Roman Catholic Diocese of Digne

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Diocese of Digne (–Riez–Sisteron)
Dioecesis Diniensis (–Reiensis–Sistariensis)
Diocèse de Digne (–Riez–Sisteron)
Cathédrale St Jérôme Digne 04.jpg
Location
Country  France
Ecclesiastical province Marseille
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Marseille
Statistics
Area 6,986 km2 (2,697 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2013)
163,500
112,800 (69%)
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established United: 15 February 1916
Cathedral Cathedral of St. Jerome
Patron saint Saint Domnin
Saint Vincent of Digne
Secular priests 30 (diocesan)
11 (Religious Orders)
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Bishop Jean-Philippe Nault
Metropolitan Archbishop Georges Pontier
Emeritus Bishops Edmond-Marie-Henri Abelé
François-Xavier Loizeau
Website
http://eglise.catholique04.fr/
Diocese of Digne

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Digne (Latin: Dioecesis Diniensis; French: Diocèse de Digne) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Erected in the 4th century as the Diocese of Digne, the diocese has been known as the Diocese of Digne (–Riez–Sisteron) since 1922. The diocese comprises the entire department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The diocese used to be a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles until 2002, but is now a suffragan of Marseille. The bishops have their throne in Digne Cathedral at Digne-les-Bains.

Extent[edit]

By the Concordat of 1801, this diocese was made to include the two departments of the Hautes-Alpes and the Basses-Alpes; and in addition it received the former Diocese of Digne, the Archdiocese of Embrun, the dioceses of Gap, Sisteron and Senez, a part of the dioceses of Glandèves and Riez, and fourteen parishes in the Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles and the Diocese of Apt.[1] In 1822 Gap was revived as an episcopal see, with its territory comprising the department of the Hautes-Alpes.[2] The present Diocese of Digne, divested of the department of the Hautes Alpes, covers the territory formerly included in the Dioceses of Digne, Senez, Glandèves, Riez and Sisteron.[3]

History[edit]

The former diocese of Digne was evangelized by Saints Domninus and Vincentius who came from North Africa in the second half of the fourth century with Saint Marcellinus, the Apostle of Embrun. There is no evidence, however, that they were bishops. The first historically known bishop was Pentadius who attended the Council of Agde in 506.

Cathedral[edit]

The original cathedral of Digne (Cathédrale Notre-Dame-du-Bourg de Digne) was in Bourg, the city of Digne and the Bourg being two separate legal entities.[4] The earliest architectural remains on the site where the cathedral now stands consist of a wall of Gallo-Roman construction, which local authorities and amateurs would like to push back to the time of Constantine, or at least, as Canon J.-F. Cruvellier admits, to the Constantinian era.[5] It would be completely improper, however, to call this church a cathedral, since it cannot be shown that there was a bishop in Digne until after 500. The second church, as was first asserted by Honoré Bouche,[6] was traditionally believed to have been built or rebuilt by Charlemagne. He made the same claim for the cathedrals of Avignon, Embrun, Seine, Senez, and Glandèves.[7] In 1479, when the Chapter of Digne was attempting to persuade Pope Sixtus IV to grant them the Priory of Saint-Pierre d'Albéra, they impressed him by claiming that their church had been founded and endowed by Charlemagne himself.[8]

In a bull of 1180 (or 1184), addressed to Ugo the Provost and the Canons of S. Maria Dignensis, in which Pope Alexander III takes the Church of Digne under papal protection, the first notation is Burgum Dinense, in quo ecclesia vestra constitit ('Bourg, in which your church is situated').[9] Jurisdiction over the Bourg belonged to the Provost from 1280, by way of a grant of Count Raymond Berenguer IV of Provence.[10]

On 26 July 1397, during the episcopate of Nicholas de Corbières, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, which had been rebuilt, and consecrated in 1330, and the church of the convent of the Franciscans were burned. The fires were deliberately set, apparently by bands of Vicomte Raymond de Turenne.[11]

Notre-Dame du Bourg was attacked again, sacked, and consigned to the flames in 1560 by the Huguenots. They returned an wrought more destruction in 1562, 1568, 1574, and 1591.[12] In 1591 the Duc de Lesdiguières, who had just successfully reduced the Dauphiné to obedience to Henri IV and captured Grenoble, was appealed to by the Duc de la Valette, Governor of Provence, to help him against the forces of the League, who were being supported by the Duke of Savoy. In April 1591, Lesdiguières won the Battle of Esperron, and then in October he appeared before Digne. He directed his cannon first against the monastery of Saint-Vincent, which was being fortified and defended by the forces of the League, and then against the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, which received 54 volleys. The Leaguers capitulated and were allowed to withdraw. They left behind a huge cache of gunpowder in the crypt, however, and, in the removal of those supplies in 1593, further damage was done to tombs and burials.[13] Luckily Notre-Dame du Bourg was not put up for sale or destruction in the confiscations of 1793. Later it was classed as an historical monument, second class, and survived.[14] The episcopal palace was not so lucky. The wars of religion had done such damage that the new bishop, Antoine de Bologne, was not able to reside there when he arrived in Digne in March 1602, but had to live in rented quarters until a new building could be erected.[15]

The Basilica of Saint-Jerôme, which served as a cathedral after the Huguenot devastations of the 16th century, had its foundations begun by Bishop Antoine Guiramand in 1490. He chose a site in the citadel, next to the fortifications.[16] Notre-Dame du Bourg continues to be the cathedral down to the present time, and episcopal functions are regularly held there. A priest and a deacon were ordained in the cathedral on 18 June 2017.[17]

Chapter[edit]

In the medieval period the Cathedral Chapter of Digne was composed of a Provost and thirteen Canons, among whom were the Archdeacon, the Sacristan, and the Precentor.[18] The earliest known Provost was Guillaume de Benevento in 1175.[19] In 1669 it was composed of four dignities (dignités, not 'dignitaries') and nineteen canons.[20] In 1742 there were three dignities and ten canons.[21] In the mid-nineteenth century, the Chapter was composed of the two Archdeacons (who were Vicars General of the diocese) and nine titular Canons; there were also thirty honorary Canons, of whom ten had to be from the diocese.[22]

