A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system. Smartphones are typically pocket-sized (as opposed to tablets, which are much larger than a pocket), and have the ability to access the Internet through cellular networks or Wi-Fi. They are able to run a variety of third-party software components ("apps") from places like the Google Play Store or Apple App Store, and can receive bug fixes and gain additional functionality through operating system software updates. Modern smartphones have a touchscreen color display with a graphical user interface that covers the front surface and enables the user to use a virtual keyboard to type and press onscreen icons to activate "app" features. They integrate and now largely fulfill most people's needs for a telephone, digital camera and video camera, GPS navigation, a media player, clock, news, calculator, web browsing, handheld video games, flashlight, compass, an address book, a note-taking application, digital messaging, an event calendar, etc. Typical smartphones will include one or more of the following sensors: magnetometer, proximity sensor, barometer, gyroscope or accelerometer. Since the early 2010's, smartphones have adopted integrated virtual assistants, such as Siri, Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, and Bixby. Most smartphones produced from 2012 onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, motion sensors, and mobile payment features.
In 1999 the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country. Smartphones became widespread in the late 2000s, following the release of the iPhone. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Hardware
- 3 Software
- 3.1 Mobile operating systems
- 3.1.1 Android
- 3.1.2 iOS
- 3.1.3 Windows 10 Mobile
- 3.1.4 Tizen
- 3.1.5 Sailfish OS
- 3.1.6 Discontinued operating systems
- 3.1.7 Ubuntu Touch
- 3.1.8 Other Linux
- 3.2 Mobile app
- 3.3 Application stores
- 3.1 Mobile operating systems
- 4 Sales
- 5 Use
- 6 Comparison with other devices
- 7 Terminology
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Early integration of data signals with telephony
The first integration of data signals with telephony was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla in 1909 and pioneered by Theodore Paraskevakos beginning in 1968 with his work on transmission of electronic data through telephone lines. In 1971, while he was working with Boeing in Huntsville, Alabama, Paraskevakos demonstrated a transmitter and receiver that provided additional ways to communicate with remote equipment. This formed the original basis for what is now known as caller ID. The first caller ID equipment was installed at Peoples' Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and was demonstrated to several telephone companies. The original and historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos.
The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touch screen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock and notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news. The term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator.[non-primary source needed]
In the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC. These operating systems would later evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware. The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. The trend at the time, however, that manufacturers competed on in both mobile phones and PDAs was to make devices smaller and slimmer. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity.
In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it. It had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, and to create and receive text messages, emails and faxes. It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows.
In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks. The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications; text-based Web browsing; and could send and receive faxes. When closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone.
Subsequent landmark devices included:
- The Ericsson R380 (2000) by Ericsson Mobile Communications. The first device marketed as a "smartphone", it was the first Symbian-based phone, with PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. Users could not install their own software on the device, however.
- The Kyocera 6035 (early 2001), a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem.
- Handspring's Treo 180 (2002), the first smartphone that fully integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built in to the OS. The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead.
Mass adoption in Japan
In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country. These phones ran on i-mode, which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kbit/s. Unlike future generations of wireless services, NTT DoCoMo's i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to use the slower data speeds available. The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001. It was also ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally. This power would later wane in the face of the rise of 3G and new phones with advanced wireless network capabilities.
Early smartphones outside of Japan
Smartphones were still rare outside of Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in 2002, which saw moderate success among U.S. consumers as the T-Mobile Sidekick. Later, in the mid-2000s, business users in the U.S. started to adopt devices based on Microsoft's Windows Mobile, and then BlackBerry smartphones from Research In Motion. American users popularized the term "CrackBerry" in 2006 due to the BlackBerry's addictive nature.
Outside of the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was seeing success with its smartphones based on Symbian, originally developed by Psion for their personal organisers, and it was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Initially, Nokia's Symbian smartphones were focused on business with the Eseries, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing consumer-focused smartphones, popularized by the entertainment-focused Nseries. In Asia, with the exception of Japan, the trend was similar to that of Europe. Until 2010 Symbian was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system.
Form factor shift
Before 2007, it was common for smartphones to have a physical numeric keypad or QWERTY keyboard in either a candybar or sliding form factor.
In early 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone, the first smartphone to use a capacitive multi-touch interface. (A year prior the LG Prada was the first mobile phone released with a large capacitive touchscreen, but it was not a smartphone, and its screen was not multi-touch.) The iPhone was notable for abandoning the use of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical for smartphones at the time, in favor of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction. Though one columnist described the initial iPhone as "not a smartphone by conventional terms, being that a smartphone is a platform device that allows software to be installed," the opening of Apple's App Store a year later not only satisfied this requirement, but it became the new main paradigm for smartphone software distribution and installation.
In October 2008, the first phone to use Google's Android operating system called the HTC Dream (also known as the T-Mobile G1) was released. It also had a large touchscreen, but still retained a slide-out physical keyboard. Later versions of Android added and then improved on-screen keyboard support, and physical keyboards on Android devices quickly became rare. Although Android's adoption was relatively slow at first, it started to gain widespread popularity in 2010, and in early 2012 dominated the smartphone market share worldwide, which continues to this day.
