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Coordinates: 48°31′12″N 09°03′20″E / 48.52000°N 9.05556°E / 48.52000; 9.05556
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Dibenga (Swabian)
Tübingen seen from above in June 2018
Tübingen seen from above in June 2018
Coat of arms of Tübingen
Location of Tübingen within Tübingen district
Böblingen (district)Calw (district)Esslingen (district)Freudenstadt (district)Reutlingen (district)Rottweil (district)ZollernalbkreisAmmerbuchBodelshausenDettenhausenDußlingenGomaringenHirrlingenKirchentellinsfurtKusterdingenMössingenNehrenNeustettenOfterdingenRottenburg am NeckarRottenburg am NeckarRottenburg am NeckarStarzachTübingen
Tübingen is located in Germany
Tübingen is located in Baden-Württemberg
Coordinates: 48°31′12″N 09°03′20″E / 48.52000°N 9.05556°E / 48.52000; 9.05556
Admin. regionTübingen
 • Lord mayor (2022–30) Boris Palmer[1] (Ind.)
 • Total108.12 km2 (41.75 sq mi)
341 m (1,119 ft)
 • Total92,811
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
Dialling codes07071
07073 (Unterjesingen)
07472 (Bühl)
Vehicle registration

Tübingen (German: [ˈtyːbɪŋən] ; Swabian: Dibenga) is a traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart, and developed on both sides of the Neckar and Ammer rivers. As of 2014[3] about one in three of the 90,000 people[citation needed] living in Tübingen is a student. As of the 2018/2019 winter semester, 27,665 students attend the Eberhard Karl University of Tübingen.[citation needed] The city has the lowest median age in Germany, in part due to its status as a university city. As of December 31, 2015, the average age of a citizen of Tübingen is 39.1 years.[citation needed]

Immediately north of the city lies the Schönbuch, a densely wooded nature park. The Swabian Alb mountains rise about 13 km (8 mi) (beeline Tübingen City to Roßberg - 869 m) to the southeast of Tübingen.

The Ammer and Steinlach rivers are tributaries of the Neckar river, which flows in an easterly direction through the city, just south of the medieval old town. Large parts of the city are hilly, with the Schlossberg and the Österberg in the city centre and the Schnarrenberg and Herrlesberg, among others, rising immediately adjacent to the inner city.

The highest point is at about 500 m (1,640.42 ft) above sea level near Bebenhausen in the Schönbuch forest, while the lowest point is 305 m (1,000.66 ft) in the city's eastern Neckar valley. The geographical centre of the state of Baden-Württemberg is in a small forest called Elysium, near the Botanical Gardens of the city's university.


The area was probably first settled by ancient humans in the 12th millennium BC. The Romans left some traces here in AD 85, when they built a limes frontier wall at the Neckar River. Tübingen dates from the 6th or 7th century, when the region was populated by the Alamanni people. Some historians argue that the Battle of Solicinium was fought at Spitzberg, a mountain in Tübingen, in AD 367, although there is no evidence for this.[citation needed]

Tübingen first appears in official records in 1191. The local castle, Hohentübingen, has records going back to 1078, when it was besieged by Henry IV, king of Germany. Its name was transcribed in Medieval Latin as Tuingia and Twingia.

From 1146, Count Hugo V (1125–52) was promoted to count palatine as Hugo I. Tübingen was established as the capital of a County Palatine of Tübingen. By 1231, Tübingen was a civitas, indicating recognition by the Crown of civil liberties and a court system.

In 1262, an Augustinian monastery was established by Pope Alexander IV in Tübingen; in 1272, a Franciscan monastery was founded. In 1300, a Latin school (today's Uhland-Gymnasium) was founded. During the Protestant Reformation, which Duke Ulrich of Württemberg converted to, he disestablished the Franciscan monastery in 1535.

In 1342, the county palatine was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg and incorporated into the County of Württemberg.