Plague[edit]

In 1629 all of Provence was struck by a visitation of the (bubonic) plague. Fears of an invasion had already been aroused in 1628, and the Parliament of Aix issued orders to every commune in Provence to be on watch and to establish a bureau of sanitation in its area. On 10 September 1628 Digne complied and established its bureau of ten members; it also ordered the Consuls of Digne to secure the highways.[23] The plague made its appearance in Digne by the first week in June. From 5 October 1629 to 21 March 1630 the inhabitants were quarantined inside the city.[24] Plague returned at the beginning of June 1631, lasting through the middle of November. In July it struck the convent of the Récollets. An infirmary was set up in the convent of the Franciscans (Cordelliers), though this order was countermanded, so that the chapel could remain in service. The shortage of priests was such that the church of Saint-Jérôme had no clergy at all. The convent and church of the Observant Franciscans were closed. Only the chapel of the Récollets continued to hold services. [25] Pierre Gassendi, who was Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Digne from 1634 to 1655,[26] reported that, at Digne, before the plague there were some ten thousand inhabitants, but that afterwards only fifteen hundred remained.[27] A generation later, in 1669, the numbers had recovered only to around six thousand persons.[28]

In 1652 the Jesuits established a collège for the education of the youth of Digne.[29]

Revolution[edit]

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called 'départements', originally intended to be 83 or 84 in number. The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated.[30] Clergy would need to take an oath of allegiance to the State and its Constitution, specified by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and they would become salaried officials of the State. Both bishops and priests would be elected by special 'electors' in each department. This meant schism, since bishops would no longer need to be approved (preconised) by the Papacy; the transfer of bishops, likewise, which had formerly been the exclusive prerogative of the pope in canon law, would be the privilege of the State; the election of bishops no longer lay with the Cathedral Chapters (which were all abolished), or other responsible clergy, or the Pope, but with electors who did not even have to be Catholics or Christians.[31] All monasteries, convents and religious orders in France were dissolved, and their members were released from their vows by order of the National Constituent Assembly (which was uncanonical); their property was confiscated "for the public good", and sold to pay the bills of the French government.[32] Cathedral Chapters were also dissolved.[33]

Bishops who refused to take the oath to the Constitution were considered to have resigned their posts. Bishop François du Mouchet de Villedieu was one of the non-jurors, and consequently a new election was ordered by the Legislative Assembly. The diocese of Digne had been suppressed by the Civil Constitution and its territory had been merged into the new diocese of Basses-Alpes. The Electors met at Digne on 20 March 1791, and on the third ballot elected the Curé of Valensole, Jean-Baptiste-Romé de Villeneuve as the bishop of Basses-Alpes. The legitimate bishop de Villedieu sent the usurper two letters, but Villeneuve accepted the position and was consecrated at Nîmes by Constitutional Bishop Charles-Benoît Roux. The consecration was valid, but illicit, schismatic, and blasphemous. During the Terror he was ordered to resign his priestly offices, but he refused and spent thirteen months in prison in Digne; he was released only on 9 November 1794. But he returned to desolation. Reason had officially supplanted Religion in France, and the former churches were Temples of Reason. When Religion was restored in 1795, the Constitutional Church revived, except at Manosque and in the countryside, where it was the Roman Church or nothing. In 1798, under orders, he named and consecrated Constitutional bishops for Vaucluse and Bouches-du-Rhone. But he fell ill and died completely unrepentant on 23 December 1798.[34]

Villeneuve was succeeded by his Vicar General, André Champsaud, former Curé of the Cathedral of Digne. He had been imprisoned with Villeneuve in 1793–1794, and had administered the diocese in 1795 on behalf of Villeneuve, who was ill. He was consecrated a bishop at Aix on 5 May 1799 by Constitutional bishop Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Aubert, and resigned in 1801. Champsaud solemnly retracted his errors in 1811, and died on 26 July 1826.[35]

Under the Concordat of 1801[edit]

After the signing of the Concordat of 1801 with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, Pope Pius VII demanded the resignation of all bishops in France, in order to leave no doubt as to who was a legitimate bishop and who was a Constitutional imposter.[36] He then immediately abolished all of the dioceses in France, for the same reason. Then he began to restore the old Ancien Regime dioceses, or most of them, though not with the same boundaries as before the Revolution. The diocese of Digne was revived by Pope Pius VII in his bull Qui Christi Domini of 29 November 1801.[37] Through the influence of General Jean-Joseph Dessole (Dessolles), his uncle was nominated bishop of the restored diocese of Digne by First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte on 29 April 1802, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VII on 6 May. He was consecrated in Paris on 11 July by the Bishop of Vannes.[38]

Twentieth century[edit]

During the First World War, the diocese of Digne sent 130 of its clergy for mobilisation. Nine priests and three seminarians died in the conflict. Twelve were decorated with the Croix de guerre.[39]

List of Bishops[edit]

to 1000[edit]

[365: Domninus][40]
[380: Vincent][41]
[c. 439–c. 455: Nectarius][42]
[Memorialis][43]
  • 506: Pentadius[44]
[524–527: Porcianus][45]
  • c. 549–c. 554: Hilarius[46]
  • 573–585: Heraclius[47]
[614: Maximus][48]
  • 650: Agapius (Agape) or Bobo (Bobon)[49]
  • 798: Raganbaldus[50]
  • 899: Bledericus[51]

1000 to 1300[edit]

  • 1025: Eminus[52]
  • c. 1028–c. 1038: Bernardus (I.)[53]
  • 1038–c. 1068: Hugo (I.)[54]
[1070: Laugier][55]
  • 1146: Gui[56]
  • c. 1150 (?): Pierre (I.) Hesmido[57]
  • Hugo (II.) de Vars[58]
  • Hugo (III.)[59]
  • Pierre (II.) de Droilla[60]
  • 1179: Guillaume (I.) de Bénévent[61]
  • c. 1184/1185 — 1190 (?): Guigue de Revel, O.S.B.[62]
  • c. 1192 – c. 1196: Bertrand (I.) de Turriers[63]
  • 1206: Ismido[64]
  • 1209: Gualo (Walon) de Dampierre[65]
  • 1211 – 5 October 1232: L(antelmus)[66]
  • 1233 – 1242?: Hugues (IV.) de Laudun[67]
  • 1247–1248: Amblard[68]
  • 1248 – 25 May 1278: Bonifatius[69]
  • 1289–c. 1295: Guillaume (II.) de Porcellet, O.Min.[70]
  • (c. 1297 – after August 1299) Hugo[71]