The iPhone and Android phones with their capacitive touchscreens changed smartphone form factors and led to the decline of earlier, keyboard- and keypad-focused platforms. Microsoft, for instance, discontinued Windows Mobile and started a new touchscreen-oriented OS from scratch, called Windows Phone. Nokia abandoned Symbian and partnered with Microsoft to use Windows Phone on its smartphones. Windows Phone became the third-most-popular smartphone OS, before being replaced by Windows 10 Mobile, which declined in share to become "largely irrelevant" at less than 0.5% of the smartphone market. Palm replaced their Palm OS with webOS, which was bought by Hewlett-Packard and later sold to LG Electronics for use on LG smart TVs. BlackBerry Limited, formerly known as Research In Motion, made a new platform based on QNX, BlackBerry 10, with which it was possible to control a device without having to press any physical buttons; this platform was later discontinued.
Technological developments in the 2010s
In 2013, Fairphone launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing. In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection. Some companies began to release smartphones incorporating flexible displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex.
In October 2013, Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara, a concept for a modular smartphone platform that would allow users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules that attached magnetically to a frame. Ara was retained by Google following its sale of Motorola Mobility to Lenovo, but was shelved in 2016. That year, LG and Motorola both unveiled smartphones featuring a limited form of modularity for accessories; the LG G5 allowed accessories to be installed via the removal of its battery compartment, while the Moto Z utilizes accessories attached magnetically to the rear of the device.
By 2014, 1440p displays began to appear on high-end smartphones. In 2015, Sony released the Xperia Z5 Premium, featuring a 4K resolution display, although only images and videos could actually be rendered at that resolution (all other software is upscaled from 1080p). Microsoft, expanding upon the concept of Motorola's short-lived "Webtop", unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones that allows supported devices to be docked for use with a PC-styled desktop environment. Other major technologies began to trend in 2016, including a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies. As of 2015, the global median for smartphone ownership was 43%. Statista has forecast that 2.87 billion people will own smartphones in 2020.
Future possible developments
Foldable OLED smartphones have been anticipated for years but have failed to materialize because of the relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. Creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle.
One of the main characteristics of smartphones is their screen. It fills much more of the device's front surface (about 70%) than on non-smartphones. With the newest smartphones like the iPhone X and Galaxy S8, most of the available space on the front is dedicated to the display in a style referred to as "edge-to-edge." Many of the displays have an aspect ratio of 16:9; some are 4:3 or other ratios. They are measured in diagonal inches, starting from 2.45 inches. Phones with screens larger than 5.2 inches are often called "phablets." Smartphones with screens over 4.5 inches commonly are difficult to use with only a single hand, since most thumbs cannot reach the entire screen surface; they may need to be shifted around in the hand, held in one hand and manipulated by the other, or used in place with both hands. Liquid-crystal displays are the most common; others are IPS, LED, OLED, AMOLED and E Ink displays. In the 2010s, Braille screens, which can be used by visually impaired people are being developed. It is expected that Braille screens will use some type of microfluidics technology. In addition, some displays are integrated with pressure sensitive digitizers such as those developed by Wacom and Samsung. These digitizers allow users to have greater precision when utilizing touch-screens for drawing or for jotting down notes. Starting with the iPhone 6S, Apple released pressure sensitivity for their mobiles under the name 3D Touch.
A wide range of accessories are sold for smartphones, including cases, screen protectors, power charging cables, add-on batteries, headphones, combined headphone-microphones which allow a person to conduct calls on the phone without holding it to the ear, and Bluetooth-enabled powered speakers that enable users to listen to media from their smartphones wirelessly. Cases range from relatively inexpensive rubber or soft plastic cases which provide moderate protection from bumps and good protection from scratches to more expensive, heavy-duty cases that combine a rubber padding with a hard outer shell. Some cases have a "book"-like form, with a cover that the user opens to use the device; when the cover is closed, it protects the screen. Some "book"-like cases have additional pockets for credit cards, thus enabling people to use them as wallets. Accessories include products sold by the manufacturer of the smartphone and compatible products made by other manufacturers.
Mobile operating systems
Android is a mobile operating system founded by Andy Rubin, now owned and developed by Google, and backed by an industry consortium known as the Open Handset Alliance. It is an open source platform with optional proprietary components, including a suite of flagship software for Google services, and the application and content storefront Google Play. Android was officially introduced via the release of its inaugural device, the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) on 20 October 2008. As an open source product, Android has also been the subject of third-party development. Development groups have used the Android source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system, such as CyanogenMod, to add features to the OS and provide newer versions of Android to devices that no longer receive official updates from their vendor. Forked versions of Android have also been adopted by other vendors, such as Amazon.com, who used its "Fire OS" on a range of tablets and the Fire Phone. As it is a non-proprietary platform that has shipped on devices covering a wide range of market segments, Android has seen significant adoption. Gartner Research estimated that 325 million Android smartphones were sold during the fourth quarter of 2015, leading all other platforms. Samsung Electronics, who produces Android devices, was also the top smartphone vendor across all platforms in the same period of time. Android is the top-selling smartphone OS in 2016. Android Pay is available on Android software.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. primarily for its iPhone product line. The iPhone was first unveiled in January 2007. The device introduced numerous design concepts that have been adopted by modern smartphone platforms, such as the use of multi-touch gestures for navigation, eschewing physical controls such as physical keyboard in favor of those rendered by the operating system itself on its touchscreen (including the keyboard), and the use of skeuomorphism—making features and controls within the user interface resemble real-world objects and concepts in order to improve their usability. In 2008, Apple introduced the App Store, a centralized storefront for purchasing new software for iPhone devices. iOS can also integrate with Apple's desktop music program iTunes to sync media to a personal computer. The dependency on a PC was removed with the introduction of iCloud on later versions of iOS, which provides synchronization of user data via internet servers between multiple devices. The iPhone line's early dominance was credited with reshaping the smartphone industry, and helping make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies by 2011. However, the iPhone and iOS have generally been in second place in worldwide market share.