Tübingen, Neckarfront
Shops lining the city square

Between 1470 and 1483, St. George's Collegiate Church was built. The collegiate church offices provided the opportunity for what soon afterwards became the most significant event in Tübingen's history: the founding of the Eberhard Karls University by Duke Eberhard im Bart of Württemberg in 1477, thus making it one of the oldest universities in Central Europe. It became soon renowned as one of the most influential places of learning in the Holy Roman Empire, especially for theology (a Protestant faculty, Tübinger Stift, was established in 1535 in the former Augustinian monastery). Today, the university is still the biggest source of income for the residents of the city and one of the biggest universities in Germany with more than 26,000 students.

Between 1622 and 1625, the Catholic League occupied Lutheran Württemberg in the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the summer of 1631, the city was raided. In 1635/36 the city was hit by the Plague. In 1638, Swedish troops conquered Tübingen. Towards the end of the war, French troops occupied the city from 1647 until 1649.

In 1789, parts of the old town burned down, but were later rebuilt in the original style. In 1798 the Allgemeine Zeitung, a leading newspaper in early 19th-century Germany, was founded in Tübingen by Johann Friedrich Cotta. From 1807 until 1843, the poet Friedrich Hölderlin lived in Tübingen in a tower overlooking the Neckar.

In the Nazi era, the Tübingen Synagogue was burned in the Kristallnacht on November 9, 1938. The Second World War left the city largely unscathed, mainly because of the peace initiative of a local doctor, Theodor Dobler. It was occupied by the French army and became part of the French zone of occupation. From 1946 to 1952, Tübingen was the capital of the newly formed state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (as French: Tubingue), before the state of Baden-Württemberg was created by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The French troops had a garrison stationed in the south of the city until the end of the Cold War in the 1990s.

In the 1960s, Tübingen was one of the centres of the German student movement and the Protests of 1968 and has ever since shaped left and green political views. Some radicalized Tübingen students supported the leftist Rote Armee Fraktion terrorist group, with active member Gudrun Ensslin, a local and a Tübingen student from 1960 to 1963, joining the group in 1968.

On May 27, 1968, the first ever automated teller machine in Germany was installed in Tübingen, into the wall of the local community bank Kreissparkasse Tübingen, built by Aalen-based safe builder Ostertag AG in cooperation with AEG-Telefunken. It was made available to use for 1000 selected clients of the bank.[4][5]

Although noticing such things today is largely impossible, as recently as the 1950s, Tübingen was a very socioeconomically divided city, with poor local farmers and tradesmen living along the Stadtgraben (City Canal) and students and academics residing around the Alte Aula and the Burse, the old university buildings. There, hanging on the Cottahaus, a sign commemorates Goethe's stay of a few weeks while visiting his publisher. The German tendency to memorialize every minor presence of its historical greats (comparable to the statement "Washington slept here" in the United States) is parodied on the building next door. This simple building, once a dormitory, features a plain sign with the words "Hier kotzte Goethe" (lit.: "Goethe puked here").

In the second half of the 20th century, Tübingen's administrative area was extended beyond what is now called the "core city" to include several outlying small towns and villages. Most notable among these is Bebenhausen, a village clustered around a castle and Bebenhausen Abbey, a Cistercian cloister about 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Tübingen.


In 2020, the city had 90,000 inhabitants. Life in the city is dominated by its roughly 28,000 students. Tübingen is best described as a mixture of old and distinguished academic flair, including liberal and green politics on one hand and traditional German-style student fraternities on the other, with rural-agricultural environs and shaped by typical Lutheran-Pietist characteristics, such as austerity and a Protestant work ethic, and traditional Swabian elements, such as frugality, order, and tidiness. The city is home to many picturesque buildings from previous centuries and lies on the River Neckar.

In 1995, the German weekly magazine Focus published a national survey, according to which Tübingen had the highest quality of life of all cities in Germany. Factors taken into consideration included the infrastructure, the integration of bicycle lanes into the road system, a bus system connecting surrounding hills and valleys, late-night services, areas of the city that can be reached on foot, the pedestrianised old town, and other amenities and cultural events offered by the university. Tübingen is the city with the youngest average population in Germany.

