Solid-state battery

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A solid-state battery is a battery technology that uses solid electrodes and a solid electrolyte, instead of the liquid or polymer gel electrolytes found in lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries.[1][2] Materials proposed for use as solid electrolytes in solid-state batteries include ceramics (e.g. oxides, sulfides, phosphates), and solid polymers. Solid-state batteries have found use in pacemakers, RFID and wearable devices. They are potentially safer, with higher energy densities, but at a much higher cost.


Michael Faraday discovered the solid electrolytes silver sulfide and lead(II) fluoride, which laid the foundation for solid-state ionics.[3][4] High performance batteries are considered to be solid-state ionic devices.[5]

In the late 1950s, efforts were made to develop a solid-state battery.[6] The first solid-state batteries utilized a silver ion conducting electrolyte, had low energy density and cell voltages, and high internal resistance.[6] A new class of solid-state electrolyte, developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1990s, was later incorporated into certain thin film lithium-ion batteries.[7]

In 2011, Bolloré launched BlueCar with 30kWh lithium metal polymer (LMP) battery, which used solid polymeric electrolyte created by dissolving a lithium salt in a solvating co-polymer (polyoxyethylene).

In 2013, researchers at University of Colorado Boulder announced the development of a solid-state lithium battery, with a solid composite cathode based upon an iron-sulfur chemistry, that promised higher energy capacity.[8]

In 2014, researchers at Sakti3 announced a solid-state electrolyte lithium-ion battery, and claimed higher energy density for lower cost.[9] Toyota announced its solid-state battery development efforts[10] and holds the most patents.[11]

In 2015, Sakti3 was acquired by Dyson.[12]

In 2017, John Goodenough, the co-inventor of Li-ion batteries, unveiled a solid-state battery, using a glass electrolyte and an alkali-metal anode consisting of lithium, sodium or potassium.[13] In 2017 Toyota announced the deepening of a decades-long partnership with Panasonic, including a collaboration on solid-state batteries.[14] Other car makers developing solid-state battery technologies include BMW,[15] Honda,[16] Hyundai Motor Company[17] and Nissan.[18] Dyson, a company known for manufacturing household appliances, announced plans to launch an electric car by 2020.[12] Two years prior to the announcement, Dyson bought Sakti3, a company researching solid-state batteries.[12] Fisker Automotive claims its solid-state battery technology will be ready for "automotive-grade production" in 2023.[19] NGK, a company known for spark plugs, is developing ceramic-based solid state batteries, utilizing its expertise in the area of ceramics.[20]

In 2018, Solid Power announced it had received $20 million in funding for a small manufacturing line to produce all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium-metal batteries.[21] The line will be able to produce batteries with about 10 megawatt hours of capacity per year.[22] Volkswagen announced a $100 million investment in QuantumScape, a solid-state battery startup that spun out of Stanford.[23] Chinese company Qing Tao started a production line of solid-state batteries.[24]


Materials proposed for use as solid electrolytes in solid-state batteries include ceramics,[25] glass[13][26] and sulfides.[27]


Solid-state batteries have found use in pacemakers, RFID and wearable devices.[28][29]

Electric vehicles[edit]

Hybrid and plug-in electric cars use a variety of battery technologies, including Li-ion, Nickel–metal hydride (NiMH), Lead–acid, and Electric double-layer capacitor (or ultracapacitor),[30] led by Li-ion.[31]



Solid-state batteries are traditionally expensive to make[32] and manufacturing processes are noted to be immune to economies of scale.[7] It was estimated in 2012 that, based on then-current technology, a 20 Ah solid-state battery cell would cost US$100,000, and a high-range electric car would require 800 to 1,000 of such cells.[7] Cost has impeded the adoption of solid-state batteries in other areas, such as smartphones.[28]

Temperature and pressure impacts[edit]

Low temperature operations may be challenging.[32] Solid-state batteries were once noted for poor performance.[8]

Solid-state batteries with ceramic electrolytes require high pressure to maintain contact with the electrodes.[33] Solid-state batteries with ceramic separators may break from mechanical stress.[7]


Lithium metal dendrite from the anode piercing through the separator and growing towards the cathode.

