List of countries by intentional homicide rate

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List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.[1][note 1] The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary.[2] UNODC data is used in the main table below.[1] In some cases it is not as up to date as other sources. See farther down as to why its data is used over other sources.

Research suggests that intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence.[3] They may also be under-reported for political reasons.[4][5][page needed]

A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004.[6] UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) reported a global average intentional homicide rate of 6.2 per 100,000 population for 2012 (in their report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013").[7][8] UNODC calculated a rate of 6.9 in 2010.[9]

Definition[edit]

UNODC statistics only include the intentional killing of others outside of war. Deaths occurring during situations of civil unrest are a grey area.

Intentional homicide is defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in its Global Study on Homicide report:[10]

Within the broad range of violent deaths, the core element of intentional homicide is the complete liability of the direct perpetrator, which thus excludes killings directly related to war or conflicts, self-inflicted death (suicide), killings due to legal interventions or justifiable killings (such as self-defence), and those deaths caused when the perpetrator was reckless or negligent but did not intend to take a human life (non-intentional homicide).

Though some discrepancies exist in how specific categories of intentional killings are classified, the definitions used by countries to record data are generally close to the UNODC definition, making the homicide rates highly comparable at the international level.[11] UNODC uses the homicide rate as a proxy for overall violence, as this type of crime is one of the most accurately reported and internationally comparable indicators.[12]

Figures from the Global Study on Homicide are based on the UNODC Homicide Statistics dataset, which is derived from the criminal justice or public health systems of a variety of countries and territories.[13] The homicide rates derived from criminal justice data (typically recorded by police authorities) and the public health system data (recorded when the cause of death is established) may diverge substantially for some countries.[14] The two sources usually match in the Americas, Europe and Oceania, but there are large discrepancies for the three African countries reporting both sources.[15] For the 70 countries in which neither source was made available, figures were derived from WHO statistical models.[14]

Deaths resulting from an armed conflict between states are never included in the count.[16] Killings caused by a non-international armed conflict may or may not be included, depending on the intensity of hostilities and whether it is classified as 'civil unrest' or a clash between organized armed groups.[16]

UNODC's global study[edit]

All data in this section comes from the Statistics Online website of the Research and Analysis Branch of UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime).[17]

By region[edit]

United Nations geoscheme with region names used in table here.

Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants.

UNODC murder rates, most recent year[1][note 2]
Region Rate Count
  Americas 16.3 157,000
  Africa 12.5 135,000
  World 6.2 437,000
  Europe 3.0 22,000
  Oceania 3.0 1,100
  Asia 2.9 122,000

By country[edit]

The regions and region names in the table are based on the United Nations geoscheme since the table sources are United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports.[18][19]

There is a total yearly count of homicides for each country. Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants.
Subregion names are based on the United Nations geoscheme.
Row numbers on the left are fixed.

Table[edit]

UNODC murder rates: murders per 100,000 inhabitants.[1]





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99
100
101
102
103
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109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
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118
119
120
121
122
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125
126
127
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133
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139
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Country (or dependent territory,
subnational area, etc.)
Region Subregion Rate Count Year
listed
Source