1300 to 1600[edit]

  • c. 1302–c. 1318: Renaud de Porcelet[72]
  • 1318–1323?: Armandus[73]
  • 1324–1327: Guillaume (III.) de Sabran[74]
  • 1327 – 7 October 1341: Elzéar de Villeneuve[75]
  • 1341–1361: Jean (I.) Peissoni[76]
  • 1362 – c. 1385 ?: Bertrand (II.) de Seguret[77]
  • 1386 – 5 March 1406: Nicolas de Corbières[78]
  • 1406–1432: Bertrandus (III.) Radulphi, O.Min.[79]
  • 1432–1439: Pierre (III.) de Verceil (Versailles), O.S.B.[80]
  • 1439–1445: Guillaume d'Estouteville[81]
  • 1445 – 22 July 1466: Pierre (IV.) Turelure, O.P.[82]
  • 26 September 1466 – August 1479: Conrad de La Croix[83]
  • c. 1479 – c. 1513: Antoine de Guiramand[84]
  • 1513–1536: François de Guiramand[85]
  • 1536–1545: Chérubin d'Orsière[86]
  • 1546 – c. 1552: Antoine Olivier[87]
  • 1552–1568: Antoine Hérouet[88]
  • 1568–1587: Henri Le Meignen[89]
  • 1587–1602: Claude Coquelet[90]

1600 to 1800[edit]

  • 1602–1615: Antoine (IV.) de Bologne[91]
  • 1615–1628: Louis (I.) de Bologne[92]
  • 1628–1664: Raphaël de Bologne[93]
  • 1664–1668: Toussaint de Forbin-Janson[94]
  • 1668–1669: Jean-Armand de Rotondis de Biscarras[95]
  • 1669–1675: Jean (II.) de Vintimille du Luc[96]
  • 1675–1678: Henri (II.) Félix de Tassy[97]
  • 1678–1708: François (II.) Le Tellier[98]
  • 1708–1728: Henri de Pujet[99]
  • 1730–1741: Antoine Amable de Feydeau, O.Carm.[100]
[1742: Paul de Ribeyre][101]
  • 1742–1746: Jean-Louis du Lau[102]
  • 1747–1758: Louis Sextius de Jarente de La Bruyère[103]
  • 1758–1784: Pierre-Paul du Queylar[104]
  • 1784–1790: François du Mouchet de Villedieu[105]
    • Jean-Baptiste-Romé de Villeneuve (Constitutional bishop of Basses-Alpes) (1791–1798)
    • André Champsaud (Constitutional bishop of Basses-Alpes) (1798–1801)

since 1802[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and References[edit]

