Social Progress Index

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2017 Social Progress Index
  Very High Social Progress
  High Social Progress
  Upper Middle Social Progress
  Lower Middle Social Progress
  Low Social Progress
  Very Low Social Progress
  Unranked

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens. Fifty-four indicators in the areas of basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity to progress show the relative performance of nations. The index is published by the nonprofit Social Progress Imperative, and is based on the writings of Amartya Sen, Douglass North, and Joseph Stiglitz.[1] The SPI measures the well-being of a society by observing social and environmental outcomes directly rather than the economic factors. The social and environmental factors include wellness (including health, shelter and sanitation), equality, inclusion, sustainability and personal freedom and safety.[2]

Introduction and methodology[edit]

The index combines three dimensions

  1. Basic human needs
  2. Foundations of well-being
  3. Opportunity

Each dimension includes four components, which are each composed of between three and five specific outcome indicators. The included indicators are selected because they are measured appropriately, with a consistent methodology, by the same organization across all (or essentially all) of the countries in the sample. Together, this framework aims to capture a broad range of interrelated factors revealed by the scholarly literature and practitioner experience as underpinning social progress.

Two key features of the Social Progress Index are:[2]

  1. the exclusion of economic variables
  2. the use of outcome measures rather than inputs

Social Progress Imperative evaluated hundreds of possible indicators while developing the Social Progress Index, including engaging researchers at MIT to determine what indicators best differentiated the performance of nations. The index uses outcome measures when there are sufficient data available or the closest possible proxies.[2]

History[edit]

In 2010, a group of global leaders from the social sector sought to develop a better measure of a country's level of development and, by extension, better understand its development priorities. Funded by private foundations and under the technical guidance of Professors Michael Porter from Harvard Business School and Scott Stern from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group formed Social Progress Imperative and launched a beta version of the Social Progress Index for 50 countries in 2013 to measure a comprehensive array of components of social and environmental performance and aggregate them into an overall framework.

This work was influenced by the contributions of Amartya Sen on social development, as well as by the recent call for action in the report Mismeasuring Our Lives by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.[3] The Social Progress Index was released in 2014 for 133 countries with a second version in 2015.[2]

On 11 July 2013, Social Progress Imperative's chairman and professor at Harvard Business School, Michael Porter, addressed the United Nations 6th Ministerial Forum for Development and discussed the Social Progress Index.[2]

In addition to the global Social Progress Index, the methodology used to create it has been adapted to measure social and environmental performance in smaller areas, such as the Amazon region of Brazil.[4] Other projects include a Social Progress Index for the Municipality of Guatemala City.[5] Fundacion Paraguaya has integrated elements of the Social Progress Index into its Poverty Stoplight tool. The national government of Paraguay is setting a target for Social Progress Index performance alongside GDP targets.

The Guardian reported that the European Commission had agreed to partner with Social Progress Imperative to create a social progress index for the European Union.[6]The EU Social Progress Index was published in October, 2016.

A similar index, although with some differences compared to the nation list (and therefore not directly comparable), has been published for the individual U.S. states.[7][8]

Rankings and scores by country[edit]

Color key:

