List of countries by hospital beds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hospital beds per 1000 people in 2013

This is a list of countries by hospital beds per 1000 or 100,000 people, as published by the local governments, international organisation (OECD, E.U.), academic sources or others. The number of beds per people is an important indicator of the health care system of a country.[1] The basic measure focus on all hospital beds, which are variously split and occupied. The classic hospital beds are also called curative beds. For severe patients with risk of organ(s) failure, patients are provided intensive care unit beds (aka ICU bed) or critical care beds (CCB).

Among OECD countries, curative beds' occupancy rate average was 75%, from 94.9% (Ireland) to 61.6% (Greece), with half of the OECD's nation between 70% and 80%.[2]

In 2009, European nations, most of them also part of OECD, had an aggregated total of 2,070,000 acute beds and 73,585 (2.8%[clarification needed]) critical care beds (CCB) or 11.5CCB/100,000 inhabitants.[3] Germany had 29.2, Portugal 4.2.[3] Aging population leads to increased demand for CCB and difficulties to satisfy it, while both quantity of CCB and availability are poorly documented.[3]

2020 coronavirus pandemic and hospital bed capacity[edit]

A patient and clinicians in an intensive care unit

The availability of CCB-ICU beds,[4] mechanical ventilation[5][6] and ECMO devices[7] generally closely associated with hospital beds has been described as a critical bottleneck in responding to the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. The lack of such devices dramatically raises the mortality rate of COVID-19.

In early March, the UK government supported a strategy to develop natural herd immunity, drawing sharp criticism from medical personnel and researchers.[8] Various forecasts by Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team, made public on March 16th, suggested that the peak number of cases in the UK would require between 100 and 225 CCBs / 100,000 inhabitants,[9] if proper mitigation or no mitigation strategies are put into force, respectively. These requirements would both exceed the UK's current capacities of 6.6[3]–14[9] CCB / 100,000 inhabitants. In the best case scenario, the peak caseload would require 7.5 times the current number of available ICU beds.[10] Around March 16th, the UK government changed trajectory toward a more standard mitigation/suppression strategy.[8]

In France, around March 15th, the Grand Est region was the first to express the scarcity of CCB limiting its handling of the crisis.[11] Assistance-publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), which manages most hospitals in the French capital area (~10 million inhabitants), reported the need for 3,000–4,000 ICUs.[12] Current capacity is reported to be between 1500[12] and 350,[13] depending on the source.

In Europe, the company Löwenstein Medical producing 1500 ICU-level ventilators and 20,000 home-level ventilator per year for France alone, pointed out of the current high demand and production shortage. Based in Germany, all their components are European and not relying on Chinese supply chains. As for production ramp up, the company has increased the production of mobile ventilators, that are more basic and can be assembled in half an hour, yet able to support patients through acute respiratory distress syndrome.[14] Due to the coronavirus pandemic, in March 2020 the German government ordered 16.500 units for ventilation and intubation from two German companies.[15] - According to the company spokesman, a second bottleneck is the number of available medical staff, trained for such medical devices.[14]

Numbers[edit]

Countries in italics are non-OECD countries.