 Burundi Africa Eastern Africa 6.02 635 2016 CTS/SDG
 Comoros Africa Eastern Africa 7.70 60 2015 WHO Estimate
 Djibouti Africa Eastern Africa 6.48 60 2015 WHO Estimate
 Eritrea Africa Eastern Africa 8.04 390 2015 WHO Estimate
 Ethiopia Africa Eastern Africa 7.56 7,552 2015 WHO Estimate
 Kenya Africa Eastern Africa 4.87 2,363 2016 CTS
 Madagascar Africa Eastern Africa 7.69 1,863 2015 WHO Estimate
 Malawi Africa Eastern Africa 1.73 279 2012 NP
 Mauritius Africa Eastern Africa 1.82 23 2016 UNSDC/CTS/NSO
 Mayotte Africa Eastern Africa 5.93 12 2009 NP
 Mozambique Africa Eastern Africa 3.40 849 2011 WHO/SDG
 Réunion Africa Eastern Africa 1.82 15 2009 NP
 Rwanda Africa Eastern Africa 2.52 293 2015 NSO
 Seychelles Africa Eastern Africa 12.74 12 2016 INTP/NSO
 Somalia Africa Eastern Africa 4.31 599 2015 WHO Estimate
 South Sudan Africa Eastern Africa 13.90 1,504 2012 NP
 Uganda Africa Eastern Africa 11.52 4,473 2014 CTS/NP
 Tanzania Africa Eastern Africa 6.95 3,746 2015 INTP/CTS
 Zambia Africa Eastern Africa 5.30 853 2015 UNSDC/WHO/NP
 Zimbabwe Africa Eastern Africa 6.67 981 2012 WHO
 Angola Africa Middle Africa 4.85 1,217 2012 NSO
 Cameroon Africa Middle Africa 4.17 880 2012 NSO/SDG
 Central African Republic Africa Middle Africa 19.76 913 2016 CTS
 Chad Africa Middle Africa 9.04 1,266 2015 WHO Estimate
 Congo Africa Middle Africa 9.32 466 2015 WHO Estimate
 D. R. Congo Africa Middle Africa 13.55 10,322 2015 WHO Estimate
 Equatorial Guinea Africa Middle Africa 2.31 27 2015 WHO Estimate
 Gabon Africa Middle Africa 8.04 155 2015 WHO Estimate
 São Tomé and Príncipe Africa Middle Africa 3.36 6 2011 CTS
 Algeria Africa Northern Africa 1.36 542 2015 CTS
 Egypt Africa Northern Africa 2.51 2,207 2012 CTS
 Libya Africa Northern Africa 2.50 156 2015 WHO Estimate
 Morocco Africa Northern Africa 1.24 431 2015 UNSDC/CTS
 Sudan Africa Northern Africa 5.16 1,702 2008 CTS
 Tunisia Africa Northern Africa 3.05 332 2012 WHO
 Botswana Africa Southern Africa 15.04 303 2010 WHO
 Lesotho Africa Southern Africa 41.25 897 2015 CTS/NSO
 Namibia Africa Southern Africa 17.14 388 2012 NP/INTP
 South Africa Africa Southern Africa 33.97 19,016 2016 NP
 Eswatini Africa Southern Africa 17.29 208 2010 WHO
 Benin Africa Western Africa 6.18 654 2015 WHO Estimate
 Burkina Faso Africa Western Africa 0.37 67 2015 NSO
 Cape Verde Africa Western Africa 11.49 62 2016 NP/CTS
 Ivory Coast Africa Western Africa 11.63 2,688 2015 WHO Estimate
 Gambia Africa Western Africa 9.13 181 2015 WHO Estimate
 Ghana Africa Western Africa 1.68 423 2011 WHO
 Guinea Africa Western Africa 8.82 1,067 2015 WHO Estimate
 Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa 9.55 169 2015 WHO Estimate
 Liberia Africa Western Africa 3.23 135 2012 UNMIL
 Mali Africa Western Africa 10.90 1,905 2015 WHO Estimate
 Mauritania Africa Western Africa 9.94 416 2015 WHO Estimate
 Niger Africa Western Africa 4.44 788 2012 WHO
 Nigeria Africa Western Africa 9.85 17,843 2015 WHO Estimate
 Saint Helena Africa Western Africa 0.00 0 2009 NSO
 Senegal Africa Western Africa 7.38 1,105 2015 WHO Estimate
 Sierra Leone Africa Western Africa 1.71 124 2015 UNSDC/NP/SDG
 Togo Africa Western Africa 9.00 668 2015 WHO Estimate
 Anguilla Americas Caribbean 27.66 4 2014 NSO/SDG/PAHO
 Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 10.33 10 2012 OAS
 Aruba Americas Caribbean 1.93 2 2014 MD
 Bahamas Americas Caribbean 28.40 111 2016 OAS/CTS/NP
 Barbados Americas Caribbean 10.91 31 2015 OAS/CTS