Very high →  Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5 Tier 6  → Very low
Country 2017[9] 2016[10] 2015[11] 2014[12]
Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score
 Denmark 1 90.57 3 89.39 8 86.63 9 86.55
 Finland 2 90.53 1 90.09 7 86.75 8 86.91
 Iceland 3 90.27 10 88.45 4 87.62 3 88.07
 Norway 3 90.27 7 88.70 1 88.36 5 87.12
  Switzerland 5 90.10 1 95.39 1 92.63 1 93.55
 Canada 6 89.84 2 89.49 6 86.89 7 86.95
 Netherlands 7 89.82 8 88.65 9 86.50 4 87.37
 Sweden 8 89.66 6 88.80 2 88.06 6 87.08
 Australia 9 89.30 4 89.13 10 86.42 10 86.10
 New Zealand 9 89.30 10 88.45 5 87.08 1 88.24
 Ireland 11 88.91 12 87.94 12 84.66 15 84.05
 United Kingdom 12 88.73 9 88.58 11 84.68 13 84.56
 Germany 13 88.50 15 86.42 14 84.04 12 84.61
 Austria 14 87.98 13 86.60 13 82.83 11 85.11
 Belgium 15 87.15 16 86.19 17 84.68 17 82.63
 Spain 16 86.96 17 85.88 20 81.17 21 80.77
 Japan 17 86.44 14 86.54 15 83.15 14 84.21
 United States 18 86.43 19 84.62 16 82.85 16 82.77
 France 19 85.92 18 84.79 21 80.82 20 81.11
 Portugal 20 85.44 21 83.88 18 81.91 22 80.49
 Slovenia 21 84.32 20 84.27 19 81.62 18 81.65
 Czech Republic 22 84.22 22 82.80 22 80.59 23 80.41
 Estonia 23 82.96 23 82.62 23 80.49 19 81.28
 Italy 24 82.62 24 82.49 31 77.38 29 76.93
 Chile 25 82.54 25 82.12 26 78.29 30 76.30
 South Korea 26 82.08 26 80.92 29 77.70 28 77.18
 Cyprus 27 81.15 27 80.75 30 77.45 N/A N/A
 Costa Rica 28 81.03 28 80.12 28 77.88 25 77.75
 Israel 29 80.61 37 75.32 40 72.60 39 71.40
 Slovakia 30 80.22 31 78.96 25 78.45 24 78.93
 Uruguay 31 80.09 28 80.12 24 79.21 26 77.51
 Poland 32 79.65 30 79.76 27 77.98 27 77.44
 Greece 33 78.92 32 78.27 34 74.03 35 73.43
 Latvia 34 78.61 36 76.19 33 74.12 31 73.91
 Lithuania 35 78.09 34 76.94 35 74.00 33 73.76
 Croatia 36 78.04 33 77.68 37 73.30 36 73.31
 Hungary 37 77.32 35 76.88 32 74.80 32 73.87
 Argentina 38 75.90 38 75.20 38 73.08 42 70.59
 Mauritius 39 75.18 40 73.24 36 73.66 34 73.68
 Panama 40 74.61 41 73.02 41 71.79 38 72.58
 Bulgaria 41 74.42 43 72.14 43 70.19 44 70.24
 Kuwait 42 74.12 45 71.84 47 69.19 40 70.66
 Brazil 43 73.97 46 71.70 42 70.89 46 69.97
 Romania 44 73.53 42 72.23 50 68.37 51 67.72
 Serbia 45 73.41 47 71.55 45 69.79 41 70.61
 Jamaica 46 72.42 44 71.94 44 69.83 43 70.39
 Peru 47 72.15 49 70.09 55 67.23 55 66.29
 Mexico 48 71.93 51 70.02 54 67.50 54 66.41
 Colombia 49 71.72 48 70.84 49 68.85 52 67.24
 Malaysia 50 71.14 50 70.08 46 69.55 45 70.00
 Tunisia 51 71.09 56 68.00 67 64.92 70 62.96
 Albania 52 70.97 52 69.78 52 68.19 48 69.13
 Georgia 53 70.80 54 69.17 60 65.89 66 63.94
 Montenegro 54 70.01 55 68.17 48 69.01 53 66.80
 Ecuador 55 69.97 53 69.56 51 68.25 50 68.15
 Jordan 56 69.85 71 65.43 74 63.31 75 61.92
 Saudi Arabia 57 69.45 65 66.30 69 64.27 65 64.38
 Macedonia 58 69.35 57 67.88 53 67.79 49 68.33
 Armenia 59 69.01 67 66.05 61 65.70 60 65.03
 Paraguay 60 68.73 60 67.44 56 67.10 72 62.65
 Turkey 61 68.68 58 67.82 58 66.24 64 64.62
 Thailand 62 68.51 61 67.43 57 66.34 59 65.14
 Dominican Republic 63 68.42 70 65.65 77 62.47 68 63.03
 Ukraine 64 68.35 63 66.43 62 65.69 62 64.91
 Belarus 65 67.80 66 66.18 66 64.98 58 65.20
 South Africa 66 67.25 58 67.60 63 65.64 69 62.96
 Russia 67 67.17 75 64.19 71 63.64 80 60.79
 Philippines 68 67.10 68 65.92 64 65.46 56 65.86
 Lebanon 69 66.93 72 64.73 73 63.36 71 62.90
 El Salvador 70 66.43 64 66.36 68 64.31 63 64.70
 Bolivia 71 66.31 74 64.42 80 61.85 83 60.05
 Moldova 71 66.31 72 64.73 70 63.68 81 60.12
 Sri Lanka 73 66.16 83 62.21 88 60.10 85 59.71