Hospital beds by country ()
Rank Country/territory Continent Hospital beds per 1000 people Change from previous year, average Occupancy (%)[16] ICU-CCB beds
/100,000 inhabitants
Ventilators
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Actual Proportional (%)
1  Japan Asia 13.3 13.21 13.17 13.11 13.05 −0.06 −0.48 75.5 7.3[17] 32,586 (2009)[18]
2  South Korea Asia 10.92 11.59 11.61 11.98 12.27 0.34 2.85 10.6[17] 9,795[19]
3  Russia Europe 9.07 8.81 8.35 8.16 8.05 −0.26 −3.04 8.3[20] 40,000[21]
4  Germany Europe 8.28 8.23 8.13 8.06 8.00 −0.07 −0.86 79.8 29.2[22] 25,000[23]
5  Austria Europe 7.64 7.58 7.54 7.42 7.37 −0.07 −0.90 73.8 21.8[22] 2,500[24]
6  Hungary Europe 7.04 6.98 6.99 7.00 7.02 −0.01 −0.07 65.5 13.8[22] 15,500 - claim not evidenced
7  Czech Republic Europe 6.7 6.68 6.67 6.66 6.63 −0.02 −0.26 70.1 11.6[22] 3,529[25]
8  Poland Europe 6.61 6.63 6.63 6.64 6.62 0.00 0.04 6.9[22] 10,100[26][27]
9  Lithuania Europe 7.28 7.22 6.97 6.69 6.56 −0.18 −2.65 73.2 15.5[22] ~1000 [28]
10  France Europe 6.28 6.20 6.13 6.06 5.98 −0.08 −1.23 75.6 11.6[22] 9,236(2006)[29]
7,007 (2009)[30]
30,000 (2020)[31]
11  Slovakia Europe 5.8 5.79 5.75 5.78 5.82 0.01 0.08 67.8 9.2[22] 600[32]
12  Belgium Europe 5.93 5.85 5.83 5.76 5.76 −0.04 −0.73 81.8 15.9[22] Unknown
13  Latvia Europe 5.8 5.66 5.69 5.72 5.57 −0.06 −1.03 71.1 9.7[22] Unknown
14  Hong Kong Asia 5.4 5.4 5.4 0.00 0.00 7.1[17] Unknown
15  Estonia Europe 5.01 5.01 4.96 4.76 4.69 −0.08 −1.68 70.4 14.6[22] Unknown
16  Luxembourg Europe 5.17 5.05 4.93 4.81 4.66 −0.13 −2.63 70.7 24.8[22] Unknown
17   Switzerland Europe 4.68 4.58 4.58 4.55 4.53 −0.04 −0.82 82.0 11.0[22] Unknown
18  Slovenia Europe 4.55 4.54 4.51 4.49 4.50 −0.01 −0.28 69.5 6.4[22] Unknown
19  China Asia 3.31 3.57 3.82 4.05 4.34 0.26 6.55 3.6[17] Unknown
20  Greece Europe 4.24 4.24 4.25 4.20 4.21 −0.01 −0.18 61.6 6[22] Unknown
21  Australia Oceania 3.74 3.79 3.82 3.84 0.03 0.88 9.1[33] 1314[34]
22  Norway Europe 3.86 3.84 3.76 3.68 3.60 −0.07 −1.76 80.7 8[22] 800[35]
23  Portugal Europe 3.39 3.32 3.37 3.39 3.39 0.00 −0.01 66.8 4.2[22] 1,400[36]
24  Netherlands Europe 4.18 3.52 3.44 3.32 0.00 0.00 65.4 6.4[22] Unknown
25  Finland Europe 4.87 4.53 4.35 3.97 3.28 −0.40 −10.56 6.1[22] Unknown
26  Italy Europe 3.31 3.21 3.20 3.17 3.18 −0.03 −1.01 78.9 12.5[22] 3,000[37]
27  Iceland Europe 3.22 3.16 3.12 3.13 3.06 −0.04 −1.29 9.1[22] Unknown
28  Israel Asia 3.09 3.08 3.03 2.99 3.02 −0.02 −0.58 93.3 Unknown
29  Spain Europe 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.97 2.97 0.00 0.08 75.3 9.7[22] Unknown
30  Ireland Europe 2.56 2.57 2.92 2.97 2.96 0.10 3.43 94.9 6.5[22] Unknown
31  Turkey Europe 2.65 2.68 2.68 2.75 2.81 0.04 1.45 68.0 47.1[38] Unknown
32  United States North America 2.89 2.83 2.80 2.77 −0.04 −1.42 64.0 34.7[39] 177,000[40]
68,000[21]
33  New Zealand Oceania 2.78 2.75 2.71 2.73 2.71 −0.02 −0.64 520[41]
34  Denmark Europe 3.07 2.69 2.53 2.60 2.61 −0.12 −4.34 6.7[22] Unknown
35  United Kingdom (more) Europe 2.76 2.73 2.61 2.57 2.54 −0.05 −2.11 84.3 6.6[22] 5,000[23]
8,175[21]
36  Canada North America 2.71 2.67 2.61 2.58 2.52 −0.05 −1.84 91.6 13.5[42] Unknown
37  Sweden Europe 2.59 2.54 2.44 2.34 2.22 −0.09 −3.94 5.8[22] Unknown
38  Chile South America 2.16 2.11 2.14 2.12 2.11 −0.01 −0.60 79.1 Unknown
39  Colombia South America 1.54 1.59 1.61 1.68 1.70 0.04 2.43 Unknown
40  India Asia 0.58 0.48 0.53 0.00 0.00 5.2 Unknown
41  Mexico North America 1.44 1.43 1.39 1.39 1.38 −0.02 −1.08 74.0  1.2[43][44] 2050[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Health Care Resources". stats.oecd.org. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  2. ^ "Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates". www.oecd-ilibrary.org. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  3. ^ a b c d Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1647–1653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238.
  4. ^ Srivastava, Ranjana (2020-03-16). "Now more than ever, we have to be honest about intensive care beds | Ranjana Srivastava". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  5. ^ Kliff, Sarah; Satariano, Adam; Silver-Greenberg, Jessica; Kulish, Nicholas (2020-03-18). "There Aren't Enough Ventilators to Cope With the Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  6. ^ Daugherty Biddison, E. Lee; Faden, Ruth; Gwon, Howard S.; Mareiniss, Darren P.; Regenberg, Alan C.; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Schwartz, Jack; Toner, Eric S. (2019-04-01). "Too Many Patients…A Framework to Guide Statewide Allocation of Scarce Mechanical Ventilation During Disasters". Chest. 155 (4): 848–854. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2018.09.025. ISSN 0012-3692.
  7. ^ Ronco, Claudio; Navalesi, Paolo; Vincent, Jean Louis (2020-03-01). "Coronavirus epidemic: preparing for extracorporeal organ support in intensive care". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 8 (3): 240–241. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30060-6. ISSN 2213-2600. PMID 32035509.
