Salman the Persian

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Salman
Arabic: سلمان
Titles: al-Farsi Arabic: الفارسي, al-Muhammadi, Abu Al Kitabayn, Luqman al-Hakeem, and Paak
Birthplace Kazerun, Iran
Ethnicity Persian
Known For Being a companion of Muhammad and Ali
Burial Place Al-Mada'in, Iraq
Son Abdullah
Religion Islam
Works Partial[1] translation of the Quran into Persian

Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi (Arabic: سلمان الفارسي‎), born Rōzbeh (Persian: روزبه‎), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian convert to Islam. During some of his later meetings with the other Sahabah, he was referred to as Abu Abdullah ("Father of Abdullah"). He is credited with the suggestion of digging a trench around Medina when it was attacked by Mecca in the Battle of the Trench. He was born Zoroastrianm then attracted to Christianity and then was converted to Islam. According to some traditions, he was appointed as the governor of Al-Mada'in in Iraq. According to popular Shia tradition, Muhammad considered Salman as part of his Household (Ahl al-Bayt).[2] He was a renowned follower of Ali ibn Abi Talib after the death of Muhammad.[3]

Birth and early life[edit]

Salman was born either in the city of Kazerun in Fars Province, or Isfahan in Isfahan Province, Persia.[4][5] His real name was "Ruzbih son of Marzban" and was a Persian and his name is a common Persian and Iranian name.[2][6][7] The first sixteen years of his life was devoted to studying so that he became a Zoroastrian Mogh or priest at the age of sixteen. At the same age he became the guardian of a fire temple, which was a well-respected job. Three years later in 587 he met a Nestorian Christian group and was so impressed by them that he left his family to join them.[8] his family imprisoned him afterwards to prevent him but he escaped.[8]

He traveled around the Middle East to discuss his ideas with priests, theologians and scholars and searched for truth.[8] In his stay in Syria he heard of Muhammad, whose coming has been predicted by his last Christian teacher in his deathbed.[6] the new prophet who would come to renew the religion of Abraham. Afterwards and during his Journey to Arabian Peninsula he was betrayed and was sold to a Jew in Medina. He met Muhammad there and recognized the marks that the monk has described to him and converted to Islam and was freed by him.[2][6] Later on he became intimate to Muhammad and Ali so as according to Shiite traditions he is called as a member of House of Muhammad.[2]

Abu Hurairah is said to have referred to Salman as "Abu Al Kitabayn" (The father of the two books, i.e., the Bible and the Quran) and Ali is said to have referred to him as Luqman al-Hakeem (Luqman the wise - reference to a wise man in the Quran known for his wise statements)[9]

Career[edit]

Further information: Battle of the Trench
Mosque Salman al-Farsi, battle of trench, Medina

It was Salman who came up with the idea of digging a great trench around the city of Medina to defend the city against the army of 10,000 Arabian non-Muslims. Muhammad and his companions accepted Salman's plan because it was safer and there would be a better chance that the non-Muslim army would have a larger number of casualties.[2][6][7][8]

Salman participated in the conquest of the Sasanian Empire and became the first governor of Sasanid capital after its fall at the time of the second Rashidun Caliph.[7] According to some other sources,[8] however, he was disappeared from public life after Muhammad's death; until 656 when Ali became Caliph, and appointed Salman as the governor of Al-Mada'in at the age of 88.[8]

While some sources gather Salman with the Muhajirun,[10] other sources narrate that during the Battle of the Trench, one of Muhajirun stated "Salman is one of us, Muhajirun", but this was challenged by the Muslims of Medina (also known as the Ansar). A lively argument began between the two groups with each of them claiming Salman belonged to their group and not to the other one. Muhammad arrived on the scene and heard the argument. He was amused by the claims but soon put an end to the argument by saying: "Salman is neither Muhajir nor Ansar. He is one of us. He is one of the People of the House."[11]

Salman in Quran[edit]

Salman was the only person close to Muhammad who had profound knowledge of Zoroastrian, Judaism and Christianity. 'We know indeed that they say 'it is a man who teaches him.' The tongue of him the wickedly point to is notably foreign, while this is Arabic, pure and clear.[a] The Arabic word translated above as 'foreign' is 'Ajam'. This word was used by Arabs to refer to the Persians.[8] It is pointed out that the non-Arab person was Salman.[8]