Windows 10 Mobile
Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices are made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.
In January 2015, Microsoft announced that its Windows Phone brand will be phased out and replaced with Windows 10 Mobile, bringing tighter integration and unification with its PC counterpart Windows 10, and provide a platform for smartphones and tablets with screen sizes under 8 inches.
Windows Mobile smartphone series has had poor adoption, that also led to a decrease in third-party applications, and some vendors ended their support for Windows Mobile altogether. As of 2016, Windows 10 Mobile global market share dropped below 0.6%.
Tizen is a Linux-based operating system for devices, including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, smart TVs, laptops and smart cameras. Tizen is a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) composed of Samsung and Intel among others. In April 2014, Samsung released the Samsung Gear 2 and the Gear 2 Neo, running Tizen. The Samsung Z1 is the first smartphone produced by Samsung that runs Tizen; it was released in the Indian market on January 14, 2015.
The Sailfish OS is based on the Linux kernel and Mer. Additionally Sailfish OS includes a partially or completely proprietary multi-tasking user interface programmed by Jolla. This user interface differentiate Jolla smartphones from others. Sailfish OS is intended to be a system made by many of the MeeGo team, which left Nokia to form Jolla, utilizing funding from Nokia's "Bridge" program which helps establish and support start-up companies formed by ex-Nokia employees.
In early 2010s, BlackBerry Limited started making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10", which is based on their BlackBerry Tablet OS, to replace the BlackBerry OS. In 2015, BlackBerry said there would be no new devices with BB10 but they will still support the OS for existing devices.
Discontinued operating systems
In 1999, RIM released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. In early 2010s, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its company name to BlackBerry Limited and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10".
Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. Throughout its lifespan, the operating system was available in both touchscreen and non-touchscreen formats. It was supplied with a suite of applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API and was designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties could develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were eventually purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's brief lifespan. Windows Mobile was eventually phased out in favor of Windows Phone OS.
Symbian was originally developed by Psion as EPOC32. It was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010, though the platform never gained popularity in the U.S., as it did in Europe and Asia. The first Symbian phone, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone, was released in 2000, and was the first device marketed as a "smartphone". It combined a PDA with a mobile phone. Variants of Symbian OS began to emerge, most notably Symbian UIQ, MOAP and S60, each supported by different manufacturers. With the creation of Symbian Foundation in 2008, Symbian OS was unified under one variant under the stewardship of Nokia. In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones, with the platform being abandoned over the following few years.
Firefox OS was demonstrated by Mozilla in February 2012. It was designed to have a complete community-based alternative system for mobile devices, using open standards and HTML5 applications. The first commercially available Firefox OS phones were ZTE Open and Alcatel One Touch Fire. As of 2014, more companies had partnered with Mozilla including Panasonic (which was making a smart TV with Firefox OS) and Sony. In December 2015, Mozilla announced that it would phase out development of Firefox OS for smartphones, and would reposition the project to focus on other forms of Internet-connected devices.
The Bada operating system for smartphones was announced by Samsung in November 2009. The first Bada-based phone was the Samsung Wave S8500, released in June 2010. Samsung shipped 4.5 million phones running Bada in Q2 of 2011. In 2013, Bada merged with a similar platform called Tizen.
webOS is a proprietary mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and a tablet (the TouchPad) running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware was to be discontinued but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of WebOS to LG Electronics, who used the operating system for its current "smart" or Internet-connected TVs, but not smartphones. In January 2014, Qualcomm has announced that it has acquired technology patents from HP, which includes all the WebOS patents.
In late 2001, Handspring launched the Springboard GSM phone module with limited success. In May 2002, Handspring released the Palm OS Treo 270 smartphone, which did not support Springboard, with both a touchscreen and a full keyboard. The Treo had wireless web browsing, email, calendar, a contact organizer and mobile third-party applications that could be downloaded or synced with a computer. Handspring was purchased by Palm, Inc which released the Treo 600 and continued releasing Treo devices with a few Treo devices using Windows Mobile.
MeeGo is an operating system created from the source code of Moblin (produced by Intel) and Maemo (produced by Nokia). Before that, Nokia used Maemo on some of its smartphones and internet tablets (such as Nokia N810 and N900). MeeGo was originally envisioned to power a variety of devices from netbooks, tablets to smartphones and smart TVs. However, the only smartphones which used MeeGo was the Nokia N9 and Nokia N950 (MeeGo v1.2 Harmattan). Following Nokia's decision to move to Windows Phone OS in 2011 and to cease MeeGo development, the Linux Foundation canceled MeeGo in September 2011 in favor of the development of Tizen.
Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system developed by Canonical UK Ltd and Ubuntu Community. It is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
In 2003, Motorola launched the first smartphone to use Linux, the A760 handset. While the initial release was limited to a single high-end handset only available in the Asia-Pacific region, the maker's intention was to eventually use Linux on most of its handsets, including the lower-end models. Further models to use Linux such as the Motorola Ming A1200i in 2005 and several successors to the Ming line would be unveiled through 2010. In late 2009, Motorola released the Motorola Cliq, the first of Motorola's smartphones to run the Linux-based Android operating system. Subsequently Motorola stopped developing phones based on other Linux variants.
The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear. Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market (now Google Play Store) and RIM's BlackBerry App World in April 2009. In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development.
Since 1996, smartphone shipments have had positive growth. In November 2011, 27% of all photographs created were taken with camera-equipped smartphones. In September 2012, a study concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop online. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013. Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013, up 38% from 2012's 725 million, while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013, up from 42% in 2012. In Q1 2016 for the first time the shipments dropped by 3 percent year on year. The situation was caused by the maturing China market.
In 2011, Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. In 2013, Samsung had 31.3% market share, a slight increase from 30.3% in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3%, a decrease from 18.7% in 2012. Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5% each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40%, the same as the previous years figure. Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9 percent; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36 to 92 percent. In Q1 2014, Samsung had a 31% share and Apple had 16%. In Q4 2014, Apple had a 20.4% share and Samsung had 19.9%. In Q2 2016, Samsung had a 22.3% share and Apple had 12.9%. In Q1 2017, IDC reported that Samsung was first placed, with 80 million units, followed by Apple with 50.8 million, Huawei with 34.6 million, Oppo with 25.5 million and Vivo with 22.7 million.
Samsung mobile business are half the size of Apples. Apple business has been increasing very quickly over the past 4 years. Noah Richardson 
By operating system
The market has been dominated by the Android operating system since 2010. Android's market share (measured by units shipment) rose from 33.2% in Q4 2011 to 81.7% of the market in Q4 2016. Apple's market share oscillated between 18% and 12.5% during the same period. Windows Phone market share also oscillated between 1.5% and 0.3% during the same time frame. As of the end of Q4 2016, Android was the most popular operating system sold with new smartphones with an 81.7% market share, followed by iOS with 17.9%, Windows 10 Mobile with 0.3% and other OSes at 0.1%.
Historical sales figures, in millions
|Year||Android (Google)||iOS (Apple)||Windows Mobile/Phone (Microsoft)||BlackBerry (formerly RIM)||Symbian (Nokia)||Palm/WebOS (Palm/HP)||Bada (Samsung)||Other||Total|
A 2012 University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones. A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect sleep cycles. Some persons might become psychologically attached to cellphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the devices. A "smombie" (a combination of "smartphone" and "zombie") is a walking person using a smartphone and not paying attention as they walk, possibly risking an accident in the process, an increasing social phenomenon. The issue of slow-moving smartphone users led to the temporary creation of a "mobile lane" for walking in Chongqing, China. The issue of distracted smartphone users led the city of Augsburg, Germany to embed pedestrian traffic lights in the pavement.
Mobile phone use while driving - including talking on the phone, texting, playing media, web browsing, gaming, using mapping apps or operating other phone features - is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what's known as distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 995 people were killed by drivers distracted by phones. In March 2011 a US insurance company, State Farm Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving. Many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free calling on a mobile phone (which uses a speakerphone) is banned. In other countries including the UK and France and in many US states, only the use of calling on handheld phones is banned, while hands-free use is permitted.
A 2011 study reported that over 90% of college students surveyed text (initiate, reply or read) while driving. The scientific literature on the danger of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while driving, is limited. A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. Due to the complexity of smartphones, this has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav.
A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of phone use while cycling and its effects on behavior and safety. In 2013 a national survey in the US reported the number of drivers who reported using their phones to access the Internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four. A study conducted by the University of Vienna examined approaches for reducing inappropriate and problematic use of mobile phones, such as using phones while driving.
Accidents involving a driver being distracted by being in a call on a phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. In the United Kingdom, from 27 February 2007, motorists who are caught using a hand-held phone while driving will have three penalty points added to their license in addition to the fine of £60. This increase was introduced to try to stem the increase in drivers ignoring the law. Japan prohibits all use of phones while driving, including use of hands-free devices. New Zealand has banned handheld phone use since 1 November 2009. Many states in the United States have banned text messaging on phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law. As of July 2010, 30 states had banned texting while driving, with Kentucky becoming the most recent addition on July 15.
Public Health Law Research maintains a list of distracted driving laws in the United States. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1992, when first law was passed through December 1, 2010. The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated (e.g., texting versus talking, hands-free versus handheld calls, web browsing, gaming), targeted populations, and exemptions.