  1. ^ M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., p. 213.
  2. ^ Fisquet, p. 40.
  3. ^ Diocese de Digne, Paroisses ou secteurs paroissiaux, retrieved: 2017-08-02.
  4. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1108.
  5. ^ Cruvellier (1882-1883), pp. 188-189, 196. The building had two floors, a below-ground one being a crypt or charnel house.
  6. ^ Honoré Bouche (1664). La Chorographie ou Description de Provence, et l'histoire Chronologique du mesme pays (in French). Tome I. Aix: Charles David. p. 721. 
  7. ^ Cruvellier (1882-1883), p. 194.
  8. ^ Cruvellier (1882-1883), p. 195, with note 1: que div(a)e memori(a)e Carolomagno, Romanorum imperatore, inter duos montes extra muros civitatis Dignensis fundata et dotata extitit.
  9. ^ i.e. Notre-Dame-du-Bourg is the seat of the Chapter. Gallia christiana III, Instrumenta, pp. 187-188.
  10. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1108. Cruvellier (1882-1883), p. 201.
  11. ^ Cruvellier (1882-1883), pp. 294-295.
  12. ^ Cruvellier 4 (1883-1884), p. 75-76.
  13. ^ Cruvellier (1883-1884), pp. 116-120.
  14. ^ Cruvellier (1883-1884), p. 206.
  15. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1134.
  16. ^ Cruvellier (1883-1884), p. 75. Saint-Marthe, in Gallia christiana III, p. 1109-1110, points out that there are no bulls that transfer the seat of the bishop to Saint-Jerôme, nor is it called a cathedral. Fisquet, p. 14.
  17. ^ Diocèse de Digne, Ordinations de Fredy Alvarado et Jean-Sébastien Higuera, retrieved: 2017-08-02. (in French)
  18. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1108.
  19. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1137, according to Polycarpe de la Rivière. A Provost named Hugo is mentioned in a bull of Pope Alexander III of 1180.
  20. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 note 1.
  21. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 196 note 1.
  22. ^ Fisquet, p. 15.
  23. ^ Guichard, Essai sur l'histoire de Digne pendant la peste de 1629, p. 8.
  24. ^ Guichard, pp. 59-60.
  25. ^ Guichard, p. 173, 177-178.
  26. ^ Fisquet, pp. 248-260.
  27. ^ Gassendi (1654), Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis, caput VI, p. 33.
  28. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 note 1.
  29. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1109-1110.
  30. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La République française en quatre-vingt-quatre départements, dictionnaire géographique et méthodique (in French). Paris: Chez l'éditeur, rue des Marais. pp. 7–11. 
  31. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) ... (in French). Tome I. Paris: Firmin Didot frères, fils et cie. pp. 204–208. 
  32. ^ Pierre Brizon (1904). L'église et la révolution française des Cahiers de 1789 au Concordat (in French). Paris: Pages libres. pp. 27–30. 
  33. ^ Philippe Bourdin, "Collégiales et chapitres cathédraux au crible de l'opinion et de la Révolution," Annales historiques de la Révolution française no. 331 (janvier/mars 2003), 29-55, at 29-30, 52-53.
  34. ^ Pisani, pp. 328-331.
  35. ^ Pisani, pp. 331-332.
  36. ^ Em Sevestre; Émile Sévestre (1905). L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801 (in French). Paris: Lethielleux. pp. 238–249, 488, 496. 
  37. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121, at p. 116. 
  38. ^ M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., p. 213.
  39. ^ Almanach catholique français (in French). Paris: Bloud & Gay. 1920. p. 80. 
  40. ^ Gallia christiana III, pp. 1109-1110.
  41. ^ Gallia christiana III, pp. 1110-1111.
  42. ^ Nectarius was actually a bishop of Avignon, not of Digne. Duchesne, pp. 267 no. 1, with note 1; 293 note 1.
  43. ^ Gallia christiana III, p. 1113: Nectario suffectum Memorialem haud certis constat argumentis. ('That Memorialis succeeded Nectarius rests on arguments that are scarcely certain'). Duchesne, p. 293 note 1, points out that Memorialis' see is unknown.
  44. ^ Pentadius took part in the Council of Agde in 506. There was also a Pentadius at the Council of Marseille in 533, but his diocese is not named. Duchesne, p. 293 no. 1. Carolus Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 213. Carolus De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 86.
  45. ^ A Bishop Porcianus subscribed at the Councils of 524 (Arles), 527 (Carpentras), 529 (Vaison), and 533 (Marseille), but without naming his diocese. He is excluded from the list of bishops of Digne by Duchesne, p. 293, with note 2. De Clercq, pp. 45-46, 49 and 51, 80, 85.
  46. ^ Bishop Hilarius was present at the Council of Orléans in 549, and the Council of Arles in 554. Duchesne, p. 293, no. 2. De Clercq, pp. 159, 172.
  47. ^ Bishop Heraclius attended the Council of Paris in 573, the Council of Mâcon in 581, and the Council of Mâcon in 585. Duchesne, p. 293, no. 3. De Clercq, pp. 215, 230, 248.
  48. ^ Maximus is wrongly listed by Gams, p. 545 column 1, as a bishop of Digne. The subscription list of the Council of Paris of 614, however, to which Gams appeals, shows that Maximus was Bishop of Die, not Digne. De Clercq, p. 281.
  49. ^ Council of Chalon-sur-Saône (chapter 20): Agapium et Bobone Diniensis urbis pro eo, quod ipsos contra statutum canonum in multis conditionibus errasse vel deliquisse cognovimus, ipsos iuxta ipso tenore canonum ab omni episcopatus eorum ordine decrevimus regradare. ('Because we have taken notice that Agapius and Bobo of the city of Digne have erred or deliberately violated the canons in many situations, we have decided, in accordance with the meaning of the canons, to degrade them from every function of their episcopacies.'). Duchesne, p. 293 no. 4. De Clercq, pp. 307-308. Either they were competing for the See of Digne, or they were sharing it.
  50. ^ Raimbaud signed the documents of the Council of Narbonne of June 798 as Bishop-elect. J.D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIII (Florence 1767), p. 824. Duchesne, p. 293 no. 5.
  51. ^ Bledericus was present with six other bishops in Vienne in 899 to elect a successor to Archbishop Bernuinus. Claude Jules Marion, ed. (1869). Cartulaires de l'église cathédrale de Grenoble: dits Cartulaires de Saint-Hugues (in French and Latin). Paris: Imprimerie impériale. p. 262.  Duchesne, p. 293 no. 6.
  52. ^ Bishop Eminus subscribed a charter for Archbishop Rado of Embrun in 1025. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1115-1116. Fisquet, pp. 37-38.
  53. ^ Bishop Bernardus is known from a charter deed of gift of Saint-Vincent de Marseille of 1035. Gallia christiana III, p. 1116. Benjamin Guérard (1857). Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (in French and Latin). Tome II. Paris: Lahure. pp. 91–92, no. 743.  Fisquet, p. 38.
