Sigmurethra

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Sigmurethra
Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Various examples of Sigmurethra
Various examples of Sigmurethra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
Order Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra
Superfamilies
Synonyms[1]

Sigmurethra is a taxonomic category of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This is an informal group which includes the majority of land snails and slugs.

The two strong synapomorphies of Sigmurethra are a long pedal gland placed beneath a membrane and retractile tentacles.[2]

Several families in this group contain species of snails and slugs that create love darts.

Sigmurethra are known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

2005 Taxonomy[edit]

In the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, Sigmurethra is an "Informal Group", a subsection of the Stylommatophora.[4] It consists of the following families:

limacoid clade[edit]

Informal group Sigmurethra continued[edit]

Two superfamilies belongs to clade Sigmurethra, but they are not in the limacoid clade.

(Families that are exclusively fossil are indicated with a dagger †)

New families after 2005[edit]

2017 Taxonomy[edit]

After excluding groups not related, the informal group Sigmurethra becomes Suborder Helicina, with the following nine infraorders and a collection of families with no superfamily:[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MolluscaBase (2018). Helicina. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=994701 on 2018-02-22
  2. ^ Lunarejo. et al. 2008.
  3. ^ (in Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R.: Základy zoopaleontologie. - Olomouc, 1996. 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
  4. ^ Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (Ed.); Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 397 pp. http://www.vliz.be/Vmdcdata/imis2/ref.php?refid=78278
  5. ^ a b Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  6. ^ Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Kaim, Andrzej; Kano, Yasunori; Nützel, Alexander; Parkhaev, Pavel; Schrödl, Michael; Strong, Ellen E. (2017). "Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families". Malacologia. 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  7. ^ WoRMS (2018). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. "Helicoidei". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01. 
  8. ^ WoRMS (2018). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. "Oleacinoidei". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01. 
  9. ^ WoRMS (2018). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. "Haplotrematoidea H.B. Baker, 1925". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01.