A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface—and possibly the hardware—of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple Inc., Samsung, Microsoft, Nokia, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others. The conflict is part of the wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations. To secure and increase market share, companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers. Since 2010 the number of lawsuits, counter-suits, and trade complaints based on patents and designs in the market for smartphones, and devices based on smartphone OSes such as Android and iOS, has increased significantly. Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license agreements, and other major events began in 2009 as the smartphone market grew more rapidly.
With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications. These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice.
Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store. Often malware is hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through third-party app stores. Malware risk also comes from what's known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated. As well, one out of three robberies in 2012 in the United States involved the theft of a mobile phone. An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices. In 2014, Apple's "Find my iPhone" and Google's "Android Device Manager" can disable phones that have been lost/stolen. With BlackBerry Protect in OS version 10.3.2, devices can be rendered unrecoverable to even BlackBerry's own Operating System recovery tools if incorrectly authenticated or dissociated from their account.
Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the brightly lit screen affecting melatonin levels and sleep cycles. In an effort to alleviate these issues, several apps that change the color temperature of a screen to a warmer hue based on the time of day to reduce the amount of blue light generated have been developed for Android, while iOS 9.3 integrated similar, system-level functionality known as "Night Shift". Amazon released a feature known as "blue shade" in their Fire OS "Bellini" 5.0 and later. It has also been theorized that for some users, addicted use of their phones, especially before they go to bed, can result in "ego depletion". Many people also use their phones as alarm clocks, which can also lead to loss of sleep.
Comparison with other devices
Smartphones have presented issues similar to those affecting other devices. As well, there are some issues which are unique to smartphones.
Smartphone battery life has generally been poor compared to earlier non-smartphone mobile phones, due to the significant power requirements of the smartphones' computer systems and color screens. Poor smartphone battery life has negatively affected customer satisfaction. There is also a trend towards using batteries that the user cannot replace. Smartphone users have addressed the challenge of limited battery life by purchasing additional chargers for use outside the home, at work, and in cars and by buying portable external "battery packs". External battery packs include generic models which are connected to the smartphone with a cable and custom-made models that "piggyback" onto a smartphone's case. Most recently, Samsung had to recall millions of the Galaxy Note 7 smartphones due to an explosive battery issue. For consumer convenience, wireless charging stations have been introduced in some hotels, bars, and other public spaces.
"Ultra Premium" is a term used to identify a smartphone which has top of the line materials.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Smartphone.|
- Comparison of smartphones
- List of mobile software distribution platforms
- Media Transfer Protocol
- Mobile broadband
- Mobile Internet device
- Portable media player
- Second screen
- Smartphone zombie
- Budmar, Patrick (11 July 2012). "Why Japanese smartphones never went global". PC World. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- Don Reisinger (October 17, 2012). "Worldwide smartphone user base hits 1 billion". CNet. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "Smartphones now outsell 'dumb' phones". 3 News NZ. April 29, 2013.
- "Theodore Paraskevakos: Executive Profile & Biography". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- U.S. Patent #3,812,296/5-21-1974 (Apparatus for Generating and Transmitting Digital Information), U.S. Patent #3,727,003/4-10-1973 (Decoding and Display Apparatus for Groups of Pulse Trains), U.S. Patent #3,842,208/10-15-1974 (Sensor Monitoring Device)
- "Watch The Incredible 70-Year Evolution Of The Cell Phone". Wonder How To. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Sager, Ira (June 29, 2012). "Before IPhone and Android Came Simon, the First Smartphones". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
Simon was the first smartphone. Twenty years ago, it envisioned our app-happy mobile lives, squeezing the features of a cell phone, pager, fax machine, and computer into an 18-ounce black brick.
- Schneidawind, John (November 23, 1992). "Poindexter putting finger on PC bugs; Big Blue unveiling". USA Today. p. 2B.
- Connelly, Charlotte. "World's first 'smartphone' celebrates 20 years". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
- History of first touchscreen smartphone Archived May 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Spinfold.com
- Savage, Pamela (January 1995). "Designing a GUI for Business Telephone users". Association of Computing Machinery. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
...It is at this point that early usability test participants met impasse. The switch connected to our "smart phone" is expecting the typical "dumb end-point"... AT&T's PhoneWriter was demonstrated at the 1993 Comdex Computer Show...
- "Qualcomm's pdQ Smartphone" (Press release). Qualcomm.
- "PDA Review: Ericsson R380 Smartphone". Geek.com. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "Ericsson Introduces The New R380e". Mobile Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- Brown, Bruce. "Ericsson R380 World Review & Rating". PC Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "Kyocera QCP 6035 Smartphone Review". Palminfocenter.com. March 16, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Segan, Sascha (March 23, 2010). "Kyocera Launches First Smartphone In Years | News & Opinion". PCmag.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Handspring Treo Communicator 180". mobiletechreview.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- Rose, Frank (Sep 2001). "Pocket Monster: How DoCoMo's wireless Internet service went from fad to phenom - and turned Japan into the first post-PC nation". Wired. 9 (9). Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Barnes, Stuart J, Huff, Sid L. (November 1, 2003). Rising Sun: iMode and the Wireless Internet, Vol. 46, No. 1. Communications of the ACM. pp. 79–84.
