|Directed by||Richard Fleischer|
|Screenplay by||Stanley R. Greenberg|
|Based on||Make Room! Make Room!|
by Harry Harrison
|Produced by||Walter Seltzer|
Edward G. Robinson
|Cinematography||Richard H. Kline|
|Edited by||Samuel E. Beetley|
|Music by||Fred Myrow|
|Box office||$3.6 million (rentals)|
Soylent Green is a 1973 American ecological dystopian thriller film, directed by Richard Fleischer, starring Charlton Heston, Leigh Taylor-Young and Edward G. Robinson in his final film role. Loosely based on the 1966 science fiction novel Make Room! Make Room! by Harry Harrison, the film combines police procedural and science fiction genres, the investigation into the murder of a wealthy businessman and a dystopian future of dying oceans and year-round humidity, due to the greenhouse effect, resulting in pollution, poverty, overpopulation, euthanasia and depleted resources. In 1973, it won the Nebula Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
By 2022, the cumulative effects of overpopulation, pollution and an apparent climate catastrophe have caused severe worldwide shortages of food, water and housing. In New York City alone, there are 40 million people, and only the city's elite can afford spacious apartments, clean water, and natural food. The homes of the elite are fortified, with private security and bodyguards for their tenants. Usually, they include concubines (who are referred to as "furniture" and serve the tenants as slaves). The poor live in squalor, haul water from communal spigots, and eat highly processed wafers: "Soylent Red," "Soylent Yellow," and the latest product, far more flavorful and nutritious, "Soylent Green."
Within the city live NYPD detective Robert Thorn and his aged friend Sol Roth, a brilliant former college professor and police analyst (referred to as a "Book"). Thorn is tasked with investigating the murder of the wealthy and influential William R. Simonson, a board member of the Soylent Corporation, which he suspects was an assassination. With the help of Simonson's concubine Shirl, his investigation leads to a priest that Simonson had visited shortly before his death. Because of the sanctity of the confessional, the nearly overcome priest can only hint at the contents of the confession before he is murdered. Thorn's immediate superiors tell him to end the investigation by the governor's order. Because he is concerned about losing his job to higher superiors if he quits the case and the fact that an unknown stalker is following him, he continues. He is soon attacked while working during a riot by the same assassin who killed Simonson, but the killer is crushed by the hydraulic shovel of a police crowd control vehicle.
In researching the case for Thorn, Roth brings two volumes of "Soylent Oceanographic Survey Report, 2015–2019" taken by Thorn from Simonson's apartment to the team of other Books at the Supreme Exchange. After analysis, the Books confirm that the oceanographic report reveals that the oceans are dying and can no longer produce the plankton from which "Soylent Green" is made. The reports also show that "Soylent Green" is being produced from the remains of the dead and the imprisoned, obtained from heavily guarded waste disposal plants outside the city. The Books further reveal that Simonson's murder was ordered by his fellow Soylent Corporation board members, who knew Simonson was increasingly troubled by the truth and feared he might disclose it to the public.
On hearing the truth, Roth is so shaken he decides to "return to the home of God" and seeks assisted suicide at a government clinic. Thorn rushes to stop him but arrives too late. Before dying, Roth whispers what he has learned to Thorn and, in his last living act, begs Thorn to find proof and take it to the Supreme Exchange, so they can take the information to the Council of Nations to take action.
Thorn boards a truck transporting the bodies from the euthanasia center to a waste disposal plant, where he witnesses human corpses being converted into Soylent Green. Horrified, Thorn is spotted and escapes. As he returns to the Supreme Exchange, he is ambushed by Soylent operative Fielding and his men. Finding refuge in the church where Simonson confessed, Thorn kills his attackers but is seriously wounded in a gun battle. As paramedics tend to Thorn, he urges Lt. Hatcher to spread the truth while shouting to the surrounding crowd, "Soylent Green is people!".
- Charlton Heston as Robert Thorn
- Leigh Taylor-Young as Shirl
- Chuck Connors as Fielding
- Joseph Cotten as William R. Simonson
- Brock Peters as Hatcher
- Paula Kelly as Martha
- Edward G. Robinson as Sol Roth
- Stephen Young as Gilbert
- Mike Henry as Kulozik
- Lincoln Kilpatrick as The Priest
- Roy Jenson as Donovan
- Leonard Stone as Charles
- Whit Bissell as Santini
- Celia Lovsky as the Exchange Leader
- Dick Van Patten as Usher #1
The screenplay was based on Harry Harrison's novel Make Room! Make Room! (1966), set in the year 2022 with the theme of overpopulation and overuse of resources leading to increasing poverty, food shortages and social disorder. Harrison was contractually denied control over the screenplay and was not told during negotiations that Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was buying the film rights. He discussed the adaptation in Omni's Screen Flights/Screen Fantasies (1984), noting the "murder and chase sequences [and] the 'furniture' girls are not what the film is about – and are completely irrelevant" and answered his own question, "Am I pleased with the film? I would say fifty percent".
While the book refers to "soylent steaks" (made from soy and lentil), it makes no reference to "Soylent Green", the processed food rations depicted in the film. The book's title was not used for the movie on grounds that it might have confused audiences into thinking it a big-screen version of Make Room for Daddy.
This was the 101st and last movie in which Edward G. Robinson appeared; he died of bladder cancer twelve days after the completion of filming, on January 26, 1973. Robinson had previously worked with Heston in The Ten Commandments (1956) and the make-up tests for Planet of the Apes (1968). In his book The Actor's Life: Journal 1956–1976, Heston wrote, "He knew while we were shooting, though we did not, that he was terminally ill. He never missed an hour of work, nor was late to a call. He never was less than the consummate professional he had been all his life. I'm still haunted, though, by the knowledge that the very last scene he played in the picture, which he knew was the last day's acting he would ever do, was his death scene. I know why I was so overwhelmingly moved playing it with him".