  54. ^ Hugo is mentioned in a charter of Saint-Vincent de Marseille in 1038. Guérard, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille II, pp. 84-85, no. 738. A charter of Brioude of 1066 also mentions Bishop Hugues. Gallia christiana III, p. 1116. Fisquet, pp. 38-39.
  55. ^ The existence of Bishop Laugier depends on a single document which no longer exists. It is reported by Gassendi (1654), p. 161, based on a report of Polycarpe de la Rivière. The document has long been known to be defective (to say the least). Gallia christiana III, p. 1116. Fisquier, p. 39. Gams, p. 545 column 1, places a question mark next to Laugier's name.
  56. ^ Bishop Gui is known from only a single document, a judicial inquiry made by the Archbishop of Embrun, found in the collection of the Abbey of Saint-Vincent in Marseille and dated 1146. Guérard (1857), Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille II, pp. 441-442 no. 990. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1116-1117. Fisquet, pp. 40-41.
  57. ^ Hesmido is the spelling reported by Polycarpe de la Rivière, from the Martyrologie de Digne under 22 February. The local noble family spelled their name Hesmivy. No year is given, and there are no other sources. The date of mid-twelfth century is a guess of Polycarpe. Gallia christiana III, p. 1117. Fisquet, pp. 41-42.
  58. ^ Bishop Hugo of Vars (diocese of Embrun) is known only from the Martyrologie de Digne, under 25 January. No year is given, and there are no other sources. Gallia christiana III, p. 1117. Fisquet, p. 42.
  59. ^ Bishop Hugo is known only from the Martyrologie de Digne, under 13 March. No year is given, and there are no other sources. Gallia christiana III, p. 1117. Fisquet, p. 42.
  60. ^ Petrus de Driolla is named as Episcopus electus in the Martyrologie de Digne, under 14 April. Had he died before consecration, or installation? No year is given, and there are no other sources. Gallia christiana III, p. 1117. Fisquet, p. 42.
  61. ^ According to documents provided by Polycarpe de la Rivière, Guillaume de Benevento was Canon of Fréjus, and Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Digne (in 1175). In a document of July 1179 he is called Episcopus electus of Digne. It is alleged that he was transferred to the Archbishopric of Embrun in 1184 (Gassendi) or 1194 (Marcellin Fournier). Marcellin Fornier (1890). Histoire générales des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes: et pertievlière de levr métropolitaine Ambrvn; chronographiqve et meslée de la séevlière avec l'ecclésiastiqve, divisée en cinq parties fort abondantes en diverses belles evriositez (in French). Paris: H. Champion. pp. 710–714.  Gallia christiana III, p. 1118. Fisquet, pp. 43-46.
  62. ^ Guigo was born in the village of Revel. He was a monk, and then abbot, of the Abbey of Boscaudon (from 1143). In 1174 he became abbot of the monastery of Lure, which he had founded in Sisteron. He was named bishop of Digne in the papacy of Pope Lucius III (September 1181–November 1185). He died on 22 May, but the year of his death is unknown. Fornier, pp. 710-714. Gallia christiana III, p. 1118. Fisquet, pp. 46-47.
  63. ^ Bertrand was bishop of Digne by 1192, when he subscribed a document; he also ratified a document in 1193. He is mentioned in a transaction of 27 February 1196. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1118-1119. Fisquet, pp. 47-48.
  64. ^ Ismido: His existence depends on the word of Polycarpe de la Rivière, a known forger. Charles-Félix Bellet (1896). Les Origines Des Églises de France Et Les Fastes Épiscopaux (in French). Paris: A. Picard. pp. 104, note 1.  Jules Chevalier (1888). Essai historique sur l'église et la ville de Die: depuis les origines jusqu'à l'année 1276 (in French). impr. Bourron. pp. 69–70.  Fisquet, p. 48. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  65. ^ Gualo was a Canon of Langres. He went on the Fourth Crusade, and became Archbishop of Damascus (according to Fisquet). After the Fall of Constantinople in 1204, he returned to Langres with relics. Due to his health, he was not able to return to his diocese in Damascus (?). It is said that he became Bishop of Digne in 1209, but died in 1210. A letter of Pope Innocent III (Book XI, no 114) however, grants to a bishop of Dimicensis in the Province of Larissa (Thessaly) the privilege of holding the bishopric of Calydon in commendam. According to Gams, p. 432, this was a Bishop Gualo. Dimicensis and Diniensis are very similar. Paul Edouard Didier Riant (1875). Des dépouilles religieuses enlevées a Constantinople au XIIIe siec̀le: et des documents historiques nés de leur transport en occident (in French). Paris: Société Nationale des Antiquairies de France. p. 105.  Fisquet, p. 48. Eubel, I, p. 224. Jean Longnon (1978). Les compagnons de Villehardouin (in French). Paris: Droz. p. 219. 
  66. ^ A note in the margin of the Martyrology of Digne states that Bishop Lantelme died on 6 October 1232, and left to the Cathedral Chapter all his property, which was outside the town at the upper gate. Another note, however, in the acts of the Chapter, states that the property outside the town at the upper gate was left by Bishop Ludovicus. A document in the Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (p. 433 no. 983), perhaps of 1211, names a Bishop L., as does another (pp. 479-480, no. 1019) of 9 January 1218. A charter of Raymond Berengarius of 8 March 1221 mentions a Bishop L., as does a donation of 1228 of Raimbaud de Beaujeu. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1119-1120. Fisquet, pp. 48-49.
  67. ^ Bishop Hugues is mentioned in a privilege of Raimond Berenguer of 28 December 1233. Hugues died on 10 July, perhaps in 1242 (?). Gassendi believed that he lived until 1250. Gallia christiana III, p. 1120. Fisquet, pp. 49-51.
  68. ^ Amblarus consecrated the altar of a church on 4 October 1251. It is said that after four years as Bishop, Amblard resigned and took the Carthusian habit in 1256; the information depends on Polycarpe de la Rivière, and is contradicted by known facts. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1120-1121. Fisquet, pp. 51-52.