- Anwar, Sayid Tariq. "NTT DoCoMo and M-Commerce: A Case Study in Market Expansion and Global Strategy" (PDF). The American Graduate School of International Management. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "Info Addicts Are All Thumbs: Crackberry Is the 2006 Word of the Year". PR Newswire. November 1, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "The Nokia E Series Range of Smartphones". Brighthub.com. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Schroeder, Stan (23 February 2010). "Smartphones in 2009: Symbian Dominates, iPhone, RIM and Android Rising Fast". Mashable. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Jobs; et al. "Touch Screen Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Determining Commands by Applying Heuristics".
- Temple, Stephen. "Vintage Mobiles: LG Prada – First mobile with a capacitive touchscreen (May 2007)". History of GMS: Birth of the mobile revolution.
- "The iPhone is not a smartphone". Engadget.com. January 9, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "T-Mobile G1 Hits the UK" (Press release). T-Mobile UK. October 30, 2008.
- "T-Mobile G1 Event Round-up" (Press release). Talk Media Inc. US. October 22, 2008.
- "Kantar Worldpanel ComTech’s Smartphone OS market share data Q3 2012". Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- It's official: Windows 10 Mobile is irrelevant
- George Monbiot (September 23, 2013). "Why is Apple so shifty about how it makes the iPhone?". The Guardian. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Darrell Etherington (October 10, 2013). "Quasar IV Encrypted Ninja Smartphone Goes Into Production, Despite Indiegogo Failure". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- "Samsung's Galaxy Round is the first phone with a curved display". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "LG G Flex appears on the FCC with AT&T-friendly LTE". Engadget. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "LG G Flex announced with vertically curved 6-inch 720p screen, 'self-repairing' back cover". Engadget. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Byford, Sam (29 October 2013). "Motorola reveals ambitious plan to build modular smartphones". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Musil, Steven (29 October 2013). "Motorola unveils Project Ara for custom smartphones". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Pierce, David. "Project Ara Lives: Google's Modular Phone Is Ready for You Now". Wired. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Google confirms the end of its modular Project Ara smartphone". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "LG G5 hands-on—LG may have made the most innovative phone of MWC". Ars Technica. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Motorola's new Moto Z ditches the headphone jack, adds hot-swapping magnetic modular accessories". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Steve Dent (February 18, 2014). "Do you really need a 4K smartphone screen?".
- "Sony's 4K smartphone shows most content in 1080p". Engadget. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unlock the Full Power of Your Phone". Time.com. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Miller, Ross. "Microsoft’s new Display Dock transforms your Windows 10 mobile into a PC". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "7 exciting smartphone trends to watch in 2016: VR, super-fast LTE, and more". PC World. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- "This map shows the percentage of people around the world who own smartphones". Business Insider.
- "Number of smartphone users worldwide 2014-2020 | Statista". Statista. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- Bendable smartphones aren't coming anytime soon Archived September 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., The Sydney Morning Herald, Ian King, December 16, 2013
- "Save Big 2.45 " IPS Touch Screen the World's Smallest Android Smartphone Dual Sim Quadband - USA Store". USA Store. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Braille for smartphone screens (in Spanish)
- Ward, J. R.; Phillips, M. J. (1987-04-01). "Digitizer Technology: Performance Characteristics and the Effects on the User Interface". IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 7 (4): 31–44. ISSN 0272-1716. doi:10.1109/MCG.1987.276869.
- "Alliance Members". Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- The Android Atlas Archived January 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Cnet.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Google’s iron grip on Android: Controlling open source by any means necessary". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "All T-Mobile retail stores to carry G1". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Arthur, Charles (July 30, 2013). "Android fragmentation 'worse than ever' – but OpenSignal says that's good". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Isaac, Mike (April 11, 2011). "Android OS Hack Gives Virtual Early Upgrade". Wired.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Kopstein, Joshua (November 20, 2012). "Access Denied: why Android's broken promise of unlocked bootloaders needs to be fixed". The Verge. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- "Amazon’s ever-cheaper Fire Phone gets a belated KitKat update". Ars Technica. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Segan, Sascha (December 2013). "How To Run Free Android Apps On the Kindle Fire". PC Magazine.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Grew 3.9 Percent in First Quarter of 2016". Gartner. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Top Five Smartphone Vendors, Shipments, Market Share and Year-Over-Year Growth, Q1 2016". International Data Corporation. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Caitlin Taylor. http://www.androidauthority.com/how-to-use-android-pay-678739/
- "The Day Google Had to 'Start Over' on Android". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Wingfield, Nick; Bilton, Nick (2012-10-31). "Apple Shake-Up Could Lead to Design Shift". The New York Times. CLXII (55,941). Retrieved 2012-11-05.
- Yukari Iwatani Kane (March 6, 2009). "Breaking Apple's Grip on the iPhone". The Wall Street Journal.
- "When iPhone met world, 7 years ago today". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Apple unveils iPhone". Macworld. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Apple's 'magical' iPhone unveiled". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- deAgonia, Michael (June 9, 2011). "The 5 best features in Apple's iOS 5". PC World. IDG. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- "Windows comes up third in OS clash two years early". 1 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Satariano, Adam. "Apple Overtakes Exxon Becoming World’s Most Valuable Company". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Windows Phone is dead". The Verge. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Windows Phone has a new app problem". The Verge. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Gartner Says Five of Top 10 Worldwide Mobile Phone Vendors Increased Sales in Second Quarter of 2016". www.gartner.com. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
- Techradar (February 23, 2014). "Samsung's wrist reboot: Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo unveiled". Techradar. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Jon Russell. "Samsung Launches Its First Tizen-Powered Phone, The Z1, In India For $92". Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "The Sailfish OS Wiki". The Sailfish OS Wiki. Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- "Jolla OS Will Run Android Apps Says CEO Jussi Hurmola".