Solid lithium (Li) metal anodes in solid-state batteries are replacing graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries for higher energy densities, safety, and faster recharging times. Solid Li metal as anodes experience the formation and the growth of Li dendrites due to non-uniform deposition of lithium metal.[34]

Li dendrites penetrate the separator that is placed between the anode and the cathode to prevent short circuits. Penetrating the separator creates a short circuit with associated overheating, fires, or explosions from thermal runaway propagation.[35] Li dendrites reduce coulombic efficiency.[36]

Dendrites commonly form during electrodeposition[37] during charge and discharge. Li ions in the electrolyte combine with electrons at the anode surface as the battery charges - forming a layer of lithium metal.[38] Ideally, the lithium deposition occurs evenly on the anode. However, if the growth is uneven, structures can grow like a needle across the electrolyte and/or separator.[39]

Stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) was found to be the most effective strategy for inhibiting dendrite growth and achieving higher cycling performance.[36] Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) may prevent dendrite growth, although this remains speculative.[35] A 2018 study identified nanoporous ceramic separators that block Li dendrite growth up to critical current densities.[40]


Solid-state battery technology is believed to be capable of higher energy density (2.5x),[41] because of the use of lithium metal anode.

They may avoid the use of dangerous or toxic materials found in commercial batteries, such as organic electrolytes.[42]

Because most liquid electrolytes are flammable and solid electrolytes are nonflammable, solid-state batteries are believed to be safer. Fewer safety systems are needed, further increasing energy density.[1][42] Recent studies show that the heat generation inside is only ~20-30% of conventional batteries with liquid electrolyte under thermal runaway.[43]

Solid-state battery technology is believed to allow for faster recharge.[44][45] Higher voltage and longer cycle life is possible.[42][32]

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ Vandervell, Andy (26 September 2017). "What is a solid-state battery? The benefits explained". Wired UK. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
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  4. ^ Lee, Sehee (2012). "Solid State Cell Chemistries and Designs" (PDF). ARPA-E. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  5. ^ Weppner, Werner (September 2003). "Engineering of solid state ionic devices". International Journal of Ionics. 9 (5–6): 444–464. doi:10.1007/BF02376599. Solid state ionic devices such as high performance batteries...
  6. ^ a b Owens, Boone B.; Munshi, M. Z. A. (January 1987). "History of Solid State Batteries" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Corrosion Research Center, University of Minnesota. Bibcode:1987umn..rept.....O. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Jones, Kevin S.; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Oladeji, Isaiah; Pitts, Roland; Fox, Richard. "The state of solid-state batteries" (PDF). American Ceramic Society Bulletin. 91 (2).
  8. ^ a b "Solid-state battery developed at CU-Boulder could double the range of electric cars". University of Colorado Boulder. 18 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
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  11. ^ Baker, David R (3 April 2019). "Why lithium-ion technology is poised to dominate the energy storage future". Bloomberg. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  12. ^ a b c "Vacuum Tycoon James Dyson To Roll Out An Electric Car By 2020". Forbes. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
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  22. ^ "Samsung Venture, Hyundai Investing in Battery Producer". Retrieved 2018-09-11.
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  24. ^ Lambert, Fred (November 20, 2018). "China starts solid-state battery production, pushing energy density higher".
  25. ^ Chandler, David L. (12 July 2017). "Study suggests route to improving rechargeable lithium batteries". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Researchers have tried to get around these problems by using an electrolyte made out of solid materials, such as some ceramics.
  26. ^ See glass battery for further details on a battery design that utilizes glass electrolytes
  27. ^ Chandler, David L. (2 February 2017). "Toward all-solid lithium batteries". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Researchers investigate mechanics of lithium sulfides, which show promise as solid electrolytes.
  28. ^ a b Carlon, Kris (24 October 2016). "The battery technology that could put an end to battery fires". Android Authority. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
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  30. ^ "Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles". Alternative Fuels Data Center. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  31. ^ "Energy Storage". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Many automakers have adopted lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries as the preferred EDV energy storage option, capable of delivering the required energy and power density in a relatively small, lightweight package.
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