The film's opening sequence, depicting America becoming more crowded with a series of archive photographs set to music, was created by filmmaker Charles Braverman. The "going home" score in Roth's death scene was conducted by Gerald Fried and consists of the main themes from Symphony No. 6 ("Pathétique") by Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6 ("Pastoral") by Beethoven and Peer Gynt ("Morning Mood" and "Åse's Death") by Edvard Grieg. A custom cabinet unit of the early arcade game Computer Space was used in Soylent Green and is considered to be the first video game appearance in a film.
The film was released April 19, 1973, and met with mixed reactions from critics. Time called it "intermittently interesting", noting that "Heston forsak[es] his granite stoicism for once" and asserting the film "will be most remembered for the last appearance of Edward G. Robinson.... In a rueful irony, his death scene, in which he is hygienically dispatched with the help of piped-in light classical music and movies of rich fields flashed before him on a towering screen, is the best in the film". New York Times critic A. H. Weiler wrote "Soylent Green projects essentially simple, muscular melodrama a good deal more effectively than it does the potential of man's seemingly witless destruction of the Earth's resources"; Weiler concludes "Richard Fleischer's direction stresses action, not nuances of meaning or characterization. Mr. Robinson is pitiably natural as the realistic, sensitive oldster facing the futility of living in dying surroundings. But Mr. Heston is simply a rough cop chasing standard bad guys. Their 21st-century New York occasionally is frightening but it is rarely convincingly real".
Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, calling it "a good, solid science-fiction movie, and a little more". Gene Siskel gave the film one-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "a silly detective yarn, full of juvenile Hollywood images. Wait 'til you see the giant snow shovel scoop the police use to round up rowdies. You may never stop laughing". Arthur D. Murphy of Variety wrote, "The somewhat plausible and proximate horrors in the story of 'Soylent Green' carry the Russell Thacher-Walter Seltzer production over its awkward spots to the status of a good futuristic exploitation film". Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called it "a clever, rough, modestly budgeted but imaginative work". Penelope Gilliatt of The New Yorker was negative, writing, "This pompously prophetic thing of a film hasn't a brain in its beanbag. Where is democracy? Where is the popular vote? Where is women's lib? Where are the uprising poor, who would have suspected what was happening in a moment?"
On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 69% rating, based on 39 reviews, with an average rating of 6.10/10. A German film encyclopedia notes "If you want, you can see a thrilling crime thriller in this film. By means of brutally resonant scenes, however, the director makes clear a far deeper truth [...] Soylent Green must thus be understood as a metaphor. It is the radical image of the self-consuming madness of capitalist mode of production. The necessary consequences of the reification of 'human material' to the point of self-destruction are forcefully brought home to the viewer".
Awards and honors
- Winner Best Science Fiction Film of Year – Saturn Award, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films (Richard Fleischer, Walter Seltzer, Russell Thacher)
- Winner Grand Prize – Avoriaz International Fantastic Film Festival (Richard Fleischer)
- Nominee Best Film of Year (Best Dramatic Presentation) – Hugo Award (Richard Fleischer, Stanley Greenberg, Harry Harrison)
- Winner Best Film Script of Year (Best Dramatic Presentation) – Nebula Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (Stanley Greenberg, Harry Harrison)
- "Soylent Green is people!" is ranked 77th on the American Film Institute's list AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes.
Soylent Green was released on Capacitance Electronic Disc by MGM/CBS Home Video and later on LaserDisc by MGM/UA in 1992 (ISBN 0-7928-1399-5, OCLC 31684584). In November 2007, Warner Home Video released the film on DVD concurrent with the DVD releases of two other science fiction films: Logan's Run (1976), a film that covers similar themes of dystopia and overpopulation, and Outland (1981). A Blu-ray Disc release followed on March 29, 2011.
- Soylent (meal replacement), a brand of meal replacement products whose creator was inspired by the book and film.
- Cloud Atlas (film), a 2012 film, based on David Mitchell's 2004 novel Cloud Atlas, both depicting a future society in which workers are fed with human remains.
- Tender Is the Flesh, a 2020 dystopian novel by Agustina Bazterrica in which humans are farmed for their meat.
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- Gilliatt, Penelope (April 28, 1973). "The Current Cinema: Hungry?". The New Yorker. p. 131.
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- Schneider, Irmela; Thomsen, Christian W., eds. (1989). Lexikon der britischen und amerikanischen Spielfilme in den Fernsehprogrammen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1954–1985 (in German). Vol. 2. Berlin: Spiess. p. 642. ISBN 978-3-89166-064-5.
- "Soylent green / Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc". Miami University Libraries. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- Hendrix, Grady (November 27, 2007). "The Future Is Then". The New York Sun. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- Smith, Wesley J. (January 16, 2022). "What 1973's Soylent Green Accurately Predicted about 2022". National Review. Retrieved January 17, 2022.
- Sokol, Tony (January 7, 2022). "Soylent Green Predicted 2022, Including Impossible Meat Substitutes". Den of Geek. Retrieved January 17, 2022.
- Osteried, Peter (January 15, 2022). "Bedingt prophetisch". Golem.de (in German). Retrieved January 17, 2022.
- Küveler, Jan (January 3, 2022). "Soylent Green: Die Gegenwart holt die Ökodystopie ein". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved January 17, 2022.
- Eckner, Constantin (January 12, 2022). "Ökodystopie "Soylent Green" – Prognosen fürs Katastrophenjahr 2022". Deutschlandfunk Kultur (in German). Retrieved January 17, 2022.