  69. ^ Bonifacius, Archdeacon of Digne, had been elected on 24 June 1248, and approved by Pope Innocent IV by 22 October 1248. He died on 25 May 1278. Gallia christiana III, p. 1121. Fisquet, pp. 52-56. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  70. ^ Guillaume's election was approved by Pope Nicholas IV on 2 December 1289. He was present at the provincial council held by Archbishop Raimundus of Embrun in August 1290. On 23 November 1294 Bishop Guillaume published several ordinances. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1121-1122. Fisquet, pp. 57-59. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  71. ^ Bishop Hugo was already in office in 1297. He and the Cathedral Chapter confirmed various acts on 23 and 24 March 1298, and on 10 August 1299. Gallia christiana III, p. 1122. Fisquet, p. 59. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  72. ^ Rainaldus had been Sacristan of the Cathedral Chapter of Digne. He was already bishop-elect on 2 January 1303. On 22 March 1315 he confirmed several statutes already published by his predecessors. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1122-1123. Fisquet, pp. 59-61. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  73. ^ Armandus had already been elected bishop by 13 July 1318. In 1322 Pope John XXII sent him on an embassy to Gascony. Gallia christiana III, p. 1123. Fisquet, p. 62. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  74. ^ Guillaume de Sabran was appointed bishop of Digne by Pope John XXII on 25 January 1324. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1123-1124. Fisquet, p. 63-65. Eubel, I, p. 224, admits only one Guillaume, Guillaume Ebrard being the same as Guillaume de Sabran. Cruvellier, 3 (1882-1883), p. 294: ...Guillaume Ebrard... devra être definitivement exclu de la série. Il n'a jamais existé.
  75. ^ Elziarius de Velleneuve was the nephew of Bishop Guillaume de Sabran. He had been a Canon at Fréjus and at Marseille. He was appointed by Pope John XXII on 17 November 1327; the letter of provision clearly states that Elzéar was the immediate successor of Guillaume de Sabran. He participated in the Council of Avignon of 1337. He was author, on 22 May 1341, of a form of oath to be taken by Jews. He died on 7 October 1341. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1124-1125. Fisquet, p. 63-65. Cruvellier, 3 (1882-1883), pp. 293-294. Eubel, I, p. 224.
  76. ^ Jean was appointed on 17 December 1341 by Pope Benedict XII. He was transferred to the diocese of Aix on 2 August 1361 by Pope Innocent VI. Eubel, I, pp. 96, 214.
  77. ^ Bertrand had been Canon and Sacristan of the Cathedral Chapter. Bishop Bertrand took part in the Council of Apt on 14 May 1365. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum Tomus XXVI, p. 458. Fisquet, p. 73.
  78. ^ Nicolas was named Bishop of Digne by Clement VII (Avignon Obedience) on 2 June 1386. He was appointed on 4 June 1397 by Benedict XIII (Avignon Obedience). Fisquet, pp. 74-75 (the date of death is a misprint). Jean-Joseph-Maxime Feraud (1879). Souvenirs religieux des églises de la Haute-Provence: suite et complément de l'histoire, géographie et statistique des Basses-Alpes ... (in French). Digne: Vial. p. 185.  Eubel, I, p. 214.
  79. ^ Bertrand was appointed bishop of Digne on 10 March 1406 by Benedict XIII (Avignon Obedience). He was dead by 26 February 1432. Eubel, I, p. 214; II, p. 144 note 1.
  80. ^ Pierre was approved in Consistory by Pope Eugene IV on 31 March 1432. He represented the clergy and the Count of Provence at the Council of Basle, and was therefore a schismatic. Reconciled, he was transferred to the diocese of Meaux on 25 September 1439. He died on 11 November 1446. Fisquet, pp. 77-80. Eubel, II, p. 144 with note 3; 189.
  81. ^ , closely connected with the history of the Pragmatic Sanction and later Archbishop of Rouen
  82. ^ Pierre Turelure (de Tourtoulon), master in theology, was approved on 11 September 1445. On 18 December 1445 he conducted ordinations in the cathedral. He died on 22 July 1466. Fisquet, pp. 87-89. Eubel, II, p. 144.
  83. ^ Conrad de la Croix, Provost of the Cathedral Chapter, was elected by the Canons of Digne on 24 July 1466, two days after the death of Bishop Turelure. He was entered on the Obligations Roll on 26 September 1466. Gallia christiana III, p. 1130. Fisquet, pp. 89-90. Eubel, II, p. 144.
  84. ^ Antoine de Guiramand had been a Canon in the Collegiate Church of Barjols, some forty miles east of Aix. Antoine's bulls were issued on 24 September 1479. He resigned in 1513 (?), and died on 22 October 1514. Gallia christiana III, p. 1130-1131. Fisquet, pp. 91-95. Eubel, II, p. 144.
  85. ^ François de Guiramand was Precentor in the Cathedral Chapter of Digne from 1507. He succeeded his uncle on 23 January 1512. He died on 25 May 1536. Fisquet, pp. 96-97. Eubel, III, p. 186.
  86. ^ Cherubino had been Archpriest of Arles. He was nominated by King Francis I of France and approved in Consistory on 4 August 1536 by Pope Paul III. Fisquet, p. 97. Eubel, III, p. 186.
  87. ^ A cleric of Paris, Olivier was nominated bishop of Digne by King Francis I, and approved in Consistory on 17 May 1546 by Pope Paul III. His father had been Chancellor of the Duchy of Milan and a President of the Parliament of Paris; his brother became Garde de Sceaux and then Chancellor of France in 1545. Antoine was transferred to the diocese of Lombez on 12 September 1552. He died on 17 February 1560. Fisquet, p. 97. Eubel, III, pp. 186, 227.
  88. ^ poet and translator of Plato
  89. ^ Le Meignan had been a teacher at the Collège de Lisieux in Paris. He became Preceptor of Marguerite de Valois, daughter of King Henri II, and Aumonier. He was approved in Consistory by Pope Paul IV on 17 March 1568. He continued to work and serve the monarchy in Paris, and never made his formal entry into his diocese. He governed by procurator. He resigned in 1587 in favor of his relative, Claude Coquelet. Fisquet, pp. 101-102. Eubel, III, p. 186.
  90. ^ Coquelet was the brother-in-law (or nephew) of Bishop Le Meignen, and had succeeded him as Aumonier to Queen Marguerite de Valois. He became Vicar General and Official of Digne in October 1579. He was named Archdeacon of France in the Church of Meaux, and in 1586 Dean of the Chapter (which he held for life). He was nominated bishop of Digne by King Henri III, and was preconised by Pope Sixtus V in the Consistory of 26 October 1587. He visited his diocese for the first time in 1593. He resigned his diocese in 1602, before 27 March, in order to become Abbot commendatory of the Abbey of Livry (diocese of Paris). He died in Meaux on 26 October 1613. Fisquet, pp. 102-103. Eubel, III, p. 186.
  91. ^ Antoine de Boulogne was a royal chaplain and Aumonier. He was preconised in the Consistory of 27 March 1602 by Pope Clement VIII. He died on 24 September 1615. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 134 with note 2.
  92. ^ Antoine de Bologne was given a Coadjutor, his brother Louis, who was named titular bishop of Sinopolis on 17 June 1613. He succeeded upon the death of Antoine on 24 September 1615. At the time he was in Guyenne with Louis XIII, receiving the new Queen, Anne of Austria. He suffered a stroke, which prevented his consecration as a bishop. His brother Jules, the Governor of Nogent, administered Louis' temporal affairs, and his nephew Raphaël, titular Bishop of Megara (Greece), was appointed his Coadjutor in spiritual affairs on 17 April 1617. Louis de Bologne died in February 1628. Gallia christiana III, p. 1135. Fisquet, pp. 108-109. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 134 with note 3.