 British Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 8.37 2 2006 MD
 Cayman Islands Americas Caribbean 8.45 5 2014 MD/WHO/NSO
 Cuba Americas Caribbean 4.99 572 2016 MD/MOH
 Curaçao Americas Caribbean 19.19 26 2007 PAHO
 Dominica Americas Caribbean 8.37 6 2011 UNSDC/OAS
 Dominican Republic Americas Caribbean 15.18 1,616 2016 NGO/SES/CTS/RIC
 Grenada Americas Caribbean 10.25 11 2016 OAS/CTS
 Guadeloupe Americas Caribbean 8.01 36 2009 NP
 Haiti Americas Caribbean 10.04 1,033 2012 OAS
 Jamaica Americas Caribbean 47.01 1,354 2016 OAS/CTS
 Martinique Americas Caribbean 2.78 11 2009 NP
 Montserrat Americas Caribbean 19.88 1 2012 PAHO/WHO/MD
 Puerto Rico Americas Caribbean 18.51 679 2016 NP/NSO
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Americas Caribbean 34.23 18 2012 OAS/CTS
 Saint Lucia Americas Caribbean 19.27 34 2014 OAS/MD
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Caribbean 36.46 40 2016 OAS/CTS
 Trinidad and Tobago Americas Caribbean 30.88 420 2015 OAS/CTS
 Turks and Caicos Islands Americas Caribbean 5.93 2 2014 PAHO/MD
 Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 49.26 52 2012 MD
 Belize Americas Central America 37.60 138 2016 OAS/CTS
 Costa Rica Americas Central America 11.90 578 2016 UNSDC/MOJ/CTS
 El Salvador Americas Central America 82.84 5,257 2016 OAS/CTS/RSC
 Guatemala Americas Central America 27.26 4,520 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
 Honduras Americas Central America 56.52 5,150 2016 OCAVI/NSO/CTS
 Mexico Americas Central America 19.26 24,559 2016 NSO
 Nicaragua Americas Central America 7.37 453 2016 NP
 Panama Americas Central America 9.67 390 2016 NSO/CTS
 Bermuda Americas Northern America 12.96 8 2016 NP/CTS
 Canada Americas Northern America 1.68 611 2016 OAS/CTS/SDG
 Greenland Americas Northern America 5.31 3 2016 NSO
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Americas Northern America 15.93 1 2009 NP
 United States Americas Northern America 5.35 17,250 2016 NP/UNSDC/CTS
 Argentina Americas South America 5.94 2,605 2016 CTS
 Bolivia Americas South America 6.30 686 2016 CTS
 Brazil Americas South America 29.53 61,283 2016 MD Adjusted/NGO
 Chile Americas South America 3.46 620 2016 CTS/OAS
 Colombia Americas South America 25.50 12,402 2016 UNSDC/OAS/CTS
 Ecuador Americas South America 5.85 959 2016 OAS/CTS
 French Guiana Americas South America 13.15 30 2009 NP
 Guyana Americas South America 18.37 142 2016 OAS/CTS/NSO
 Paraguay Americas South America 9.29 617 2015 OAS/CTS
 Peru Americas South America 7.67 2,435 2016 CTS
 Suriname Americas South America 8.35 43 2008 OAS
 Uruguay Americas South America 7.69 265 2016 MOI/CTS
 Venezuela Americas South America 56.33 17,778 2016 UNSDC/NGO/OAS/AG
 Kazakhstan Asia Central Asia 4.81 853 2015 TSMNEE/CTS
 Kyrgyzstan Asia Central Asia 4.49 267 2016 UNECE/CTS
 Tajikistan Asia Central Asia 1.61 126 2011 TSMNEE/CTS
 Turkmenistan Asia Central Asia 4.22 203 2006 TSMNEE
 Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia 3.00 831 2008 TSMNEE/NSO
 China Asia Eastern Asia 0.62 8,634 2016 NSO Adjusted/NSO
 Hong Kong Asia Eastern Asia 0.38 28 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
 Macau Asia Eastern Asia 0.16 1 2016 NP/CTS
 Taiwan Asia Eastern Asia 0.82 192 2015 SDG
 North Korea Asia Eastern Asia 4.40 1,110 2015 WHO Estimate
 Japan Asia Eastern Asia 0.28 362 2016 SDG/CTS
 Mongolia Asia Eastern Asia 5.66 171 2016 CTS
 South Korea Asia Eastern Asia 0.70 356 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
