United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913

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United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913
United States
1910 ←
Various dates throughout 1912 and 1913 → 1914

34 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Republican Progressive
Last election 44 seats 48 seats 0 seats
Seats before 46 48 2
Seats won 51 44 1
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4 Decrease 1

US 1912 senate election map.svg

  Democrat re-elected/hold
  Democratic gain
  Republican re-elected/hold
  Republican gain

Majority party before election


Republican

Elected Majority party


Democratic

In the 1912/13 United States Senate elections, held on November 5, Democrats gained control of the Senate from the Republicans. This coincided with Democrat Woodrow Wilson's victory in the presidential election amid a divide in the Republican Party. In the Senate, Joseph M. Dixon and Miles Poindexter defected from the Republican Party and joined Theodore Roosevelt's new Progressive Party. Dixon, however, lost his seat during this election.

Some states elected their Senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

This was the first time in 20 years that the Democrats won a majority in Senate.

Results summary[edit]

Parties Total Seats
Incumbents This election Result +/-
Not up Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
  Democratic 46 32 14 7 4 Increase 9 Decrease 2 51 Increase 5
  Republican 48 29 19 6 4 Increase 2 Decrease 8 44 Decrease 4
  Progressive 2 1 1 0 0 Steady Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1
  Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady
Total 96 62 34 13 8 Increase 11 Decrease 11 96 Steady

Senate party division, 63rd Congress (1913–1915)[edit]

Majority Party: Democratic (51 seats)

Minority Party: Republican (44 seats)

Other Parties: Progressive (1 seat)

Total Seats: 96

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Each box listed contains the state's postal abbreviation and Senate class number.

Before the elections[edit]

After the March 1912 elections to elect Senators from the new states of New Mexico and Arizona.

D1
AZ1
D2
FL1
D3
IN1
D4
ME1
D5
MD1
D6
MS1
D7
MO1
D8
MT1
D18
AZ3
D17
AL3
D16
WV1
D15
VA1
D14
TX1
D13
TN1
D12
OH1
D11
NY1
D10
NJ1
D9
NE1
D19
AR3
D20
FL3
D21
GA3
D22
IN3
D23
LA3
D24
MD3
D25
MO3
D26
NV3
D27
NC3
D28
OK3
D38
NC2
D37
MS2
D36
LA2
D35
KY2
D34
GA2
D33
AR2
D32
AL2
D31
ID3
D30
SC3
D29
OR3
D39
OK2
D40
SC2
D41
TN2
D42
TX2
D43
VA2
D44
WV2
V1
CO3*
V2
IL3*
R50
WY2
R49
SD2
Majority → R48
RI2
R39
MA2
R40
MI2
R41
MN2
R42
MT2
R43
NE2
R44
NH2
R45
NJ2
R46
NM2
R47
OR2
R38
ME2
R37
KS2
R36
IA2
R35
IL2
R34
ID2
R33
DE2
R32
CO2
R31
WI3
R30
WA3
R29
VT3
R19
IA3
R20
KS3
R21
KY3
R22
NH3
R23
NY3
R24
ND3
R25
OH3
R26
PA3
R27
SD3
R28
UT3
R18
CT3
R17
CA3
R16
WY1
R15
WI1
R14
WA1
R13
VT1
R12
UT1
R11
RI1
R10
PA1
R9
ND1
R1
CA1
R2
CT1
R3
DE1
R4
MA1
R5
MI1
R6
MN1
R7
NV1
R8
NM1
Notes:
  • V1 (Colorado class 3 seat): Democratic Senator died January 15, 1911, and the seat remained vacant.
  • V2 (Illinois class 3 seat): Republican Senator's 1909 election was voided July 13, 1912, and the seat remained vacant.