  8. ^ a b Stieb, Matt (2020-03-16). "U.K. Only Grasped in the 'Last Few Days' It Had the Exact Wrong Coronavirus Plan". Intelligencer. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  9. ^ a b Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team (2020-03-16). "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF).
  10. ^ Batchelor, George (2020-03-15). "Hospitals could need 7.5 times the number of critical care beds to treat virus patients". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  11. ^ https://www.europe1.fr/sante/coronavirus-dans-le-grand-est-pratiquement-tous-les-lits-de-reanimation-sont-occupes-3955371.amp
  12. ^ a b "Covid-19 : l'AP-HP s'attend à faire face à une vague d'hospitalisation bien plus haute que prévu". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  13. ^ See Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris.
  14. ^ a b "Coronavirus : la demande en ventilateurs et respirateurs artificiels est devenue "colossale", explique un spécialiste dans le matériel médical". Franceinfo (in French). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  15. ^ "Löwenstein Medical in Rheinland-Pfalz: Wichtiger Auftrag: Diese deutsche Firma soll neue Beatmungsgeräte liefern". www.noz.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  16. ^ Oecd (2019). Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates. Health at a Glance. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. ISBN 9789264382084.
  17. ^ a b c d Phua, J.; Farug, M.; Kulkarni, Atul; Redjeki, Ike (2020-01-01). "Critical Care Bed Capacity in Asian Countries and Regions". Critical Care Medicine. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000004222.
  18. ^ "平成22年版 厚生労働白書" (PDF). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
  19. ^ "국민건강보험공단, 건강보험심사평가원 <건강보험통계>". 2020-03-28.
  20. ^ http://government.ru/news/39218
  21. ^ a b c Meduza. "The ventilator problem". meduza.io. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1647–1653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238. PMID 22777516.
  23. ^ a b "There Aren't Enough Ventilators to Cope With the Coronavirus". 2020-03-18.
  24. ^ "Die Ruhe vor dem Ansturm in die Spitäler". 2020-03-22.
  25. ^ "Český open source plicní ventilátor CoroVent shání peníze na výrobu pro nemocnice". 2020-03-27.
  26. ^ "Poland has time for action". 2020-03-10.
  27. ^ "Walka z koronawirusem. Ile w Polsce jest urządzeń do wspomagania oddychania?". 2020-03-11.
  28. ^ Aurelijus Veryga, in a press conference
  29. ^ http://www.leparisien.fr/societe/coronavirus-les-respirateurs-artificiels-cle-de-voute-de-la-riposte-medicale-26-03-2020-8288259.php
  30. ^ http://www.snmrhp.org/Data/upload/images/1Copie%20de%20Enqute%20Ra-respirateurs%20juin%2009%20(S%20Mouton%2014%20aot%2009).pdf
  31. ^ https://www.la-croix.com/Sciences-et-ethique/Sante/Coronavirus-chasse-respirateurs-lancee-2020-03-25-1201085940
  32. ^ "Nový model nákazy: Pri vrchole môže byť 170-tisíc nakazených, pri pomalšom šírení sa kríza natiahne do 2021". 2020-03-31.
  33. ^ https://7news.com.au/lifestyle/health-wellbeing/doctors-stark-coronavirus-warning-were-going-to-run-out-of-icu-beds-c-758090
  34. ^ https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0310057X1003800124/ref>
  35. ^ Mossing, Julianne Bråten (2020-03-13). "Mener helsemyndighetene overdriver intensivkapasiteten i Norge". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  36. ^ "Covid-19. Apenas 5% dos doentes podem precisar de um ventilador". 2020-03-25.
  37. ^ "Healthcare on brink of collapsing: Doctors share stories from inside the Italy coronavirus quarantine". 2020-03-11.
  38. ^ https://dosyamerkez.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/33116,haber-bulteni---2018-30092019pdf.pdf
  39. ^ "SCCM | Critical Care Statistics".
  40. ^ Horn, Daniel M. (2020-03-22). "Opinion | How to Solve the Ventilator Shortage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  41. ^ Intensive care and ventilator capacity in district health boards (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Health, New Zealand. 20 March 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  42. ^ Adhikari NK, Fowler RA, Bhagwanjee S, Rubenfeld GD (October 16, 2010). "Critical care and the global burden of critical illness in adults" (PDF). The Lancet. 376 (9749): 1339–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60446-1. PMID 20934212. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Mexico's president in no hurry to confront virus outbreak". AP NEWS. 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  44. ^ 5000 "emergency"[clarification needed] beds
    1500 ICU
  45. ^ McDonald, Brent; Tovar, Miguel. "As the Coronavirus Approaches, Mexico Looks the Other Way". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-25.