 Brunei Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.49 2 2013 WHO/MD
 Cambodia Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.84 268 2011 JP/WHO
 Indonesia Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.50 1,292 2016 UNSDC/INTP/CTS
 Laos Asia South-Eastern Asia 7.01 467 2015 WHO Estimate
 Malaysia Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.11 627 2013 UNSDC/WHO/NP
 Myanmar Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.27 1,198 2016 NSO/CTS
 Philippines Asia South-Eastern Asia 11.02 11,385 2016 UNSDC/CTS/NSO
 Singapore Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.32 18 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
 Thailand Asia South-Eastern Asia 3.24 2,229 2016 NP/CTS
 Timor-Leste Asia South-Eastern Asia 3.95 49 2015 UNMIT/NSO
 Vietnam Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.52 1,358 2011 WHO
 Afghanistan Asia Southern Asia 6.35 1,948 2012 NSO
 Bangladesh Asia Southern Asia 2.50 4,035 2015 NP
 Bhutan Asia Southern Asia 1.13 9 2016 NSO/CTS
 India Asia Southern Asia 3.22 42,678 2016 MOI
 Iran Asia Southern Asia 2.47 1,936 2014 CTS/NSO/MD
 Maldives Asia Southern Asia 0.75 3 2013 UNSDC/CTS
   Nepal Asia Southern Asia 2.16 627 2016 NSO/CTS
 Pakistan Asia Southern Asia 4.41 8,516 2016 NSO
 Sri Lanka Asia Southern Asia 2.55 530 2016 CTS/NP
 Armenia Asia Western Asia 2.98 87 2016 TSMNEE/CTS
 Azerbaijan Asia Western Asia 2.14 208 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Bahrain Asia Western Asia 0.52 7 2014 UNSDC/CTS/NP/MD
 Cyprus Asia Western Asia 1.11 13 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
 Georgia Asia Western Asia 0.99 39 2016 UNSDC/TSMNEE/CTS
 Iraq Asia Western Asia 9.85 3,339 2013 CTS
 Central Iraq Asia Western Asia 10.08 3,029 2014 CTS
 Kurdistan Region (Iraq) Asia Western Asia 2.20 111 2013 CTS
 Israel Asia Western Asia 1.36 110 2015 NSO/CTS/SDG
 Jordan Asia Western Asia 1.55 145 2016 CTS/SDG/NP
 Kuwait Asia Western Asia 1.80 61 2012 UNSDC/NP/CTS
 Lebanon Asia Western Asia 3.99 235 2016 CTS
 Oman Asia Western Asia 0.66 26 2014 NSO
 Qatar Asia Western Asia 0.38 9 2014 UNSDC/MD
 Saudi Arabia Asia Western Asia 1.50 472 2015 NSO/CTS
 Palestine Asia Western Asia 0.69 33 2016 CTS/SDG
 Syria Asia Western Asia 2.20 463 2010 NSO
 Turkey Asia Western Asia 4.31 3,216 2012 CTS
 United Arab Emirates Asia Western Asia 0.89 83 2016 CTS
 Yemen Asia Western Asia 6.66 1,703 2013 UNSDC/NSO/CTS
 Belarus Europe Eastern Europe 3.58 340 2014 UNSDC/CTS
 Bulgaria Europe Eastern Europe 1.14 81 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
 Czech Republic Europe Eastern Europe 0.61 65 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Hungary Europe Eastern Europe 2.07 202 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Poland Europe Eastern Europe 0.67 256 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
 Moldova Europe Eastern Europe 3.19 130 2014 UNSDC/CTS
 Romania Europe Eastern Europe 1.25 247 2016 SDG/UNSDC/CTS
 Russia Europe Eastern Europe 10.82 15,561 2016 NSO/CTS
 Slovakia Europe Eastern Europe 1.05 57 2016 SDG
 Ukraine Europe Eastern Europe 6.34 2,845 2014 UNSDC/TSMNEE/CTS/DMDB
Channel Islands Europe Northern Europe 0.00 0 2010 NP
 Denmark Europe Northern Europe 0.98 56 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Estonia Europe Northern Europe 3.19 42 2015 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