Main sights[edit]

View from the tower of Stiftskirche

In central Tübingen, the Neckar divides briefly into two streams, forming the elongated Neckarinsel (Neckar Island), famous for its Platanenallee with high plane trees, which are around 200 years old. Pedestrians can reach the island via stairs on the narrow ends leading down from a bridge spanning the Neckar, and by a smaller foot bridge nearer the middle of the island. During the summer, the Neckarinsel is occasionally the venue for concerts, plays, and literary readings. The row of historical houses across one side of the elongated Neckarinsel is called the Neckarfront and includes the house with adjoining tower where poet Friedrich Hölderlin stayed for the last 36 years of his life, as he struggled with mental instability.

Tübingen city hall
Neckar and Hölderlinturm
Tübingen street art near Blaue Brücke

Tübingen's Altstadt (old town) survived World War II due to the city's lack of heavy industry. The result is a growing domestic tourism business as visitors come to wander through one of the few completely intact historic Altstädte in Germany. The highlights of Tübingen include its crooked cobblestone lanes, narrow-stair alleyways picking their way through the hilly terrain, streets lined with canals, and well-maintained traditional half-timbered houses.

Old city landmarks include the city hall on Markt Square and the Hohentübingen Castle, now part of the University of Tübingen. The central landmark is the Stiftskirche (Collegiate Church). Along with the rest of the city, the Stiftskirche was one of the first to convert to Martin Luther's protestant church. As such, it maintains (and carefully defends) several "Roman Catholic" features, such as patron saints. Below the Rathaus is a quiet, residential street called the Judengasse, the former Jewish neighborhood of Tübingen until the city's Jews were expelled in 1477. On the street corner is a plaque commemorating the fate of Tübingen's Jews.

The centre of Tübingen is the site of weekly and seasonal events, including regular market days on the Holzmarkt by the Stiftskirche and the Marktplatz by the Rathaus, an outdoor cinema in winter and summer, festive autumn and Christmas markets and (formerly) Europe's largest Afro-Brazilian festival.

Students and tourists also come to the Neckar River in the summer to visit beer gardens or go boating in Stocherkähne, the Tübingen equivalent of Oxford and Cambridge punts, only slimmer. A Stocherkahn carries up to 20 people. On the second Thursday of June, all Stocherkahn punts take part in a major race, the Stocherkahnrennen.

Bebenhausen Abbey lies in the village of Bebenhausen, a district of Tübingen. A subdivision of the pilgrimage route known as the Way of St. James starts here and runs through Tübingen.


Tübingen is governed by the mayor, elected by citizens every eight years, and by the municipal council, elected by citizens every five years.[6] Boris Palmer, a former member of the Greens, has been mayor since 2007, re-elected in 2014 and 2022 and on his third term until 2030.[7]

Tübingen's council decided that the city should be climate-neutral by 2030.[8][9] In 2022, the city was the first in Germany to tax disposable food packaging.[10] Restaurants in Tübingen are charged 50 cents per disposable cup and cardboard bowl, and 20 cents per piece of cutlery.[11]

Regional structure[edit]

Tübingen (lower right) on the Neckar, in southwest Germany

Tübingen is the capital of an eponymous district and an eponymous administrative region (Regierungsbezirk), before 1973 called Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern.

Tübingen is, with nearby Reutlingen (about 15 km (9.3 mi) east), one of the two centre cities of the Neckar-Alb region.

Administratively, it is not part of the Stuttgart Region, bordering it to the north and west (Böblingen district). However, the city and northern parts of its district can be regarded as belonging to that region in a wider regional and cultural context.