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1
AZ1
D2
FL1
D3
IN1
D4
ME1
D5
MS1
D6
MO1
D7
MT1
D8
NE1
D18
AZ3
D17
AL3
D16
WV1
D15
VA1
D14
TX1
D13
TN1
D12
OH1
D11
NY1
D10
NJ1
D9 +
NV1*
D19
AR3
D20 +
CO3*
D21
FL3
D22
GA3
D23
IN3
D24
LA3
D25
MD3
D26
MO3
D27
NV3
D28
NC3
D38 O
AR2*
D37 √
VA2
D36 √
SC2
D35 √
OK2
D34 √
NC2
D33 √
GA2
D32 √
AL2
D31
SC3
D30
OR3
D29
OK3
D39 O
KY2
D40 O
LA2
D41 O
MS2
D42 O
TX2
D43 +
CO2
D44 +
DE2
(D45 +
IL2)*
D46 +
KS2
D47 +
MT2
(D48 +
NH2)*
Majority →
R38 √
WY2
R39 O
MA2
R40 O
NE2
R41 O
RI2
R42 O
SD2
(R43 +
WV2)*
R44 +
ME2
D51 +
TN2
D50 +
OR2
D49 +
NJ2
R37 √
NM2
R36 √
MN2
R35 √
MI2
R34 √
IA2
R33 √
ID2
R32
WI3
R31
WA3
R30
VT3
R29
UT3
R28
SD3
R18 +
ID3*
(R19
IL3)*
R20
IA3
R21
KS3
R22
KY3
R23
NH3
R24
NY3
R25
ND3
R26
OH3
R27
PA3
R17
CT3
R16
CA3
R15
WY1
R14
WI1
R13
VT1
R12
UT1
R11
RI1
R10
PA1
R9
ND1
R8
NM1
P1
WA1*
R1
CA1
R2
CT1
R3
DE1
R4
MA1
R5
MD1*
R6
MI1
R7
MN1
Notes:
  • D10+ (Nevada class 1 seat): Republican appointee lost a special election January 23, 1913 to finish the term.
  • D21O (Colorado class 3 seat): Democratic incumbent had died back in 1911. Winner elected January 15, 1913.
  • D39O (Arkansas class 2 seat): Democratic incumbent won re-election, but died. Winner elected January 29, 1913 to the next term..
  • D46+ (Illinois class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • D49+ (New Hampshire class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • R5+ (Maryland class 1 seat): Democratic incumbent died November 25, 1912 and was replaced by Republican appointee November 29, 1912.
  • R17+ (Idaho class 3 seat): Democratic appointee lost a special election January 24, 1913 to finish the term.
  • R18+ (Illinois class 3 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • R42+ (West Virginia class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • P1+ (Washington class 1 seat): Miles Poindexter, who was not up for election this cycle, changed parties from Republican to Progressive in the next Congress.
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected or appointee elected to full term
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

*Asterisks indicate elections in which Senators where selected by some form of direct voting and then subsequently elected by state legislatures.

Special elections during the 62nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1912 or before March 4, 1913; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Mexico
(Class 1)
New seat Winner elected March 4, 1912 to term ending March 4, 1917.
Republican gain.
Thomas B. Catron (Republican) Unopposed[1]
New Mexico
(Class 2)
New seat Winner elected March 4, 1912 to term ending March 4, 1913.
Republican gain.
Winner was subsequently re-elected in November (see below).
Albert B. Fall (Republican) Unopposed[2]
Arizona
(Class 1)
New seat Winner elected March 27, 1912 to term ending March 4, 1917.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 50.00%
Ralph Henry Cameron (Republican) 44.33%
E. Johnson (Socialist) 5.67%[3]
Arizona
(Class 3)
New seat Winner won popular election December 12, 1911.[4]
Election was ratified by the state legislature March 27, 1912 to term ending March 4, 1915.
Democratic gain.
Marcus A. Smith (Democratic) 50.35%
Hoval A. Smith (Republican) 43.84%
E.B. Simonton (Socialist) 5.8%[3]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Vacant Charles J. Hughes, Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911.
Winner elected January 15, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1915.
Democratic gain.
Charles S. Thomas (Democratic) Unopposed[5]
Nevada*
(Class 1)
William A. Massey Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1917.
Democratic gain.
Key Pittman (Democratic) 39.78%
William A. Massey (Republican) 39.34%
G. A. Steele (Socialist) 13.73%
S. Summerfield (Progressive) 7.15%[6]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1913, but did not run for election to the following term (see below).
Democratic gain.
William R. Webb (Democratic)
Texas
(Class 2)
Rienzi Melville Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1913, as well as to the next term (see below).
Democratic hold.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic) [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Idaho
(Class 3)
Kirtland I. Perky Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected January 24, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1915.
Republican gain.
James H. Brady (Republican) Unopposed[7]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Jeff Davis Democratic 1906 Incumbent died January 3, 1913.
John N. Heiskell (D) was appointed January 6, 1913 to continue the term, but did not run to finish the term (see below).
Winner elected January 27, 1913 to finish the term.
Democratic hold.
William Marmaduke Kavanaugh (Democratic) Unopposed[8]