 Finland Europe Northern Europe 1.42 78 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Iceland Europe Northern Europe 0.30 1 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.80 38 2016 NP/NSO/CTS
 Isle of Man Europe Northern Europe 0.00 0 2016 NP
 Latvia Europe Northern Europe 3.36 67 2015 UNSDC/CTS
 Lithuania Europe Northern Europe 5.25 153 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Norway Europe Northern Europe 0.51 27 2016 SDG/EUR/CTS
 Sweden Europe Northern Europe 1.08 106 2016 NCCP/CTS
 England and Wales Europe Northern Europe 1.22 709 2016 UNSDC/SDG/CTS
 Northern Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.97 18 2016 SDG/CTS
 Scotland Europe Northern Europe 1.18 64 2016 SDG/CTS
 United Kingdom Europe Northern Europe 1.20 791 2016 CTS
 Albania Europe Southern Europe 2.70 79 2016 MD/CTS
 Andorra Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2015 INTP/CTS
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Southern Europe 1.28 45 2016 UNECE/INTP/CTS
 Croatia Europe Southern Europe 1.04 44 2016 MOI/CTS
 Gibraltar Europe Southern Europe 3.01 1 2010 NP
 Greece Europe Southern Europe 0.75 84 2016 EUR/CTS
  Vatican City Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2015 CTS
 Italy Europe Southern Europe 0.67 400 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Kosovo Europe Southern Europe 1.60 29 2016 CTS
 Malta Europe Southern Europe 0.94 4 2015 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
 Montenegro Europe Southern Europe 4.46 28 2016 EUR/CTS
 Portugal Europe Southern Europe 0.64 66 2016 EUR/CTS/SDG
 San Marino Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2011 WHO
 Serbia Europe Southern Europe 1.39 123 2016 EUR/CTS
 Slovenia Europe Southern Europe 0.48 10 2016 UNSDC/CTS/SDG
 Spain Europe Southern Europe 0.63 294 2016 EUR/CTS
 Macedonia Europe Southern Europe 1.59 33 2014 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
 Austria Europe Western Europe 0.66 57 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
 Belgium Europe Western Europe 1.95 220 2015 EUR/CTS
 France Europe Western Europe 1.35 875 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
 Germany Europe Western Europe 1.18 963 2016 UNSDC/CTS
 Liechtenstein Europe Western Europe 0.00 0 2016 EUR/CTS
 Luxembourg Europe Western Europe 0.72 4 2014 EUR/UNECE/CTS
 Monaco Europe Western Europe 0.00 0 2015 UNSDC/CTS
 Netherlands Europe Western Europe 0.55 94 2016 NSO/CTS
  Switzerland Europe Western Europe 0.54 45 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
 Australia Oceania Australia and New Zealand 0.94 227 2016 EUR/CTS/UNSDC
 New Zealand Oceania Australia and New Zealand 0.99 45 2014 NP/CTS
 Fiji Oceania Melanesia 2.26 20 2014 INTP/NSO
 New Caledonia Oceania Melanesia 3.23 8 2009 NP
 Papua New Guinea Oceania Melanesia 7.85 520 2007 UNSDC/NP
 Solomon Islands Oceania Melanesia 3.77 19 2008 CTS
 Vanuatu Oceania Melanesia 2.13 6 2015 WHO Estimate
 Guam Oceania Micronesia 2.51 4 2011 NP
 Kiribati Oceania Micronesia 7.50 8 2012 MD/WHO
 F.S. Micronesia Oceania Micronesia 4.67 5 2015 WHO Estimate
 Nauru Oceania Micronesia 0.00 0 2012 WHO Estimate
 Palau Oceania Micronesia 3.11 1 2012 WHO Estimate
 American Samoa Oceania Polynesia 5.40 3 2016 NSO/SDG
 Cook Islands Oceania Polynesia 3.49 1 2012 SDG
 French Polynesia Oceania Polynesia 0.38 1 2009 NP
 Niue Oceania Polynesia 0.00 0 2012 WHO Estimate
 Samoa Oceania Polynesia 3.15 6 2013 WHO
 Tonga Oceania Polynesia 0.95 1 2012 NP
 Tuvalu Oceania Polynesia 18.65 2 2012 WHO

