Silver carbonate

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Silver carbonate
Crystal structure of silver carbonate
Sample of microcrystaline silver carbonate
Names
IUPAC name
Silver(I) carbonate, Silver carbonate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.811
EC Number 208-590-3
MeSH silver+carbonate
UNII
Properties
Ag2CO3
Appearance Pale yellow crystals
Odor Odorless
Density 6.077 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 218 °C (424 °F; 491 K)
decomposes from 120 °C[1][4]
0.031 g/L (15 °C)
0.032 g/L (25 °C)
0.5 g/L (100 °C)[2]
8.46·10−12[1]
Solubility Insoluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia, acetates, acetone[3]
−80.9·10−6 cm3/mol[1]
Structure
Monoclinic, mP12 (295 K)
Trigonal, hP36 (β-form, 453 K)
Hexagonal, hP18 (α-form, 476 K)[5]
P21/m, No. 11 (295 K)
P31c, No. 159 (β-form, 453 K)
P62m, No. 189 (α-form, 476 K)[5]
2/m (295 K)
3m (β-form, 453 K)
6m2 (α-form, 476 K)[5]
a = 4.8521(2) Å, b = 9.5489(4) Å, c = 3.2536(1) Å (295 K)[5]
α = 90°, β = 91.9713(3)°, γ = 90°
Thermochemistry
112.3 J/mol·K[1]
167.4 J/mol·K[1]
−505.8 kJ/mol[1]
−436.8 kJ/mol[1][4]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[6]
GHS signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335[6]
P261, P305+351+338[6]
Inhalation hazard Irritant
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
3.73 g/kg (mice, oral)[7]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Silver carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2CO3. Silver carbonate is yellow but typical samples are grayish due to the presence of elemental silver. It is poorly soluble in water, like most transition metal carbonates.

Preparation and reactions[edit]

Silver carbonate can be prepared by combining aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate with a deficiency of silver nitrate.[8]

2 AgNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → Ag2CO3(s) + 2 NaNO3(aq)

Freshly prepared silver carbonate is colourless, but the solid quickly turns yellow.[9]

Silver carbonate reacts with ammonia to give the explosive silver fulminate. With hydrofluoric acid, it gives silver fluoride. The thermal conversion of silver carbonate to silver metal proceeds via formation of silver oxide:[10]

Ag2CO3 → Ag2O + CO2
2Ag2O → 4 Ag + O2

Uses[edit]

The principal use of silver carbonate is for the production of silver powder for use in microelectronics. It is reduced with formaldehyde, producing silver free of alkali metals:[9]

Ag2CO3 + CH2O → 2 Ag + 2 CO2 + H2

Silver carbonate is used as a reagent in organic synthesis such as the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. In the Fétizon oxidation, silver carbonate on celite serves as an oxidising agent to form lactones from diols. It is also employed to convert alkyl bromides into alcohols.[8] As a base, it has been used in the Wittig reaction.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. 
  2. ^ Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York City: D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 605. 
  3. ^ Comey, Arthur Messinger; Hahn, Dorothy A. (1921-02). A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities: Inorganic (2nd ed.). New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 203.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ a b Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "silver nitrate". http://chemister.ru. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  External link in |website= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d Norby, P.; Dinnebier, R.; Fitch, A.N. (2002). "Decomposition of Silver Carbonate; the Crystal Structure of Two High-Temperature Modifications of Ag2CO3". Inorganic Chemistry. 41 (14). doi:10.1021/ic0111177. 
  6. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Silver carbonate. Retrieved on 2014-05-06.
  7. ^ a b "Silver Carbonate MSDS". http://www.saltlakemetals.com. Salt Lake City, Utah: Salt Lake Metals. Retrieved 2014-06-08.  External link in |website= (help)
  8. ^ a b McCloskey C. M.; Coleman, G. H. (1955). "β-d-Glucose-2,3,4,6-Tetraacetate". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 3, p. 434 
  9. ^ a b Andreas Brumby et al. "Silver, Silver Compounds, and Silver Alloys" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2008. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_107.pub2
  10. ^ Koga, Nobuyoshi, Shuto Yamada, Tomoyasu Kimura (2013). "Thermal Decomposition of Silver Carbonate: Phenomenology and Physicogeometrical Kinetics". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 117: 326–336. doi:10.1021/jp309655s. 
  11. ^ Jedinak, Lukas et al. “Use of Silver Carbonate in the Wittig Reaction.” The Journal of Organic Chemistry 78.23 (2013): 12224–12228..

External links[edit]


Carbonates
H2CO3 He
Li2CO3,
LiHCO3
BeCO3 B C (NH4)2CO3,
NH4HCO3
O F Ne
Na2CO3,
NaHCO3,
Na3H(CO3)2
MgCO3,
Mg(HCO3)2
Al2(CO3)3 Si P S Cl Ar
K2CO3,
KHCO3
CaCO3,
Ca(HCO3)2
Sc Ti V Cr MnCO3 FeCO3 CoCO3 NiCO3 CuCO3 ZnCO3 Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb2CO3 SrCO3 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag2CO3 CdCO3 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs2CO3,
CsHCO3
BaCO3   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl2CO3 PbCO3 (BiO)2CO3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La2(CO3)3 Ce2(CO3)3 Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2CO3 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr