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A train simulator (also railroad simulator or railway simulator) is a computer based simulation of rail transport operations. They are generally large complicated software packages modeling a 3D virtual reality world implemented both as commercial trainers, and consumer computer game software with 'play modes' which lets the user interact by stepping inside the virtual world. Because of the near view modeling, often at speed, train simulator software is generally far more complicated and difficult software to write and implement than flight simulator programs.
While commercial trainers on mini-computer systems had a longer history, the first two mass-market English 'computer game' railway simulators, MSTS and Trainz, arrived within a few months of one another in 2001 and could run (poorly) on Intel 80386 microprocessor based systems. Some, like the first wide-market release, Microsoft Train Simulator (MSTS), are written and modeled for the user mainly interested in driving. Others, like MSTS's principle rival, Trainz, were aimed initially primarily at the rail enthusiast-hobbyist markets, supporting features making it possible to build a virtual railroad of one's dreams. Accordingly, for four years Trainz releases bundled a free copy of gmax digital model building software on each CDROM, hosted an asset swap website (Trainz Exchange, later the Trainz Download Station), encouraged user participation and dialog with an active forum, and took pains to publish in-depth how-to model guidelines and specifications with its releases.
Several other later challengers as well as Trainz (with a series of upgrades) soon matched or eclipsed MSTS's driving experiences one way or another. Railsim, actually a successor using the MSTS game engine upped the challenge to the aging MSTS by adding much improved graphics, so Trainz did as well, but also added interactive industries and dynamic driving features such as product loading and unloading, load-sensitive physics modeling affecting driving and operating and user interface changes to improve User eXperiences (UX), such as a free camera mode allowing roaming away from the train cars, free and clear of the Train being operated-while still controlling it. This latter makes particular sense given the dearth of an assistant on a walkie-talky while operating a train during coupling operations or other position sensitive tasks such as loading and unloading. Railsim and a couple of others came and went out of business, and Railsim was reorganized as Rail Simulator with the software company that wrote MSTS as its core, while MSTS aged and never did get upgraded as Microsoft had once begun and announced. In the last few years, Rail Simulator has changed its name to Train Simulator 2016.
As the world market has shaken out, Australian Trainz in 2014-2015 upgraded itself with Trainz: A New Era, still servicing the wider route builder and driving markets, but now matching the 64bit computing and graphics of Train Simulator 2013, 2015, and Train Simulator 2016. In the same five-year period, Train simulators have moved to pad computer and phone platforms.
Industrial train simulations
Like flight simulators, train simulators have been produced for railway training purposes. Driver simulators include those produced by:
- Ongakukan in Japan
- SMART Simulation - part of the Neokon Baltija group from Lithuania with offices in the UK and Russia.
- EADS in Germany
- Bentley Systems in the UK
- Lander Simulation & Training Solutions, Spain 
- Transurb Technirail, a Belgian company based in Brussels
- CORYS , a French company with offices in Grenoble, France and Jacksonville, FL, USA
- Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co KG (KMW) http://www.kmweg.de/, a German company based in Munich
- Sydac a member of the Knorr-Bremse Group based in Australia.
- OKTAL, a French company member of the international group SOGECLAIR based in Toulouse
- New York Air Brake, an American company based in Watertown, NY.
- PS Technology, an American company based in Boulder, CO.
Signaller training simulators have been developed by Funkwerk in Germany, The Railway Engineering Company (TRE) in the UK, OpenTrack Railway Technology in Switzerland, and PS Technology in the US.
Consumer train simulation
There are two broad categories of train simulation video games: driving simulation and strategy simulation.
Train driving simulation games usually allow a user to have a "driver's view" from the locomotive's cab and operate realistic cab controls such as throttle, brake valve, sand, horn and whistle, lights etc.
One of the first commercially available train simulators was Southern Belle, released in 1985. The game simulated a journey of the Southern Belle steam passenger train from London Victoria to Brighton, while at the same time the player must comply with speed limits, not to go too fast on curves and keep to the schedule. It was followed with Evening Star in 1987.
Other train driving simulation software includes:
- BVE Trainsim (originally Boso View Express) is a Japanese three-dimensional computer-based train simulator. It is notable for focusing on providing an accurate driving experience as viewed from inside the cab, rather than creating a network of other trains—There are no outside views, drivers can only look directly ahead, and other trains passed along the route are only displayed as stationary objects.
- Trainz, an extensively expandable and user extendable (by scripts) simulator with intuitive GUI world modeling and asset creation facilities, an extensive freeware library of over 250,000 assets, and an attention to Train physics. The simulator offers 4 viewing modes, and for beginning drivers or learning a route, a control mode similar to that of a H.O. scale model train set.
- Densha de Go!, a Japanese (only) train simulation game series focused on driving.
- Microsoft Train Simulator (MSTS), with limited route building and difficult expansion capabilities.
- Rail Simulator, another extensively expandable and user orientated creation simulator with intuitive driving modes and editing tools. The main focus is on driving a train from the cab while performing a series of pre-determined tasks. Additional modes allow differing levels of control and interaction. Built by the company behind the original Microsoft Train Simulator software, and published by Electronic Arts.
- Train Simulator (originally RailWorks), successor to Rail Simulator, the software was subject to a management buy out. Operating as Rail Simulator Developments Ltd, the software was rebranded, improved and adapted for the Steam online distribution system. Expanding on the capabilities of the original version, RailWorks went on to develop the concept of Downloadable Content (DLC) addons providing users with optional additional purchases. While the majority of DLC is sold as payware through Steam, many of the Microsoft Train Simulator developers also provide routes, trains and scenarios as freeware and payware. The software entered its current incarnation in 2012 when the company behind its development rebranded as Dovetail Games, and put the simulator through a similar program of reinvention. Continuing to be sold primarily though Steam, boxed versions are released annually each September, incrementing the title (TS2013 / TS2014 / TS2015). Each annual release encompasses a range of global enhancements that are distributed free to all users, and a range of purchasable routes and trains that make use of the new features as a demo to prospective customers.
- Train Simulator series (a.k.a. Railfan)
Peripherals specifically designed for use with driving simulations include RailDriver by US manufacturer P.I. Engineering. RailDriver is a programmable desktop cab controller with throttle, brake lever and switches designed to work with Trainz, TrainMaster, Microsoft Train Simulator and Rail Simulator.
Railroad-themed strategy simulation video games are focused mostly on the economic part of the railroad industry rather than on technical detail. The A-Train series (1985 to present) is an early example. Chris Sawyer's Transport Tycoon (1994) was an influential game in this genre, spawning remakes such as Simutrans (1999 to present), OpenTTD (2004 to present) and Sawyer's own Locomotion (2004). Sid Meier designed two railroad simulations: Railroad Tycoon (1990) and Railroads! (2006). The Railroad Tycoon series itself inspired other rail games such as Rails Across America (2001).
Some rail simulation games focus on railroad switches rather than economics. Examples include The Train Game (1983) and SimSig (donationware). JBSS BAHN (shareware) focuses on simulating a complex railroad lay out.
- Flight simulator – contains reference to flight simulators
- Strategy computer game
- Metro Train Performance Simulation- for online simulation tools to calculate the journey time, net energy consumption, braking distance, coupler force, air-conditioning system and balancing speed of train etc. Technical concepts of advanced trains, which regenerate electric energy during braking are also described.
- YouTube video game review: , BumpyTuberGame Reviews, Published on Sep 26, 2014, accessdate=2016-03-24.
- "Train Simulator for Pro-use" in Ongakukan website. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
- "EADS - Very High Speed, Intercity and Suburban Train Simulators". railway-technology.com. SPG Media Limited. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "First Great Western - Investment in driver training with new lifesize simulator". www.firstgreatwestern.co.uk. 4 March 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "LANDER Simulation & Training Solutions - Training Simulators - Railway Technology". www.railway-technology.com. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- "BEST –Trainingssystem für die Ausbildung des Personals in Leitzentralen und Stellwerken" (in German). Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- "SBB: Moderne Simulatoren für Zugverkehrsleiter" (in German). eurailpresse.de. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- Ryland, H (November 10–11, 2005). "Operations - the value of training simulators [railway signaller training]". Safety Assurance, 2005. The IEE Seminar on (Ref. No. 2005/11081). The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ISSN 0537-9989. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
Since the Cullen Report into the accident at Ladbroke Grove, there has been increased pressure to improve the training of railway signallers. The Railway Engineering Company has responded to this situation by providing comprehensive signaller training systems. These have been installed for all workstations at all the IECC installations on Network Rail.
- "TRE_CORPORATE_BROCHURE.pdf (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). www.theraileng.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- Hürlimann, Daniel (20 September 2007). "OpenTrack presentation" (PDF). The 12th Conference of the railML Initiative (in German). RailML.org. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "OpenTrack Railway Technology - Railway Simulation". www.opentrack.ch. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- Lew, Alexander (2007-12-17). "The Best Free Train Simulator". Autopia. Wired News. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- BVE Train Simulator(archive), The Simon Tonekham Statesman blog
- "Announcing Boso View Express (BVE)". Train Simmer. 2001-02-26. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
Boso View Express (BVE) is a freeware 3D train simulator ... under development since 1996. ... nor does it offer dynamic scenery (moving trains). It does feature ... trains that react accurately
- "Microsoft Train Simulator". CBS Interactive. 2005-01-03. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
BVE ... physics are comparable with the real trains. ... Plenty of routes and trains are available free too!
- Baum, Peter. "Mechanik/ BVE". Retrieved 2009-08-14.
the trains actually rock back and forth and lean into turns ... has still remained popular due to its superior sound, train handling characteristics, and its easily modifiable components.
- Barten, Alfred (2005). "Virtual Railroading/Train Simulation FAQs". Archived from the original on 6 February 2005. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
BVE is built linearly. There is no opportunity to branch, unless the branched version is treated as a second route. ... BVE routes can also be built using Notepad
- Hanstater, David. "Editorial: BVE Train Simulator". Atomic Systems IP. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
BVE is much smaller ... the only view is straight forward through the cab window. There are no outside views
- "Train-Sim.Com Review: RailDriver". www.train-sim.com. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- Daniel Emery (10 March 2009). "Inside Games: Creative Assembly". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Scott Osborne (October 12, 2001). "Rails Across America Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
While admittedly inspired by the hit Railroad Tycoon series, Rails Across America takes a broader approach to rail empire building and offers some novel, entertaining features.
- 2TRAIN Benchmarking Report on computer-based Railway Training in Europe
- RailServe.com (Directory of train simulator sites)
- Train simulator at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Railpage Train Simulator Support Forums(Online Support Forum and Add-on downloads)
- VR Reading Room: Hundreds of articles covering all train simulators
- Train Simulation
- Metro Simulation