Country subdivisions[edit]

The following is a list of rates. Click the "show" links next to the country names at the top left of each chart. The references are linked from the sources column.

Australia[edit]

Canada[edit]

Mexico[edit]

United States[edit]

Brazil[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The 2013 PDF full report (Global Study on Homicide) has a methodological annex (pages 109ff) and a statistical annex (pages 121ff). The statistical annex has detailed charts for homicide counts and rates by country with data from 2000–2012. Map 7.2 on page 112 is a world map showing the homicide count for each country or territory. Page 21 states estimated total homicides of 437,000 worldwide. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 (pages 21 and 22) have exact rates and counts by regions. Figure 1.3 on page 23 is a bar chart of homicide rates for the subregions. Figure 1.16 on page 34 shows timeline graphs by subregion.
  2. ^ The UNODC report has bar charts and timeline graphs of homicide rates for subregions. But the report does not list exact rate numbers. Subregion counts are not found in the report, but may be calculated by manually totaling the counts for each country in a subregion.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "UNODC Statistics Online". United Nations Office On Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 12 May 2018.".
  2. ^ Richards, Patsy (27 May 1999). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). London, UK: House of Commons of the United Kingdom library, Social and general statistics section. See page 7 for section called "Definition of the offence of homicide". See page 29 for table of nations and homicide rates for the years 1994-97. It also has further info on how homicide is defined across countries.
  3. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (May 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960–1999" (fee required). Homicide studies. 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. In three analyses of lethality trends, over time, by type of weapon and across counties, we have garnered considerable support for the hypothesis that advances in emergency medical care have greatly and increasingly reduced the lethality of violent assaults, with observed annual drops in such lethality ranging from 2.5% to 4.5%. This finding is thoroughly consistent with general medical findings on trauma that, while rigorously controlling for severity of injury, find annual drops in trauma mortality ranging from 3% to more than 16%...
  4. ^ Fry, Don. Believing the news. ISBN 978-0-935742-11-4.
  5. ^ Vizzard, William J. Shots in the dark. ISBN 978-0-8476-9560-7.
  6. ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Report (PDF) (report). Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67ff. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. data from 2004-2007. The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  7. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 12.
  8. ^ Intentional homicide count and rate per 100,000 population, by country/territory (2000-2012). Data (in spreadsheet format) for UNODC report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Linked from Global Study on Homicide - Data: UNODC Homicide Statistics 2013
  9. ^ 2011 Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data. "data from 2010 or latest available year". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Vienna, Austria.
  10. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 10.
  11. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 102-103.
  12. ^ "Note of clarification about the Global Study on Homicide 2013". UNODC. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Global Study on Homicide 2013: Executive Summary" (PDF). UNODC. p. 19. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  14. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 99.
  15. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 101.
  16. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 104.
  17. ^ "Intentional homicide victims | Statistics and Data". dataunodc.un.org. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  18. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 7-8.
  19. ^ "Intentional Homicide Victims". UNODC. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Dearden, Jack; Jones, Warwick. Homicide in Australia: 2006-07 National Homicide Monitoring Program annual report (PDF) (Report). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. p. 113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Homicide Statistics: 2011 Australian Government report (Report). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Archived from the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Recorded Crime-Victims (PDF) (Report). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  23. ^ "Homicide in Canada, 2017". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Crime rates per 100,000 ihnabitants 1997-2017" (PDF) (in Spanish). Executive Secretariat of the National System for Public Security. 20 January 2018. p. 3. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay "State-by-state and National Crime Estimates by Year(s)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  26. ^ "UNODC Homicide Statistics". Universidad de Puerto Rico.
  27. ^ "Homicide Trends 2003–2008". UNODC. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  28. ^ "Lista de unidades federativas do Brasil por taxa de homicídios", Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre (in Portuguese), 2018-08-13, retrieved 2018-09-28

External links[edit]