Tübingen is divided into 22 districts, the city core of twelve districts (population of about 51,000) and ten outer districts (suburbs) (population of about 31,000):

Core city districts:

  • Französisches Viertel
  • Österberg
  • Schönblick/Winkelwiese
  • Lustnau
  • Südstadt
  • Universität
  • Waldhäuser Ost
  • Wanne
  • Weststadt
  • Zentrum

Outer districts:


Tübingen has a notable arts culture as well as nightlife. In addition to the full roster of official and unofficial university events that range from presentations by the university's official poet in residence to parties hosted by the student associations of each faculty, the city can boast of several choirs, theatre companies and nightclubs. Also, Tübingen's Kunsthalle (art exhibition hall), on the "Wanne", houses two or three exhibits of international note each year.


There are several festivals, open air markets and other events on a regular basis:

  • January
    • Arab Movie Festival Arabisches Filmfestival
  • April
    • Latin American Movie Festival CineLatino (usually in April or May)
  • May
    • Internationales Pianisten-Festival (international festival of pianists)
    • Rock Festival Rock im Tunnel (usually in May or June)
  • June
    A Stocherkahn (punt)
    Stocherkahn boats during a race
    • Poled boat race (German: Stocherkahnrennen), second Thursday of June, 2pm, around the Neckar Island
    • Ract!festival, an alternative open air festival for free with music performances and workshops
    • Tübinger Wassermusik: concerts on Stocherkahn boats
  • July
    • Stadtfest: gastronomy and performances in the streets of the old town
    • Tübinger Sommerinsel festival: various restaurants serving special meals and associations offering activities on the Neckar Island
  • August
    • Tübinger Orgelsommer: organ concerts in the Stiftskirche
    • Sommerkonzerte in the former monastery of Bebenhausen (July-September)
    • Kennen Sie Tübingen? (Do you know Tübingen?): special guided tours on Mondays July-September
  • September
    • Vielklang: classic music concerts at several locations
    • Umbrisch-Provenzalischer Markt, open air market for Italian and French products from Umbria and Provence
    • Tübinger Stadtlauf the city 10km race
    • Retromotor oldtimer festival (usually second or third September weekend)
  • October
    • Jazz- und Klassiktage: jazz and classic music festival
    • Kite festival Drachenfest on the Österberg hill (usually third Sunday in October)
    • French movie festival Französische Filmtage
  • November
    • Terre de femmes movie festival FrauenWelten
  • December


Population development[edit]

Since World War II, Tübingen's population has almost doubled from about 45,000 to the current 88,000, also due to the incorporation of formerly independent villages into the city in the 1970s.

Currently, Lord Mayor Boris Palmer (Green Party) has set the ambitious goal of increasing the population of Tübingen to 100,000 within the next several years. To achieve this, the city is closing gaps between buildings within the city proper by allowing new houses to be built there; this is also to counter the tendency of urban sprawl and land consumption that has been endangering the preservation of rural landscapes of Southern Germany. [1]

Historical population[edit]

Historical population


Tübingen has an oceanic climate, Cfb in the Köppen climate classification.[12]

Climate data for Tübingen (1991–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.8 86 137.4 181.6 204.8 222.3 240 225.2 166.5 113.1 65 51.7 1,754.4
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[13][14][15]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Tübingen is twinned with:[16]

For their commitment to their international partnership, the Council of Europe awarded the Europe Prize to Tübingen and Aix-en-Provence in 1965.[17] The city's dedication to European understanding is also reflected in the naming of several streets and squares, including the large Europaplatz (Europe Square) outside the railway station.


By plane: Tübingen is about 35 km (21.75 mi) from the Baden-Württemberg state airport (Landesflughafen Stuttgart, also called Stuttgart Airport).

By automobile: Tübingen is on the Bundesstraße 27 (a "federal road") that crosses through Baden-Württemberg, connecting the city with Würzburg, Heilbronn, Stuttgart and the Landesflughafen (Stuttgart Airport) to the north and Rottweil and Donaueschingen to the south.