- "Many former Nokia employees start businesses of their own", Helsingin Sanomat, archived from the original on June 22, 2012
- Lunden, Ingrid. "Nokia Bridge: Nokia’s Incubator Gives Departing Employees €25k And More To Pursue Ideas That Nokia Has Not". techcrunch.com. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Tung, Liam. "Inside Nokia Bridge: How Nokia funds ex-employees' new start-ups". zdnet.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Kevin McLaughlin (December 17, 2009). "BlackBerry Users Call For RIM To Rethink Service". CRN.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- BlackBerry has no plans to release new BB10 devices Mobilesyrup
- Arthur, Charles (September 29, 2014). "Ten things to know about BlackBerry -- and how much trouble it is (or isn't) in". TheGuardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "PDA Review: Ericsson R380 Smartphone". Geek.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Symbian Device – The OS Evolution" (PDF). Independent Symbian Blog. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Ericsson Introduces The New R380e". Mobile Magazine. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Brown, Bruce. "Ericsson R380 World, Review & Rating". PCMag.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Nokia, Microsoft in pact to rival Apple, Google – Technology & Science". CBC.ca. Associated Press. February 11, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Sony Mobile Plans to Release Firefox OS Devices by 2014". Mozilla Philippines. February 25, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Mozilla Kills Firefox OS for Smartphones". Gadgets360. NDTV. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- Ed Hansberry (November 11, 2009). "Samsung Bailing on Windows Mobile". InformationWeek.
- "Samsung to Discard Windows Phone". Telecoms Korea. November 9, 2009.
- "Samsung Wave, first Bada smartphone hits the market". Bada. May 24, 2010. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
( via Wayback)
- "Samsung Waves away a million". The Inquirer. July 13, 2010.
- "Samsung Bada shipments up 355% to 4.5 million units in Q2 2011 | asymco news | PG.Biz". Pocket Gamer. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "HP Confirms Discussions with Autonomy Corporation plc Regarding Possible Business Combination; Makes Other Announcements". HP. August 18, 2010. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
( via Wayback)
- "The next chapter for webOS". HP webOS Developer Blog. August 19, 2010. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Open webOS::Roadmap". Open webOS Project. September 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Qualcomm purchases Palm patents from HP Archived June 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. USA Today January 24, 2014. Retrieved February 22, 2016
- Stephen H. Wildstrom (November 30, 2001). "Handspring's Breakthrough Hybrid". Businessweek.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Canonical. "Ubuntu on phones - Ubuntu". ubuntu.com.
- "Motorola unveils first Linux smart phone". CNET. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- "T-Mobile Announces Upcoming Availability of Motorola CLIQ with MOTOBLUR". T-Mobile Announces Upcoming Availability of Motorola CLIQ with MOTOBLUR. September 29, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- W3C Interview: Vision Mobile on the App Developer Economy with Matos Kapetanakis and Dimitris Michalakos Archived June 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- Erica Ogg (December 22, 2011). "Smartphones killing point-and-shoots, now take almost 1/3 of photos". GIGAOM. GIGAOM. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- Leena Rao (September 19, 2012). "comScore: 4 Out Of 5 Smartphone Owners Use Device To Shop; Amazon Is The Most Popular Mobile Retailer". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- "Worldwide Smartphone Shipments Top One Billion Units for the First Time, According to IDC". IDC. January 2014. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
( via Wayback)
- Daniel van Boom (April 27, 2016). "It's not just Apple: Global smartphone market shrinks for the first time ever".
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Grew 9 Percent in First Quarter of 2017". Gartner. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- "Top Five Smartphone Vendors, Shipments, Market Share, and Year-Over-Year Growth, Q1 2017". International Data Corporation. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Jon Fingas (January 28, 2014). "Smartphone sales may have topped 1 billion in 2013, depending on who you ask". Engadget.
- Steven Millward (May 13, 2014). "Xiaomi breaks into global top 10 for smartphone shipments, kicks out HTC". Tech In Asia. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- Brett Molina and Marco della Cava, USA TODAY (March 3, 2015). "Apple beats Samsung in Q4 smartphone sales". USA TODAY.
- Frank Hersey (2017-07-04). "6 of the world's top 10 smartphone brands are Chinese". technode. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
- Dunn, J. (2017, February 28). Samsung introduced 10 times as many phones as Apple last year, but its mobile division made half as much revenue. Retrieved October 07, 2017, from http://www.businessinsider.com/samsung-vs-apple-galaxy-iphone-smartphone-revenue-chart-2017-2
- "Smartphone OS Market Share, Q1 2017". Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Reached Its Lowest Growth Rate With 3.7 Per Cent Increase in Fourth Quarter of 2008. Gartner.com. Retrieved on August 9, 2012.
- Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales to End Users Grew 8 Per Cent in Fourth Quarter 2009; Market Remained Flat in 2009. Gartner.com. Retrieved on August 9, 2012.
- Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Device Sales to End Users Reached 1.6 Billion Units in 2010; Smartphone Sales Grew 72 Percent in 2010. Gartner.com. Retrieved on August 9, 2012.
- "Quarterly Device Sales In 2011" (Infographic). Mobile Statistics. Mobile Statistics. 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- Gartner Says Annual Smartphone Sales Surpassed Sales of Feature Phones for the First Time in 2013. Gartner.com. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
- "Gartner Says Smartphone Sales Surpassed One Billion Units in 2014". Gartner. March 3, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "SMARTPHONES make TEENS have SEX with STRANGERS". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Colaner, Seth (August 27, 2012). "Your Tablet and Smartphone Could Be Ruining Your Sleep". Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Chavez, A. (2014). Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 290-297.
- Hookham, Mark; Togoh, Isabel; Yeates, Alex (21 February 2016). "Walkers hit by curse of the smombie". The Sunday Times. UK. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- Hatton, Celia (15 September 2014). "Chongqing's 'mobile lane'". BBC News. UK: BBC. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- Rick Noack (April 25, 2016) This city embedded traffic lights in the sidewalks so that smartphone users don’t have to look up The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- "Quit Googling yourself and drive: About 20% of drivers using Web behind the wheel, study says". Los Angeles Times. March 4, 2011.
- Atchley, Paul; Atwood, Stephanie; Boulton, Aaron (January 2011). "The Choice to Text and Drive in Younger Drivers: Behaviour May Shape Attitude". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 43: 134–142. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.08.003.
- "Text messaging not illegal but data clear on its peril".
- de Waard, Dick; Schepers, Paul; Ormel, Wieke; Brookhuis, Karel (January 2010). "Mobile phone use while cycling: Incidence and effects on behaviour and safety". Ergonomics. 53 (1): 30–42. doi:10.1080/00140130903381180.
- "Drivers still Web surfing while driving, survey finds".
- "Reaching the Mobile Respondent: Determinants of High-Level Mobile Phone Use Among a High-Coverage Group" (PDF). Social Science Computer Review. doi:10.1177/0894439309353099.
- "BBC NEWS - UK - UK Politics - Drivers face new phone penalties". news.bbc.co.uk.
- "BBC NEWS - UK - Magazine - Careless talk". news.bbc.co.uk.
- "Illinois to ban texting while driving - CNN.com". CNN. August 6, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Steitzer, Stephanie (July 14, 2010). "Texting while driving ban, other new Kentucky laws take effect today". The Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- "Distracted Driving Laws". Public Health Law Research. 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- Yetisen, A. K.; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.; et al. (2014). "The regulation of mobile medical applications". Lab on a Chip. 14 (5): 833–840. doi:10.1039/C3LC51235E.
- Mobile Malware Development Continues To Rise, Android Leads The Way.
- Mylonas Alexios; Tsoumas Bill; Dritsas Stelios; Gritzalis Dimitris (2011). 8th International Conference on Trust, Privacy & Security in Digital Business (TRUSTBUS-2011). Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. pp. 49–61.
- "The Mother Of All Android Malware Has Arrived". Android Police. March 6, 2011.
- Perez, Sarah (February 12, 2009). "Android Vulnerability So Dangerous, Owners Warned Not to Use Phone's Web Browser". Readwriteweb.com. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- "Lookout, Retrevo warn of growing Android malware epidemic, note Apple's iOS is far safer". Appleinsider.com. August 3, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "Plea urges anti-theft phone tech". The San Francisco Examiner.
- "Getting started with Anti-Theft Protection in BlackBerry 10 OS version 10. - Inside BlackBerry Help Blog". blackberry.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Stop your gadgets from keeping you awake at night". CNET. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Kalsbeek, Andries (2012). The Neurobiology of Circadian Timing Elsevier. pp. 382.
- Luisa Dillner. "Should I keep my smartphone and tablet out of my bedroom?". The Guardian. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Are smartphones disrupting your sleep?". ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Mahesh Sharma. "Switching off your smartphone at night makes you more productive". Smh.com.au. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "J.D. Power and Associates Reports: Smartphone Battery Life has Become a Significant Drain on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty". Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "The secret behind poor smartphone battery life". ZDNet.
- "Peak Battery: Why Smartphone Battery Life Still Stinks, and Will for Years". TIME.com. April 1, 2013.
- "It's time to kiss that removable smartphone battery goodbye". CNET. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
- "Refurbished version of ill-fated Galaxy Note 7 will soon be available overseas". May 5, 2017.
- "The Most Impactful New iPhone Feature May Be the Most Boring". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
- Kay, Roger (February 7, 2012), "Is the Market Ready for a Phablet?", Forbes, retrieved August 15, 2012
- Sasha Segan (February 13, 2012), "Enter the Phablet: A History of Phone-Tablet Hybrids", PC MAgazine
- What Makes a Smartphone a Superphone? Mashable.com
- Superphone vs smartphone: what's the difference? Techradar.com
- Samsung's foldable phone to be 'luxurious ultra premium' device, first samples coming in Q3 Phone Arena, Retrieved 27 March 2017.