Death[edit]

When exactly Salman died is unknown, however it was probably during Uthman ibn Affan's reign or the second year of Ali's reign. One source states that he died in 32 AH/652 or 653 AD in the Julian calendar,[12][13] while another source says he died during Uthman's era in 35 AH/655 or 656 AD.[13] Other sources state that he died during Ali's reign.[9] His tomb is located in Al-Mada'in, or according to some others in Isfahan, Jerusalem and elsewhere.[2]

Works[edit]

He translated part of the Quran into Persian, thus becoming the first person to interpret and translate the Quran into a foreign language.[1]

Shia view[edit]

Shias, Twelvers in particular, hold Salman in high esteem for a hadith attributed to him, in which all twelve Imāms were mentioned to him by name, from Muhammad.[14]

Ali Asgher Razwy, a 20th-century Shia Twelver Islamic scholar states:

If anyone wishes to see the real spirit of Islam, he will find it, not in the deeds of the nouveaux riches of Medina, but in the life, character and deeds of such companions of the Apostle of God as Ali ibn Abi Talib, Salman el-Farsi, Abu Dharr el-Ghiffari, Ammar ibn Yasir, Owais Qarni and Bilal. The orientalists will change their assessment of the spirit of Islam if they contemplate it in the austere, pure and sanctified lives of these latter companions.

Sufi view[edit]

Salman is also well known as prominent figure in Sufi traditions.[2] Suffi orders such as Qadariyya and Baktashiyya and Naqshbandi have salman in their Isnad of their brotherhood.[7] In the Oveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi order and Naqshbandi order, Salman is the third person in the chain connecting devotees with Muhammad. He also founded Futuwwa along with Ali ibn abi Talib.[7]

Bahá’í view[edit]

In the Kitáb-i-Íqán, Bahá'u'lláh honours Salman for having been told about the coming of the prophet Muhammad:

As to the signs of the invisible heaven, there appeared four men who successively announced unto the people the joyful tidings of the rise of that divine Luminary. Rúz-bih, later named Salmán, was honoured by being in their service. As the end of one of these approached, he would send Rúz-bih unto the other, until the fourth who, feeling his death to be nigh, addressed Rúz-bih saying: 'O Rúz-bih! when thou hast taken up my body and buried it, go to Hijáz for there the Day-star of Muhammad will arise. Happy art thou, for thou shalt behold His face!'

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b An-Nawawi, Al-Majmu', (Cairo, Matbacat at-'Tadamun n.d.), 380.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Jestice, Phyllis G. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 761. ISBN 978-1576073551. 
  3. ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2009). Historical Dictionary of Islam. Lanham, Maryland • Toronto • Plymouth, UK: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 276–277. 
  4. ^ "Salman The Persian - Biography". Experiencefestival.com. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  5. ^ "Salman al-Farsi (Salman the Persian)". Islamawareness.net. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  6. ^ a b c d Houtsma & Wensinck (1993). First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936. Brill Academic Pub. p. 116. ISBN 978-9004097964. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Zakeri, Mohsen (1993). Sasanid Soldiers in Early Muslim Society: The Origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa. Jremany. p. 306. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Navarr, Miles Augustus (2012). Forbidden Theology: Origin of Scriptural God. Xlibris. pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-1477117521. 
  9. ^ a b "سلمان الفارسي - الصحابة - موسوعة الاسرة المسلمة". Islam.aljayyash.net. Retrieved 2012-12-25. 
  10. ^ "Seventh Session, Part 2". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  11. ^ Akramulla Syed (2010-03-20). "Salman the Persian details: Early Years in Persia (Iran)". Ezsoftech.com. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  12. ^ "موقع قصة الإسلام - إشراف د/ راغب السرجاني". islamstory.com. 
  13. ^ a b John Walker. "Calendar Converter". fourmilab.ch. 
  14. ^ Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir ibn Rustom al-Tabari. Dalail al-Imamah. p.447.
  15. ^ A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims on Al-Islam.org Umar bin al-Khattab, the Second Khalifa of the Muslims

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