By rail: Tübingen Hauptbahnhof is on the regional train line Neckar-Alb Railway-Bahn (Neckar-Alb-Bahn) from Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof via Esslingen and Reutlingen to Tübingen. The average time of travel to Stuttgart is 1:01 hrs., with some trains taking only 45 mins. Other regional lines are the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn, connecting the city with Hechingen and Sigmaringen (so-called Zollernalb Railway), Zollernalbbahn and connections to Herrenberg (Ammer Valley Railway, Ammertalbahn) and Horb (Upper Neckar Railway, Obere Neckarbahn). Since 2009, there is also a daily direct Intercity link to Mannheim, Cologne and Düsseldorf as well as to Berlin.

Local public transport: The city, due to its high student population, features an extensive public bus network with more than 20 lines connecting the city districts and places outside of Tübingen such as Ammerbuch, Gomaringen and Nagold. There are also several night bus lines in the early hours every day. A direct bus is available to Stuttgart Airport (via Leinfelden-Echterdingen) as well as to Böblingen and Reutlingen.


Tigers Tübingen are the city's only professional sports team, playing basketball.


Higher education and research[edit]

Tübingen University Main Building (Neue Aula)
Tübingen student

The Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen dates from 1477, making it one of the oldest in Germany. Including the university hospitals, it is also the city's largest employer. The town is also host to several research institutes including the Max Planck Institutes for Biological Cybernetics, Developmental Biology, Intelligent Systems, The Friedrich Miescher Laboratory of the MPG, and the Max Planck Institute for Biology, the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, the Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and many others. A modern technology park is growing in the northern part of the city, where science, industrial companies and start-ups are conducting joint research, primarily on biotechnology and artificial intelligence. The university also maintains a botanical garden, the Botanischer Garten der Universität Tübingen. Furthermore, there is a Protestant College of Church Music.


More than 10,000 children and young adults in Tübingen regularly attend school. There are 30 schools in the city, some of which consist of more than one type of school. Of these, 17 are primary schools while the others are for secondary education: four schools are of the lowest rank, Hauptschule, three of the middle rank, Realschule, and six are Gymnasien (grammar schools). There also are four vocational schools (Berufsschule) and three special needs schools.

Primary schools

  • Freie Aktive Schule Tübingen
  • Grundschule Innenstadt / Silcherschule
  • Grundschule Weilheim
  • Ludwig-Krapf-Schule
  • Grundschule Hügelstraße
  • Französische Schule
  • Dorfackerschule Lustnau
  • Grundschule Hirschau
  • Grundschule Hechinger Eck
  • Grundschule auf der Wanne
  • Grundschule Aischbach
  • Grundschule Winkelwiese / Waldhäuser Ost
  • Grundschule Bühl
  • Grundschule Bühl
  • Grundschule Kilchberg
  • Grundschule Hagelloch
  • Grundschule Pfrondorf
  • Grundschule Unterjesingen



  • Walter-Erbe-Realschule
  • Albert-Schweitzer-Realschule
  • Geschwister-Scholl-Schule


  • Carlo-Schmid-Gymnasium
  • Geschwister-Scholl-Schule
  • Kepler-Gymnasium
  • Uhland-Gymnasium
  • Wildermuth-Gymnasium
  • Freie Waldorfschule

Vocational schools (Berufsschulen)

  • Gewerbliche Schule
  • Wilhelm-Schickard-Schule
  • Mathilde-Weber-Schule
  • Bildungs- und Technologiezentrum

Notable people[edit]