Races leading to the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1913; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. John H. Bankhead (Democratic) Unopposed[9]
Arkansas Jeff Davis Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected, but died January 3, 1913.
Winner elected January 29, 1913 to the next term.
Democratic hold.
Joseph T. Robinson (Democratic) Unopposed[10]
Colorado* Simon Guggenheim Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
John F. Shafroth (Democratic) 47.34%
Clyde Dawson (Republican) 26.8%
Frank Catlin (Progressive) 23.48%
Mary E. Miller (Prohibition) 2.38%[11]
Delaware Harry A. Richardson Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (Democratic) Unopposed[12]
Georgia Augustus Octavius Bacon Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Augustus Octavius Bacon (Democratic) Unopposed[13]
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907
1912
Incumbent re-elected. William Borah (Republican) Unopposed[14]
Illinois Shelby Moore Cullom Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[15]
Democratic gain.
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 80.39%
Frank H. Funk (Progressive) 10.78%
Lawrence Yates Sherman (Republican) 4.41%
Abstained 2.45%
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist) 1.96%[15]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. William S. Kenyon (Republican) Unopposed[16]
Kansas* Charles Curtis Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic gain.
William Howard Thompson (Democratic) 49.34%
Walter R. Stubbs (Republican) 43.35%
Allan Ricker (Socialist) 7.32%[17]
Kentucky Thomas H. Paynter Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic hold.
Ollie Murray James (Democratic) Unopposed[18]
Louisiana Murphy J. Foster Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic hold.
Joseph E. Ransdell (Democratic) Unopposed[19]
Maine Obadiah Gardner Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican gain.
Edwin C. Burleigh (Republican)[20]
Massachusetts Winthrop M. Crane Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Republican hold.
John W. Weeks (Republican) Unopposed[21]
Michigan William Alden Smith Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. William Alden Smith (Republican) Unopposed[22]
Minnesota* Knute Nelson Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Knute Nelson (Republican) 62.8%
Daniel Lawler (Democratic) 37.2%[23]
Mississippi LeRoy Percy Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic hold.
James K. Vardaman (Democratic) Unopposed[24]
Montana* Joseph M. Dixon Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election as a Progressive.
Democratic gain.
Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic) 41.17%
Joseph M. Dixon (Progressive) 32.1%
Henry C. Smith (Republican) 26.73%[25]
Nebraska Norris Brown Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[26]
Republican hold.
George W. Norris (Republican)
Ashton C. Shallenberger (Democratic)[27]
New Hampshire Henry E. Burnham Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Hollis (Democratic) 50.94%
John H. Bartlett (Republican) 32.62%
Henry B. Quinby (Republican) 4.85%
Edward Nathan Pearson (Republican) 3.77%
Robert P. Bass (Progressive) 3.24%
Sherman Everett Burroughs (Republican) 1.35%
Gordon Woodbury (Democratic) 0.81%
Clarence Carr (Democratic) 0.54%
William Swart (Independent) 0.54%[28]
New Jersey Frank O. Briggs Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic gain.
William Hughes (Democratic)[29]
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Albert B. Fall (Republican) Unopposed[30]
North Carolina Furnifold McLendel Simmons Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Furnifold McLendel Simmons (Democratic) Unopposed[31]
Oklahoma* Robert Latham Owen Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Robert Latham Owen (Democratic) 50.43%
Joseph Dickerson (Republican) 33.28%
John Wills (Socialist) 16.3%[32]
Oregon* Jonathan Bourne, Jr. Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination and then lost re-election as Progressive.
Democratic gain.
Harry Lane (Democratic) 30.07%
Ben Selling (Republican) 28.79%
Jonathan Bourne, Jr. (Progressive) 19.41%
Benjamin Ramp (Socialist) 8.31%
A. E. Clark (Progressive-WI) 8.3%
B. Lee Paget (Prohibition) 5.13%[33]
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Republican hold.
LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) Unopposed[34]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Tillman (Democratic) Unopposed
South Dakota Robert J. Gamble Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[35]
Republican hold.
Thomas Sterling (Republican) Unopposed[36]
Tennessee Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired and was replaced by William R. Webb (D), a successor elected to finish the term ending March 3, 1913, who did not run for the following term (see above).
Winner elected to the following term.
Democratic gain.
John K. Shields (Democratic) Unopposed[37]
Texas Joseph Weldon Bailey Democratic 1901
1907
Incumbent retired and then resigned after the election.
Winner was also appointed to finish the current term.
Democratic hold.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic) Unopposed[38]
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Thomas S. Martin (Democratic) Unopposed[39]
West Virginia Clarence Wayland Watson Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican gain.
Nathan Goff, Jr. (Republican)[40]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Francis E. Warren (Republican) Unopposed[41]

Special elections during the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1913 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant 1909 election of William Lorimer (R) voided July 13, 1912.
Winner elected March 26, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1915.
Republican hold.
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 70.1%
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic) 12.25%
Frank H. Funk (Republican) 10.78%
Abstaining 4.41%
? McDonald (Socialist) 1.96%
John Fitzpatrick (Democratic) 0.49%[42]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William P. Jackson Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected November 4, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1917.
Winner did not qualify until January 28, 1914.[43]
Democratic gain.
Blair Lee (Democratic) [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  2. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "AZ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  4. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=198
  5. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=333039
  6. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36483
  7. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=391403
  8. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=134481
  9. ^ "AL US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  10. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=332758
  11. ^ "CO US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  12. ^ "DE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  13. ^ "GA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  14. ^ "ID US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Senate Class II - History". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  16. ^ "IA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  17. ^ "KS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  18. ^ "KY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  19. ^ "LA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ "ME US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  21. ^ "MA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  22. ^ "MI US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  23. ^ "MN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  24. ^ "MS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  25. ^ "MT US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  26. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  27. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  28. ^ "NH US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  29. ^ "NJ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  30. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  31. ^ "NC US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  32. ^ "OK US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  33. ^ "OR US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  34. ^ "RI US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  35. ^ "SD US Senate - R Primary". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  36. ^ "SD US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  37. ^ "TN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  38. ^ "TX US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  39. ^ "VA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  40. ^ "WV US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  41. ^ "WY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Senate Class III - History". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  43. ^ The Election Case of William P. Jackson v. Blair Lee of Maryland (1914)

Source: United States Senate Official Website

See also[edit]