 Kazakhstan 74 66.01 76 63.86 83 61.38 86 59.47
 Algeria 75 65.41 88 61.18 85 60.66 87 59.13
 Azerbaijan 76 65.33 77 63.75 76 62.62 73 62.44
 Kyrgyzstan 76 65.33 79 62.91 93 58.58 93 57.08
 Morocco 78 65.25 86 61.92 91 59.56 91 58.01
 Indonesia 79 65.10 82 62.27 86 60.47 88 58.98
 Botswana 80 64.44 62 67.03 65 65.22 57 65.60
 Nicaragua 81 64.17 78 63.03 78 62.20 74 62.33
 Egypt 82 63.76 89 60.74 89 59.91 84 59.97
 China 83 63.72 84 62.10 92 59.01 90 58.67
 Guatemala 84 62.62 87 61.68 79 62.19 76 61.37
 Uzbekistan 85 62.02 91 60.49 90 59.71 92 57.34
 Mongolia 86 62.00 80 62.80 81 61.52 89 58.97
 Namibia 87 61.98 85 62.01 75 62.71 78 61.19
 Iran 88 61.93 93 59.45 95 56.82 94 56.65
 Honduras 89 61.76 90 60.64 82 61.44 77 61.28
 Ghana 90 61.44 92 60.37 94 58.29 96 55.96
   Nepal 91 60.08 95 57.40 98 55.33 101 51.58
 Tajikistan 92 58.87 94 58.78 96 56.49 95 56.05
 India 93 58.39 98 53.92 101 53.06 102 50.24
 Senegal 94 58.31 96 55.64 97 56.46 97 53.52
 Kenya 95 56.17 99 53.72 104 51.67 103 50.20
 Myanmar 96 55.69 110 49.84 119 46.12 N/A N/A
 Bangladesh 97 54.84 101 52.73 100 53.39 99 52.04
 Cambodia 98 54.54 97 54.28 99 53.96 100 51.89
 Laos 99 54.17 102 52.54 102 52.41 98 52.41
 Malawi 100 53.09 100 53.44 111 48.95 109 48.79
 Rwanda 101 52.78 105 51.91 106 51.60 105 49.46
 Swaziland 102 52.64 106 51.76 107 50.94 108 48.87
 Lesotho 103 51.74 103 52.39 103 52.27 107 48.94
 Benin 104 51.69 108 50.03 108 50.04 106 49.11
 Pakistan 105 51.54 113 49.13 122 45.66 124 42.40
 Ivory Coast 106 50.65 116 48.97 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Tanzania 107 50.21 109 49.99 116 47.14 114 46.06
 Zimbabwe 108 50.10 114 49.11 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Nigeria 109 50.01 119 46.49 125 43.31 123 42.65
 Burkina Faso 110 49.75 112 49.34 112 48.82 112 47.33
 Uganda 111 49.59 107 50.69 110 49.49 111 47.75
 Liberia 112 49.34 124 45.07 123 44.89 120 44.02
 Mauritania 113 48.44 122 46.08 121 45.85 121 43.11
 Republic of the Congo 114 48.24 111 49.74 109 49.60 110 47.99
 Togo 115 48.21 115 49.03 117 46.66 122 42.80
 Mozambique 116 47.90 117 47.96 120 46.02 117 45.23
 Cameroon 117 47.83 118 47.22 114 47.42 116 45.51
 Mali 118 47.75 121 46.24 118 46.51 113 46.85
 Madagascar 119 47.40 123 45.91 124 44.50 119 44.28
 Sierra Leone 120 47.10 125 44.22 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Ethiopia 121 45.29 126 43.50 118 41.04 N/A N/A
 Yemen 122 43.46 127 41.76 128 40.30 125 40.23
 Guinea 123 43.40 128 41.66 130 39.60 129 37.41
 Niger 124 42.97 129 41.63 127 40.56 126 40.10
 Angola 125 40.73 130 39.70 129 40.00 127 39.93
 Chad 126 35.69 131 36.38 132 33.17 132 32.60
 Afghanistan 127 35.66 132 35.89 131 35.40 N/A N/A
 Central African Republic 128 28.38 133 30.03 133 31.42 131 34.17
 Singapore N/A N/A 4 95.36 4 92.60 4 93.52
 Taiwan N/A N/A 5 88.87 3 87.97 2 88.19
 United Arab Emirates N/A N/A 39 73.69 39 72.79 37 72.92
 Bosnia and Herzegovina N/A N/A 69 65.84 59 66.15 61 64.99
 Venezuela N/A N/A 81 62.60 72 63.45 67 63.78
 Iraq N/A N/A 104 52.28 113 48.35 118 44.84
 Djibouti N/A N/A 120 46.30 115 47.27 115 45.95
 Trinidad and Tobago N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 47 69.88
 Cuba N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 79 61.07
 Guyana N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 82 60.06
 Zambia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 104 49.88
 Sudan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 128 38.45
 Burundi N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 130 37.33