  93. ^ Though he and his uncle had been jointly administering the diocese of Digne since 1617, Raphaël became Bishop of Digne on the death of his uncle Louis in February 1628. In his old age he asked for and received the twenty-one-year-old Toussaint de Forbin-Janson as his Coadjutor, with the titular see of Philadelphia, on 5 July 1655. Raphaël de Bologne died in 1664. Gallia christiana III, p. 1135. Fisquet, pp. 109-110. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 134 with note 4.
  94. ^ Forbin-Janson succeeded as Bishop of Digne in 1664. He was transferred to the diocese of Marseille on 9 July 1668. He was a cardinal (1690) and ambassador to Poland. Gallia christiana III, p. 1136. Fisquet, pp. 109-110. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 134 with note 5.
  95. ^ Biscarras was the son of the Governor of Charleville, and a doctor of theology (Paris). He was appointed Bishop of Digne by King Louis XIV in April 1668, and was consecrated in January 1669. He had not yet taken possession of his diocese when Louis XIV appointed him Bishop of Lodève in April 1669, which was preconised on 5 August 1669. He died as Bishop of Béziers on 16 February 1702. Gallia christiana III, p. 1136. Fisquet, pp. 113-116.
  96. ^ Du Luc was born in the Château du Luc in Fréjus. At the age of 19 he was named Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Riez. In 1669 he was Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Tarascon. He obtained a doctorate in Canon Law. He was nominated by the King on 13 September 1669, and preconised on 2 June 1670 by Pope Clement X, Pope Clement IX having died on 9 December 1669. He was consecrated on 21 September 1670 by Bishop Nicolas de Valavoire of Riez. He was transferred to the diocese of Toulon on 27 April 1676. He died on 15 November 1682. Fisquet, pp. 116-117. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 with note 2; 377 with note 2.
  97. ^ Tassy was born in Paris, and was a master in theology. He was nominated bishop of Digne by Louis XIV on 17 September 1675, and preconised on 19 October 1676 by Pope Innocent XI (Clement X having died on 22 July 1676). He was consecrated in Paris on 6 December 1676 by Archbishop François de Harlay. On 18 June 1677, Louis XIV nominated him Bishop of Chalôn-sur-Saone, which was approved on 31 January 1678 by Innocent XI. He died on 11 November 1711. Fisquet, pp. 117-118. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 with note 3.
  98. ^ Le Tellier was born in Paris in 1630, the son of Simon Le Tellier, Physician to the King. He held a doctorate in theology obtained from Bourges. He was made an Aumonier to the Queen, and then Curé-Archpriest of Saint-Séverin, and then Abbot (commendatory) of Chartreuve. He was nominated bishop of Digne by Louis XIV on 9 October 1677, and was preconised by Innocent XI on 28 February 1678. He was consecrated in Paris on 15 May by Archbishop François de Harlay. He participated in the Assembly of the Clergy in 1702 as a deputy of the Province of Embrun, and again in 1707. He died in Paris on 11 February 1708. Fisquet, pp. 119-120. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 with note 4.
  99. ^ Pujet was born in Toulouse in 1655, and was a doctor of theology. He had been a Vicar General of Auxerre and of Toulouse. He was nominated by King Louis XIV on 17 April 1708, and preconised by Pope Clement XI on 3 October 1708. He was consecrated in Paris on 9 March 1710, by the Archbishop of Narbonne, Charles Le Goux de la Berchère. He died on 22 January 1728. Jean, p. 190. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 184 with note 5.
  100. ^ Feydeau was born in Moulins (diocese of Nivernais). He was named Prior General of his Order on 6 March 1728 by Pope Benedict XIII. He was nominated Bishop of Digne by King Louis XV on 26 November 1728 and preconised (approved) on 11 September 1730. He was consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Melchior de Polignac on 24 September 1730. He died on 3 December 1741. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 196 with note 3.
  101. ^ Ribeyre was appointed bishop of Digne on 2 April 1742, but, when a vacancy occurred due to the death of Bishop d'Estaing of Saint-Flour on 13 April, he was appointed Bishop of Saint-Flour on 12 May instead. He was never preconised for Digne. Jean, p. 111.
  102. ^ Du Lau was born in the diocese of Périgord, and obtained a license in theology from Paris. His brother was the curé of Saint-Sulpice (Paris). He was a Vicar General of Cardinal de Bissy at Meaux for three years. King Louis XV nominated him bishop of Digne on 27 May 1742, and he was approved by Pope Benedict XIV on 24 September 1742. He was consecrated at Meaux on 21 October 1742. He died in Paris on 15 September 1746. Jean, p. 191. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 196 with note 4.
  103. ^ De Jarente was a native of Marseille and was a licenciate in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) (Paris). He served as a Vicar General of Belsunce (Amiens). He was nominated bishop of Digne by Louis XV on 23 October 1746, and preconised on 10 April 1747 by Benedict XIV. He was consecrated on 27 October 1747 at Amiens by Louis de la Motte. He resigned on 28 February 1758, and was transferred to the diocese of Orléans on 13 March 1758. He died on 28 May 1788. Jean, p. 191. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 107 with note 3; 196 with note 5.
  104. ^ Queylar (Caylar) was born in Varages (Riez), and was Archdeacon of Digne and Vicar General of Jarente (Digne). He was named bishop of Digne on 2 February 1758, and preconised on 13 March. He was consecrated on 16 April by the Metropolitan Archbishop of Embrun, Bernardin Foucquet. He resigned on 20 June 1784, and died at Varages on 15 December 1784. Jean, pp. 191-192. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 196 with note 6.
  105. ^ Villedieu was born at the Château de Villedieu (Bourges) in 1731. He was a doctor of theology (Sorbonne). He was Dean and Vicar General of Nivers for twenty-nine years. He was nominated to the diocese of Digne on 23 February 1784 by King Louis XVI, and approved by Pope Pius VI on 25 June 1784. He was consecrated on 18 July. In 1791 he emigrated to Münster, refused to resign in 1801, and remained in exile until the Restoration in 1814. He died in Paris on 10 August 1823, at the age of 92. Jean, p. 192. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 196 with note 7.
  106. ^ Desolle was appointed by First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, and consecrated on 11 July 1802. He was appointed Bishop of Chambéry by Napoleon on 30 January 1805, and transferred by Pope Pius VII on 22 March 1805. Fisquet, pp. 142-144. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 213-214.
