $12.045 million (up to 1999)[99] $18.5 million
Sea Wolf 1976 10,000 (up to 2000)[112]
Lunar Lander 1979 4,830 (up to 1999)[99] $8.19 million (up to 1999)[99] $12.6 million
Super Sprint 1986 2,232 (up to 1999)[99] $7.8 million (up to 1999)[99] $12 million
Marble Madness 1984 4,000 (up to 1985)[113] $6.3 million (up to 1991)[74] $11.8 million
Sea Wolf II 1978 4,000 (up to 2000)[114]
Rolling Thunder 1986 2,406 (in the US up to 1987)[74] $4.8 million (up to 1987)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$11.2 million
(US hardware sales)
Tetris 1989 5,771 (in the US up to 1991)[74] $5.2 million (up to 1991)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$9.76 million
(US hardware sales)
Arabian 1983 1,950 (in the US up to 1983)[60] $3.9 million (up to 1983)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$10 million
(US hardware sales)
Terminator Salvation 2010 1,000 (up to 2010)[115] $8 million (up to 2010)[115] $9.38 million
Blasteroids 1987 2,000 (up to 1991)[74] $4.69 million (up to 1991)[74] $8.8 million
Super Breakout 1978 4,805 (up to 1999)[99] $5.7 million (up to 1999)[99] $8.75 million
Pac-Mania 1987 1,412 (in the US up to 1987)[74] $2.82 million (up to 1987)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$6.35 million
(US hardware sales)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 1985 2,825 (up to 1991)[74] $3.2 million (up to 1991)[74] $6.01 million
Four Trax 1989 205 (in the US & EU as of 1989)[74] $2.9 million (up to 1989)[74]
(US & EU hardware sales)
$5.98 million
(US & EU hardware sales)
Assault 1988 1,079 (in the US up to 1988)[74] $2.5 million (up to 1988)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$5.4 million
(US hardware sales)
Gauntlet II 1986 3,520 (up to 1991)[74] $2.4 million (up to 1991)[74] $4.51 million
Guitar Hero Arcade 2009 2,000 (up to 2009)[116]
Drag Race 1977 1,900 (up to 1999)[99] $2.8 million (up to 1999)[99] $4.3 million
Night Driver 1976 2,100 (up to 1999)[99] $2.4675 million (up to 1999)[99] $3.79 million
I, Robot 1984 750-1,000[74][117] $1.5 million (up to 1984)[74] $3.69 million
R.B.I. Baseball 1987 3,945 (in the US up to 1987)[74] $1.6 million (up to 1987)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$3.6 million
(US hardware sales)
Computer Space 1971 1,500–2,000 (up to 1984)[118][119]
Death Race 1976 1,000 (up to 1976)[47]
Dunk Shot 1986 556 (in the US up to 1987)[74] $1.4 million (up to 1987)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$3.27 million
(US hardware sales)
Star Wars: Return of the Jedi 1984 800 (up to 1991)[74] $1.68 million (up to 1991)[74] $3.15 million
Dragon Spirit 1987 600 (in the US up to 1987)[74] $1.2 million (up to 1987)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$2.7 million
(US hardware sales)
Triple Hunt 1977 865 (up to 1999)[99] $1.2 million (up to 1999)[99] $1.84 million

Franchises[edit]

These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 5,000 hardware units or grossed at least $10 million revenues.

