Sexuality and Mormonism
Sexuality has a prominent role within the theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Adherents believe that gender is defined in the pre-existence, and that part of the purpose of life is for men and woman to be sealed together, forming bonds that allow them to progress eternally together in the afterlife. They believe that sexual relations within this framework are healthy and necessary. In contrast with some orthodox Christian movements, sexuality in Mormon theology is neither a product of original sin nor a "necessary evil;" however, because of the tremendous power of sexuality both for good and for evil, its expression is subject to strict commandments—specifically, that there are to be no sexual relations of any kind outside of marriage, as defined by the church and by law.
The LDS Church teaches that members must obey what it calls the law of chastity, which is a code of morality and modesty. Under this code, all members are taught to be "morally clean in their thoughts, words, and actions" and to abstain from pornography. Violations of this code include "adultery, being without natural affection, lustfulness, infidelity, incontinence, filthy communications, impurity, inordinate affection, fornication. They included all sexual relations outside marriage—petting, sex perversion, and preoccupation with sex in one’s thoughts and talking."
Though Celestial marriage is the only form of marriage recognized as a sacrament, the church permits sex within most government-recognized marital unions, the most notable exceptions being same-sex marriage, common law marriage, and polygamy. The church is sensitive about its historical relationship with polygamy, and entry into a polygamous marriage, even where legal, will result in excommunication. The church's teachings are ambiguous about the scope of allowable sexual behavior between legally married couples (i.e. the Church leaves it to the couples to decide what is appropriate). The law of chastity has also been interpreted to include various standards of modesty, which vary according to cultural norms of the time. Serious offenses of the law of chastity may result in church discipline, including a possible excommunication, in which a member loses their church membership and privileges, but may still continue to attend meetings.
LGBT members of the church are expected to keep the law of chastity. The church characterizes its church discipline policy as neutral regarding sexual orientation. If they desire to enter into a heterosexual marriage, they should first learn to deal with their homosexual feelings; otherwise, they must remain celibate. Gay or lesbian sex, in any form, whether the participants are married or not, is grounds for excommunication. Gay or lesbian sex will result in an automatic special annotation to a person's permanent membership record. Also, gay or lesbian sex will normally bar a person, permanently, from serving a mission.
From the 1830s, marriage has been a central and distinctive component of LDS theology. LDS doctrine on marriage begins with the theory that, if performed by a person who has the requisite priesthood authority, a marriage may continue in the afterlife. Such a marriage is called a celestial marriage, and is a particular instance of a sealing which binds people together in the afterlife. Celestial marriage is considered to be a requirement for entry into the highest "degree" of the Celestial Kingdom (the highest degree of heaven in Latter Day Saint theology), and is thought to allow the participants to continue to have children in the afterlife and become gods. According to LDS belief, the continuance of a celestial marriage in the afterlife is contingent upon the couple remaining righteous. In rare cases, a couple's marital union may be "made sure" through the ritual of the second anointing.
In the 1800s, the practice of celestial marriage included plural marriage, a form of polygamy. According to a consensus of historians, the practice of plural marriage was taught by Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and introduced formally to the public in 1852 by Brigham Young, leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The practice became famous during the 19th century when it was opposed and outlawed by the United States government, resulting in an intense legal conflict, culminating in LDS Church president Wilford Woodruff issuing an 1890 Manifesto discontinuing new official plural marriages in LDS temples. Nevertheless, unofficial plural marriage continued within the LDS Church after 1890 for some years, often in Mexico. In 1904, the church issued a Second Manifesto discontinuing the official practice worldwide. These manifestos did not automatically divorce existing plural unions, however, and some Mormon couples continued to live together as plural families until about the 1930s.
The LDS Church now thoroughly embraces monogamy and the nuclear family. Members who are found practicing polygamy or associating with sympathetic groups are now excommunicated. Moreover, beginning in the late 20th century, the LDS Church has begun to favor political and legal measures banning marriage other than between one man and one woman.
The LDS Church does, however, recognize some theological aspects of its former polygamy doctrine. Although both men and women may enter a celestial marriage with only one partner at a time, a man may be sealed to more than one woman. If his first wife dies, he may enter another celestial marriage, and be sealed to both his living wife and deceased wife or wives. A woman, however, may only be sealed to one man during her lifetime. Many Mormons believe that all these marriages will be valid in the eternities and the husband and all his sealed wives will live together in the afterlife as a polygamous family.