  107. ^ Miollis was the brother of General Miollis. He held a doctorate in theology (Aix), and became Treasurer of the University. He was named Vicar of the Metropolitan cathedral in Aix in 1804. He was named bishop of Digne by Napoleon on 28 August 1805, and was preconised on 23 December. He was consecrated in Paris on 13 April 1806 by Cardinal Caprara, the Papal Legate, and was enthroned in Digne on 1 June. His kindness was proverbial, and he was the original of "Bishop Myriel" in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables: the character is even given the nickname "Monsignor Bienvenue". He resigned on 31 August 1838 at the age of 86, and died in Aix on 27 June 1843. Fisquet, pp. 144-175. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 214-215.
  108. ^ Sibour was named bishop of Digne by a royal ordinance of King Louis Philippe of 30 September 1839, and preconised by Pope Gregory XVI on 25 January 1840. He was consecrated on 25 February 1840 in Aix by Archbishop Joseph Bernet. He was appointed Archbishop of Paris by General Cavaignac, chief executive, on 10 July 1848, to replace Archbishop Affre, who had been shot dead on the barricades. He was preconised by Pope Pius IX in the Consistory of 11 September 1848. Honoré Fisquet, La France pontificale: Paris, I: Archiévêques (Paris 1864), pp. 667-678. Fisquet, pp. 175-239. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 215-216. Jean Manceau (1987). Monseigneur Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour, archevêque de Paris, 1848-1857 (in French). Paris: Editions Beauchesne. pp. 17–38. ISBN 978-2-7010-1068-7. 
  109. ^ Meirieu: Fisquet, pp. 240-243. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 216-217.
  110. ^ Vigne had been a teacher at the Minor Seminary of Valence, and then General Secretary of the diocese. He was named bishop of Oran by a decree of 12 February 1880, and preconised on 3 April 1876. He was consecrated on 1 May 1876 in the chapel at Versailles by the Bishop of Valence, Charles Cotton. He was transferred to Digne on the recommendation of Bishop Meirieu on his retirement. He was named by the French Republic on 30 January 1880, preconised on 27 February, and installed on 12 May. He was appointed Archbishop of Avignon on 13 January 1885 and preconised on 27 March 1885. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 217-218 and 424.
  111. ^ Fleury-Hottot had been Vicar General of the diocese of Versailles (1884-1885). He was nominated bishop of Digne on 13 January 1885 and preconised by Pope Leo XIII on 27 March. He was consecrated in Digne by Archbishop Forcade of Aix. His time in Digne was short, due to his health. He was appointed Bishop of Bayonne by Leo XIII on 26 May 1887, and made his solemn entry on 8 September 1887. His health grew worse, and he died at Biarritz on 9 August 1889. His episcopacy was a failure. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 113, 218.
  112. ^ Mortier: M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 218-219.
  113. ^ Servonnet was private secretary to Bishop Ginouilhac of Grenoble. In 1872 he was named Canon of the Cathedral of Grenoble. On 24 April 1889 a presidential decree named him Bishop of Digne, and he was preconised (approved) by Pope Leo XIII on 27 May. He was consecrated in Lyon on 25 July by Cardinal Joseph Foulon. On 15 April 1897 he was named Archbishop of Bourges by the French government, and he was preconised by Leo XIII in the Consistory of 19 April. His solemn installation took place in Bourges on 30 August 1897. He died on 18 October 1909. J. P. Poey (1908). Évêques de France: biographies et portraits de tous les cardinaux, archevêques et évêques de France et des colonies (in French) (3rd ed.). Paris: P. Lethielleux. p. 76. 
  114. ^ Hazera had been a teacher of literature and history at the collège (high-school) of Bazas. He became Dean of Ambarès and curé of a parish in Bordeaux. He was named bishop of Digne by the French Republic on 15 April 1897, and preconised by Leo XIII on 19 April. He was consecrated by Archbishop Gouthe-Soulard of Aix on 5 September 1897 and enthroned on the same day. He returned from his ad limina visit to Rome of 1904 already ill, and died on 17 June 1905. M.-J. Mourel, in: L'épiscopat français..., pp. 219-220.
  115. ^ Born in Marseille, Castellan, the grand-nephew of Cardinal d'Astros, studied at the Major Seminary in Bordeaux. In 1897 he was appointed Vicar General of Archbishop Ollivier, and was elected Vicar Capitular to administer the diocese on the death of Archbishop Ollivier. He was appointed Bishop of Digne on 10 July 1906 by Pope Pius X. He took possession on 6 August, and was consecrated a bishop at Marseille on 26 August by Bishop Andrieu. He was transferred to the diocese of Chambéry on 26 May 1915 by Pope Benedict XV. He died on 12 May 1936. Annuaire pontifical catholique (in French). Paris: La Bonne Presse. 1907. pp. 230–231.  Poey, p. 5.
  116. ^ Martel was born in Saint-Benoît (Hautes-Alpes) in 1860. He was a teacher at the Minor Seminary in Digne (the Institut secondaire de l'Immaculée-Conception), then General Secretart of the Bishop of Digne. He became Vicar General and Vicar Capitular of Bourges, and then Vicar General and Vicar Capitular of Digne, as well as Superior of the Minor Seminary where he had formerly been a teacher. He was named Bishop of Digne on 27 September 1917 by Pope Benedict XV. In 1919 he made his ad limina visit to Rome. Almanach catholique français (in French). Paris: Bloud & Gay. 1920. p. 80. 
  117. ^ Jorcin was born at Lanslebourg in Savoy in 1874. He studied at the Minor Seminary in Saint-Jean-de- Maurienne and at the French Seminary in Rome. He acquired degrees in philosophy, theology and Civil and Canon Law. He was Vicar Capitular of Digne after the death of Bishop Martel. He made his solemn entry into Digne on 10 April 1924. During the Second World War Jorcin opposed collaborationism. In June 1943 six of his newly ordained priests were taken for labor service in the Third Reich. In February 1944 at a meeting of French bishops, he expressed his opposition to the conscription of women. In June 1944, at a funeral for persons killed in an air raid, Jorcin condemned allied bombing. Since September 1939 Pius XII had forbidden Catholics in occupied territories to condemn Luftwaffe bombing. Annales de Haute Provence (in French). Issues 307-310. Digne: Société scientifique et littéraire des Basses-Alpes. 1989. pp. 132–133.  Annie Lacroix-Riz (2016). Les élites françaises entre 1940 et 1944: De la collaboration avec l'Allemagne à l'alliance américaine (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-2-200-61497-3. 
  118. ^ Diocèse de Digne, Mgr Jean-Philippe Nault, évêque de Digne, Riez et Sisteron, retrieved: 2017-7-27. (in French)

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Coordinates: 44°05′29″N 6°14′11″E / 44.09139°N 6.23639°E / 44.09139; 6.23639