Franchise Original release year Total hardware units sold Gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Gross revenue
(US$ with 2019 inflation)[20]
Pac-Man 1980 526,412 (up to 1988)[n 23] $3.853 billion (up to 1999)[n 24] $12 billion
Street Fighter 1987 500,000 (up to 2002)[121][122] $2.312 billion (up to 1993)
(Street Fighter II: The World Warrior
Street Fighter II′: Champion Edition)
[22]
$5.2 billion
(Street Fighter II: The World Warrior
Street Fighter II': Champion Edition)
Space Invaders 1978 360,000 (up to 1980)[23] $2.702 billion (up to 1982)[123] $10.6 billion
Pac-Man clones 1980 300,000 (up to 2002)[124]
Mario 1981 170,800 (up to 1983)[n 25] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[28]
$787 million
(US hardware sales)
Donkey Kong 1981 167,000 (up to 1983)[n 4] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[28]
$787 million
(US hardware sales)
Asteroids 1979 136,437 (up to 1999)[n 26] $850.79 million (up to 1999)[n 27] $1.31 billion
Golden Tee Golf 1989 100,000 (up to 2011)[125]
Defender 1981 75,000 (up to 2002)[n 28] $1 billion (up to 2002)[36] $1.42 billion
Centipede 1981 65,978 (up to 1991)[n 29] $136.3 million (up to 1991)[n 30] $256 million
Mortal Kombat 1992 51,000 (up to 2002)[24] $1 billion (up to 1995)[126] $1.42 billion
Galaxian 1979 40,986 (in the US up to 1988)[n 31]
Starhorse 2000 38,734 (up to 2009)[n 32] $191.501 million (up to 2012)[n 33] $284 million
Big Buck 2000 33,500 (up to 2010)[n 34]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[41]
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $96.4 million
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 19] $59.9 million
Bemani 1997 28,500 (up to 2000)[n 35] $12.4 million (up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 22]
$19.7 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Scramble 1981 27,473 (up to 1981)[67]
Sega Network Mahjong 2000 25,986 (up to 2006)[n 38] $81.87 million (up to 2012)[n 39] $122 million
Pole Position 1982 24,550 (in the US up to 1983)[n 40] $77.9 million (up to 1988)
(US hardware sales)[n 41]
$206 million
(US hardware sales)
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[74] (in the US up to 1983)[60] $46.3 million (up to 1983)[74]
(US hardware sales)
$123 million
(US hardware sales)
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (up to 2005)[43]
Breakout 1976 15,805 (up to 1999)[99] $17.745 million (up to 1999)[99] $27.2 million
Star Wars 1983 14,039 (up to 1991)[74] $9.275 million (up to 1983)[74] $17.4 million
Sprint 1976 14,027 (up to 1999)[99] $28.729 million (up to 1999)[99] $44.1 million
Mushiking 2003 13,500 (up to 2005)[68] $530 million (up to 2007)[n 10] $737 million
Sea Wolf 1976 14,000 (up to 2000)[112]
Mahjong Fight Club 2002 13,000 (up to 2004)[71]
Gauntlet 1985 11,368 (up to 1991)[74] $20.41 million (up to 1991)[74] $38.3 million
Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (up to 2006)[72] $302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 11] $410 million
Sangokushi Taisen 2005 9,929 (up to 2008)[n 43] $148.44 million (up to 2012)[n 44] $194 million
Pong 1972 8500–19,000[101][102] $11 million (up to 1973)[103] $63.4 million
Hang-On 1985 7,500 (up to 1985)[49]
Initial D Arcade Stage 2001 7,111 (up to 2005)[127]
Dinosaur King 2005 7,000 (up to 2006)[50]
Hard Drivin' 1989 6,843 (up to 1991)[74] $42.93 million (up to 1991)[74] $75.48 million
Xevious 1982 5,295 (in the US up to 1983)[74]
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (up to 2000)[97] $47.11 million (up to 2000)[n 45] $72.3 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (up to 2009)[75] $107 million (up to 2012)[n 13] $128 million
World Club Champion Football 2012 2,479 (up to 2015)[n 8] $706.014 million (up to 2012)[n 46] $1 billion