While not accorded the theological significance of a celestial marriage, the LDS Church does—to a large extent—recognize civil marriages or marriages performed within other religious traditions. In the 1870s, a prominent Mormon writer wrote that Mormons considered such a marriage to be "no marriage at all." Today, however, some non-celestial marriages are respected and recognized as valid by the church, but such marriages must be legal according to the government where the marriage is performed, and must not be a same-sex marriage, polygamous marriage, common law marriage, or other type of non-ceremonial marriages in non-common law countries. Moreover, such marriages are thought to last only for this life, and not the next. In countries where celestial marriage is not recognized by the government, it must be preceded by a civil marriage.
The church has supported a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage and polygamous marriage in the United States, and has stated that it "favors measures that define marriage as the union of a man and a woman and that do not confer legal status on any other sexual relationship." The church's position is that government recognition of such rights will "undermine the divinely created institution of the family".
The church recognizes and officially welcomes its gay and lesbian members under condition that they attempt to live the church moral code. It teaches that homosexual feelings, as distinct from behavior, may sometimes seem to be inborn, and that although these feelings are sometimes unwanted, they can and should be controlled. The Church’s law of chastity forbids extramarital sex, which would include all forms of sexual activity gay and straight outside of marriage. Consistently breaking the law of chastity may result in excommunication. Nevertheless, Latter-day Saints who identify themselves as gay or lesbian may remain in good standing in the Church, without ramification, if they abstain from homosexual relations.
In addition to opposing gay and lesbian sex, the church also opposes and campaigns against the extension of marital rights to gay and lesbian families that would, in its opinion, undermine the tradition of heterosexual monogamous marriage (Hinckley, Monson & Faust 2004). The issue of same-sex marriage remains one of the Church’s foremost political concerns.
In 2008, the Church began a major campaign for Proposition 8 on the California ballot which would define marriage between heterosexual couples. The church took a great deal of criticism for this action but at the same time mobilized uncounted numbers of its membership to donate time and money towards the initiative. The political organization ProtectMarriage.com, the official proponents of Proposition 8, estimate that about half the donations they received came from LDS sources, and that "eighty to ninety percent" of the early volunteers going door-to-door were LDS.
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The LDS Church has no official policy on the status of intersex persons. Transgender persons are accepted in the church and may be baptized, but may not receive the priesthood or enter the temple if they are considering or have undergone elective sex reassignment surgery.
However, there have been several unofficial statements regarding gender. For example, in "Strengthening Our Families: An In-Depth Look at the Proclamation on the Family", a book compiled by The School of Family Life at Brigham Young University, it states,
"Although we do not fully understand the eternal nature of gender, we should acknowledge its meaning and purpose, and humbly seek to understand and appreciate the nature of divine gender distinctions in God's plan for His children."
Furthermore, it stated,
"God created us male and female. This is not a mistake or a variety of genetic or hormonal chance. What we call gender is an essential characteristic of our existence prior to our birth. Gender is part of our eternal identity and essential to our eternal progression. Although we may not know all the reasons why this is so, we do know some of the reasons why gender is essential to our eternal progression. To achieve our exaltation, an eternal marriage between a man and a woman is necessary... The sexual union between a married man and woman is, among other things, the means God has ordained to bring His spirit children into mortality, which is an essential step in the plan of salvation."
In "Helping and Healing Our Families" Robert L. Millet states,
"Over the last four decades, we have observed widespread consideration of ideas and worldviews that are destructive of individuals and families."
He then discusses instances such as when men have been instructed to be stoic, or stern, to hide their emotions, etc. He continues,
"In general we could say that men and women, in and out of the Church, have been taunted and titillated with views concerning man, woman, priesthood, and family that are at odds with the revealed word and thus with 'things as they really are, and... as they really will be' (Jacob 4:13)... No person who revolts against the divinely established role and calling he or she was given before the foundations of this earth were laid can be happy or find real fulfillment, not here or in eternity."
David A. Bednar stated “[Gender] in large measure defines who we are, why we are here upon the earth, and what we are to do and become. For divine purposes, male and female spirits are different, distinctive, and complementary. … The unique combination of spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional capacities of both males and females were needed to implement the plan of happiness”.
M. Russell Ballard taught, “The premortal and mortal natures of men and women were specified by God Himself. … [Sometimes women] ask: ‘Is a woman’s value dependent exclusively upon her role as a wife and mother?’ The answer is simple and obvious: No. … Every righteous man and woman has a significant role to play in the onward march of the kingdom of God."
- Christian views on contraception: Mormonism
- Christianity and abortion: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Chastity, "Gospel Study: Study by Topic", LDS.org (LDS Church)
- Secondary definition — Incontinence (philosophy): lacking in moderation or self-control, especially of sexual desire.