Notable alumni from the university[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Oberbürgermeisterwahl Tübingen 2022, Staatsanzeiger.
  2. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2022" [Population by nationality and sex as of December 31, 2022] (CSV) (in German). Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. June 2023.
  3. ^ "On student statistics, see here".
  4. ^ Pötzl, Norbert F. (2018-05-26). "1968 in Tübingen: Deutschlands erster Geldautomat". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 2023-10-15.
  5. ^ Heeg, Thiemo (2008-12-11). "55.000 Geräte in Deutschland: Happy bargeldlos: Der Geldautomat wird 40". FAZ.NET (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 2023-10-15.
  6. ^ "Politik und Gremien". www.tuebingen.de (in German). Retrieved 2023-06-09.
  7. ^ "Oberbürgermeister". www.tuebingen.de (in German). Retrieved 2023-06-09.
  8. ^ "Tübingen klimaneutral 2030". www.tuebingen.de (in German). Retrieved 2023-06-09.
  9. ^ Klimaschutzprogramm 2020 bis 2030 für die Zielsetzung "Tübingen klimaneutral 2030" (PDF) (in German). Universitätsstadt Tübingen. Stabsstelle Umwelt- und Klimaschutz. 2022.
  10. ^ "German Federal Administrative Court confirms legality of local packaging tax in city of Tübingen". globaltaxnews.ey.com. Retrieved 2023-06-09.
  11. ^ Keck, Christine (2023-05-26). "(S+) Boris Palmer zur Verpackungsteuer: »Wir setzen auf den Trieb des Menschen, Steuern zu sparen«". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 2023-06-09.
  12. ^ "Tübingen Climate (Germany)". Climate Data. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Lufttemperatur: vieljährige Mittelwerte 1991 - 2020" [Air Temperature: Long-term averages for 1991-2020]. dwd.de (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  14. ^ "Niederschlag: vieljährige Mittelwerte 1991 - 2020" [Precipitation: Long-term averages for 1991-2020]. dwd.de (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  15. ^ "Sonnenscheindauer: vieljährige Mittelwerte 1991 - 2020" [Sunshine: Long-term averages for 1991-2020]. dwd.de (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 February 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  16. ^ "Partnerstädte". tuebingen.de (in German). Tübingen. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
  17. ^ "Sister Cities". Universitätsstadt Tübingen. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009.
  18. ^ Sauer, Joseph (1907). "Johann Ludwig Brassicanus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2.
  19. ^ Weber, N.A. (1907). "Christopher Besoldus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2.
  20. ^ "Camerarius, Rudolf Jakob" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 108.
  21. ^ O'Donoghue, Freeman Marius (1894). "Meyer, Jeremiah" . Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 37. pp. 316–317.
  22. ^ "Cotta (family)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 250–251. see para 3 = .....Johann Friedrich, Freiherr Cotta von Cottendorf (1764–1832), who was born at Stuttgart on.....
  23. ^ "Uhland, Johann Ludwig" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 563–564.
  24. ^ "Krapf, Johann Ludwig" . New International Encyclopedia. Vol. XI. 1905.
  25. ^ Smith, William Robertson (1911). "Reuchlin, Johann" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 23 (11th ed.).
  26. ^ "Melanchthon, Philipp" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 88–89.
  27. ^ Clerke, Agnes Mary (1911). "Kepler, Johann" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). pp. 749–751.
  28. ^ "Pappenheim, Gottfried Heinrich, Count of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 20 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 739–740.
  29. ^ "Camerarius, Rudolf Jakob" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 108.
  30. ^ Robertson, John George (1911). "Wieland, Christoph Martin" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 28 (11th ed.). pp. 621–622.
  31. ^ Wallace, William; Muirhead, J. H. (1911). "Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). pp. 200–207.
  32. ^ "Hölderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 583.
  33. ^ Adamson, Robert; Mitchell, John Malcolm (1911). "Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). pp. 316–319.
  34. ^ "List, Friedrich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 16 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 776–777.
  35. ^ Canney, Maurice Arthur (1911). "Baur, Ferdinand Christian" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). pp. 540–541.
  36. ^ "Fichte, Immanuel Hermann von" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 10 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 313.
  37. ^ "Hauff, Wilhelm" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 65.
  38. ^ "Mörike, Eduard Friedrich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 837.
  39. ^ Smith, John Frederick (1887). "Strauss, David Friedrich" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. XXII (9th ed.).
  40. ^ "Keller, Adelbert von" . New International Encyclopedia. Vol. XI. 1905.
  41. ^ "Herwegh, Georg" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 405.
  42. ^ "Meyer, Julius Lothar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 348–349.
  43. ^ "Tschermak, Gustav" . New International Encyclopedia. Vol. XIX. 1905.
  44. ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter (1909). "Franz Xaver von Funk" . Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6.

External links[edit]