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pac-Man:
    • Estimated 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion) by 1999:
      • Chris Morris (10 May 2005). "Pac Man turns 25: A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon – and millions of dollars in quarters". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. In the late 1990s, Twin Galaxies, which tracks video game world record scores, visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played. Based on those findings and the total number of machines that were manufactured, the organization said it believed the game had been played more than 10 billion times in the 20th century.
      • Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-313-33868-7. It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time, with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars, and one study estimated that it had been played more than 10 billion times during the twentieth century.
    • Estimated 7 billion coins (7 billion quarters / $1.75 billion) by 1982.[21]
    • $1 billion cabinet sales by 1982:
    • $1 billion revenue in 1980:
  2. ^ Space Invaders:
  3. ^ Street Fighter II:
  4. ^ a b c d Donkey Kong:
    • Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong
    • Ashcraft, Brian; Snow, Jean (2008). Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-3078-8. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.
    • United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.
    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3.[27]
  5. ^ Sangokushi Taisen 2:
    • 3,211 units during April–September 2006.[50]
    • 830 units during April–September 2007.[56]
  6. ^ a b Initial D Arcade Stage 4:
    • 3,056 units in fiscal year ending March 2007.[57]
    • 848 units during April–September 2007.[56]
  7. ^ a b World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006–2007 – 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009[77]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009[75]
  8. ^ a b World Club Champion Football series, unit sales:
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 – 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006[48]
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 Ver. 2 – 276 units during April–September 2006 (240 satellite units during April–June 2006,[62] and 36 body units during April–September 2006)[50]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009[n 7]
  9. ^ a b c World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion[78]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion[79]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion[80][81]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[82]
    • Currency conversion:[65]
      • ¥4.2 billion = $51.9159 million
      • ¥3.8 billion = $46.9716 million
      • ¥3.6 billion = $44.8253 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  10. ^ a b Mushiking:
  11. ^ a b Love and Berry:
  12. ^ a b StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins
    • Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion[80]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[82]
    • Currency conversion:[65]
      • ¥10.1 billion = $125.8 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  13. ^ a b Border Break:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion[78]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion[79]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion[80][87]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[82]
    • Currency conversion:[65]
      • ¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million
      • ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million
      • ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  14. ^ a b Sengoku Taisen:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion[79]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion[80]
    Currency conversion:[65]
    • ¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million
    • ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million
  15. ^ a b Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road
    • ¥4.5 billion from June 2007 to March 2008[93]
      • Currency conversion: $56.731 million[65]
    • ¥1.7 billion from April 2008 to September 2008[94]
      • Currency conversion: $21.4317 million[65]
  16. ^ a b StarHorse2:
    • From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units
      • StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006,[48] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006)[50]
      • StarHorse2: Second Fusion – 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006,[72] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007)[57]
    • From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007,[56] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008)[95]
    • From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion[75]
  17. ^ a b StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥2.8 billion[78]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2 billion[79]
    • Currency conversion:[65]
      • ¥2.8 billion = $34.6039 million
      • ¥2 billion = $24.7171 million
  18. ^ a b Sangokushi Taisen 3:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥1.8 billion[78]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.6 billion[79]
    • Currency conversion:[65]
      • ¥1.8 billion = $22.2401 million
      • ¥2.6 billion = $32.1248 million
  19. ^ a b Lord of Vermilion: ¥4 billion[94]
    • Currency conversion: $50.443 million[65]
  20. ^ a b Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.8 billion[78]
    • Currency conversion: $47 million[65]
  21. ^ a b Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥2.8 billion[80]
    • Currency conversion: $34.87 million[65]
  22. ^ a b Beatmania:
    • ¥1 billion in May 1998[59]
    • Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million[65]
  23. ^ Pac-Man series:
  24. ^ Pac-Man series:
  25. ^ Mario series:
  26. ^ Asteroids series:
  27. ^ Asteroids series:
  28. ^ Defender series:
  29. ^ Centipede series:[58][74] Millipede: 9,990
  30. ^ Centipede series:[74] Millipede: $20.669 million
  31. ^ Galaxian series:
  32. ^ StarHorse series:
    • Starhorse Progress – 120 in fiscal year ended March 2005[53]
    • StarHorse2 – 38,614 up to 2009[n 16]
  33. ^ Starhorse series, 2009–2011:
    • Starhorse2 – $59.321 million[n 17]
    • StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins – $132.18 million[n 12]
  34. ^ Big Buck series:
    • Big Buck Hunter series sales up until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units.[106]
    • Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units.[105]
    • Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units[108]
  35. ^ Bemani series, sales:
  36. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ2:
    • April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[53]
    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502[54]
  37. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[95]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[77]
  38. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units[n 36]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units[48]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892[n 37]
  39. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009–2012:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010[n 20]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ5: $34.87 million in fiscal year 2012[n 21]
  40. ^ Pole Position series US sales:
  41. ^ Pole Position series US sales:[58][74]
  42. ^ Sangokushi Taisen:
    • As of March 2005: 421[53]
    • April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[48]
  43. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series:
    • Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units
      • Sangokushi Taisen from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units[n 42]
      • Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2006: 3,211 units[50]
    • Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776
      • 166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2007[56]
      • 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen from April 2007 to March 2008[95]
  44. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series, 2009–2011:
    • Sangokushi Taisen 3: $54.4 million[n 18]
    • Sengoku Taisen: $94.04 million[n 14]
  45. ^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion
    • Currency conversion: $47.11 million[65]
  46. ^ World Club Champion Football series, revenue:
    • Series revenues up until March 2009 – $552.3 million
      • 480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[63] A¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[64] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[65] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 – $150.1 million[n 9]

References[edit]

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    • Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Brian Ashcraft; with Jean Snow; forewords by Kevin Williams; Crecente, Brian (2008). "sixty-five+thousand" Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-3078-8. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.
    • United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.
    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3.[27]
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    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502[54]
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    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[77]
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  123. ^ Space Invaders:
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  127. ^ Initial D series:
    • Initial D Arcade Stage: 2,534 units from April 2004 to September 2004[61]
    • Initial D Arcade Stage Ver. 3: 673 units from April 2004 to March 2005[53]
    • Initial D Arcade Stage 4: 3,904 units from April 2006 to September 2007[n 6]

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