- Kimball, Spencer W. (November 1980), "Kimball Speaks Out on Morality", Ensign
- Church Handbook of Instruction (1998).[full citation needed]
- Some church leaders have taught that oral sex, anal sex, and contraception are sinful, but there is no official policy.
- Modesty, "Gospel Study: Study by Topic", LDS.org (LDS Church)
- Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998), "What Are People Asking about Us?", Ensign (LDS Church)
- Lattin, Don (April 13, 1997), "Musings of the Main Mormon: Gordon B. Hinckley, "president, prophet, seer and revelator: of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, sits at the top of one of the world's fastest-growing religions", San Francisco Chronicle, "Hinckley: “Now we have gays in the church. Good people. We take no action against such people – provided they don’t become involved in transgression, sexual transgression. If they do, we do with them exactly what we’d do with heterosexuals who transgress."
- Oaks, Dallin H.; Wickman, Lance B. (2007) (Transcript). Same-Gender Attraction. Interview with LDS Church Public Affairs staffers. Newsroom, LDS Church. Salt Lake City, Utah. http://newsroom.lds.org/official-statement/same-gender-attraction.
- Church Handbook of Instruction (1998), p. 129.
- Church Handbook of Instruction (1998), p. 81.
- In the 19th century, the term celestial marriage was used interchangeably with the term plural marriage. Some non-LDS "fundamentalist Mormons" considered polygamy to be a requirement for exaltation.
- Woodruff's declaration was formally "accepted" in a church general conference on October 6, 1890.
- The LDS Church has clarified that a woman may also be sealed to more than one man. A woman, however, may not be sealed to more than one man while she is alive. She may only be sealed to subsequent partners after she has died (Church Handbook of Instructions, Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 1998, p. 72). Church leaders have not clarified if women in such circumstances will live in a polyandrous relationship in the afterlife. It should be noted, however, that proxy sealings, like proxy baptisms, are merely offered to the person in the afterlife, indicating that the purpose is to allow the woman to choose the right man to be sealed to, as LDS doctrine forbids polyandry.
- Penrose (1871, p. 4)
- Hinckley, Gordon B.; Monson, Thomas S.; Faust, James E. (October 20, 2004), First Presidency Statement on Same-Gender Marriage, Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church.
- Hinckley, Gordon B. (Nov 1999), Why We Do Some of the Things We Do, Ensign, "Our hearts reach out to those who refer to themselves as gays and lesbians. We love and honor them as sons and daughters of God. They are welcome in the Church."
- Oaks, Dallin H. (October 1995), "Same-Gender Attraction", Ensign, retrieved 2011-08-17
- McKinley, Jesse; Johnson, Kirk (2008-11-14), "Mormons Tipped Scale in Ban on Gay Marriage", The New York Times, retrieved 2008-12-24
- The Family: A Proclamation to the World, LDS Church, 1995
- Church Handbook of Instructions: Book 1, Stake Presidents and Bishoprics (Salt Lake City: LDS Church, 2006) pp. 41, 78.
- Dollahite 2000
- Dollahite 2000, p. 76
- Dollahite 2000, p. 223
- Millet, Robert L. (2005), "Standing in Holy Places--As Individuals and Families", in Dollahite, David C.; Newell, Lloyd D.; Hart, Craig H. et al., Helping and Healing Our Families: Principles and Practices Inspired by The Family: A Proclamation to the World, pp. 8–9, ISBN 978-1-59038-485-5, OCLC 60596125
- Bednar, David A. (June 2006), "Marriage Is Essential to His Eternal Plan", Ensign: 83
- Ballard, M. Russell (April 2002), "Women of Righteousness", Ensign: 66–69
- Argus (September 9, 1871), "History of Mormonism: An Open Letter to Brigham Young", The Daily Corinne Reporter 4 (84).
- Corcoran, Brent, ed. (1994), Multiply and Replenish: Mormon Essays on Sex and Family, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 978-1-56085-050-2, OCLC 30318983
- Dollahite, David C. (2000), Strengthening Our Families: An In-Depth Look at the Proclamation on the Family, compiled by the Brigham Young University School of Family Life, Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, ISBN 978-1-57345-824-5, OCLC 43936969
- Olson, Terrance D. (1992), "Sexuality", in Ludlow, Daniel H., Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York, NY: Macmillan, pp. 1306–1308, ISBN 0-02-904040-X, OCLC 24502140
- Penrose, Charles W. (October 5, 1871), "Special Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", Deseret News (October 11, 1871) 20 (36): 4.
- "Sexual Purity", For the Strength of Youth: Fulfilling Our Duty to God, LDS Church, 2001