Criticism[edit]

From an econometric stand point, the Index appears to be similar to other efforts aimed at overcoming the limitation of traditional economic measure such as the gross domestic product (GDP). One major criticism is that although the Social Progress Index can be seen as a superset of indicators used by earlier econometric models such as Gross National Well-being Index 2005, Bhutan Gross National Happiness Index of 2012, and World Happiness Report of 2012, Yet, unlike them, it ignores measures of subjective life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Other critics point out that "there remain certain dimensions that are currently not included in the SPI. These are the concentration of wealth in the top 1 percent of the population, efficiency of the judicial system, and quality of the transportation infrastructure."[13]

Some critics argue that "we must be wary. Though words such as “inclusive capitalism” are bandied around increasingly these days to signal a new age, free from ideological battlegrounds between public and private, much of what the organization’s founders say about it confirms that the index is more about being “business inclusive” than “inclusive capitalism.”[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Social Progress Imperitive Website". Social Progress Imperitive. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  4. ^ "Conservation of Amazon threatened by poor social conditions of its people: study". Global Post. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  5. ^ "ÍNDICE DE PROGRESO SOCIAL DE LA CIUDAD DE GUATEMALA - Progreso Social". progresosocial.org. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  6. ^ Jo Confino. "European Commission agrees to investigate using social progress tool alongside GDP". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  7. ^ "Social Progress Index: US States – Methodology Summary" (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  8. ^ "State Progress Reports". Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  9. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2017). Social Progress Index 2017 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 4. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  10. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2016). Social Progress Index 2016 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 17. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  11. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2015). Social Progress Index 2015 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 17. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  12. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2014). Social Progress Index 2014 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 7. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  13. ^ http://opinion.inquirer.net/80526/social-progress-index
  14. ^ http://www.humanosphere.org/social-business/2016/05/a-new-index-to-measure-social-progress-but-what-is-it-really-telling-us/

External links[edit]