United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913

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U.S Senate elections, 1912 and 1913
United States
1910 / 11 ←
Various dates throughout 1912 and 1913 → 1914 / 15

34 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Republican Progressive
Last election 44 seats 48 seats 0 seats
Seats before 46 48 2
Seats won 51 44 1
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4 Decrease 1

US 1912 senate election map.svg

  Democrat re-elected/hold
  Democratic gain
  Republican re-elected/hold
  Republican gain

Majority party before election


Republican

Elected Majority party


Democratic

In the United States Senate elections of 1912 and 1913, held on November 5, Democrats gained control of the Senate from the Republicans. This coincided with Democrat Woodrow Wilson's victory in the presidential election amid a divide in the Republican Party. In the Senate, Joseph M. Dixon and Miles Poindexter defected from the Republican Party and joined Theodore Roosevelt's new Progressive Party. Dixon, however, lost his seat during this election.

Some states elected their Senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

This was the first time in 20 years that the Democrats won a majority in the Senate.

Results summary[edit]

Parties Total Seats
Incumbents This election Result +/-
Not up Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
  Democratic 46 32 14 7 4 Increase 9 Decrease 2 51 Increase 5
  Republican 48 29 19 6 4 Increase 2 Decrease 8 44 Decrease 4
  Progressive 2 1 1 0 0 Steady Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1
Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady
Total 96 62 34 13 8 Increase 11 Decrease 11 96 Steady

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Each box listed contains the state's postal abbreviation and Senate class number.

Before the elections[edit]

After the March 1912 elections to elect Senators from the new states of New Mexico and Arizona.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 V1 V2 R50 R49
Majority → R48
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Notes:
  • V1 (Colorado class 3 seat): Democratic Senator died January 15, 1911, and the seat remained vacant.
  • V2 (Illinois class 3 seat): Republican Senator's 1909 election was voided July 13, 1912, and the seat remained vacant.

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 +
D19 D20 + D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 O* D37 √ D36 √ D35 √ D34 √ D33 √ D32 √ D31 D30 D29
D39 O D40 O D41 O D42 O D43 + D44 + (D45 +)* D46 + D47 + (D48 +)*
Majority →
R38 √ R39 O R40 O R41 O R42 O (R43 +)* R44 + D51 + D50 + D49 +
R37 √ R36 √ R35 √ R34 √ R33 √ R32 R31 R30 R29 R28
R18 + (R19)* R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8
P1 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
Notes:
  • D10+ (Nevada class 1 seat): Republican appointee lost a special election January 23, 1913 to finish the term.
  • D21O (Colorado class 3 seat): Democratic incumbent had died back in 1911. Winner elected January 15, 1913.
  • D39O (Arkansas class 2 seat): Democratic incumbent won re-election, but died. Winner elected January 29, 1913 to the next term..
  • D46+ (Illinois class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • D49+ (New Hampshire class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • R5+ (Maryland class 1 seat): Democratic incumbent died November 25, 1912 and was replaced by Republican appointee November 29, 1912.
  • R17+ (Idaho class 3 seat): Democratic appointee lost a special election January 24, 1913 to finish the term.
  • R18+ (Illinois class 3 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • R42+ (West Virginia class 2 seat): Winner was elected late, so the seat was vacant when the Congress began.
  • P1+ (Washington class 1 seat): Miles Poindexter, who was not up for election this cycle, changed parties from Republican to Progressive in the next Congress.
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected or appointee elected to full term
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 62nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1912 or before March 4, 1913; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 1)
Claude A. Swanson Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1912. Claude A. Swanson (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
New Mexico
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected in 1912.
Republican gain.
Thomas B. Catron (Republican) Unopposed[2]
New Mexico
(Class 2)
New seat New senator elected in 1912.
Republican gain.
Winner was also subsequently re-elected in November (see below).
Albert B. Fall (Republican) Unopposed[3]
Arizona
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 50.00%
Ralph Cameron (Republican) 44.33%
E. Johnson (Socialist) 5.67%[4]
Arizona
(Class 3)
New seat New senator won popular election December 12, 1911.[5]
Election was ratified by the state legislature March 27, 1912.
Democratic gain.
Marcus A. Smith (Democratic) 50.35%
Hoval A. Smith (Republican) 43.84%
E.B. Simonton (Socialist) 5.8%[4]
Maine
(Class 2)
Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 2, 1912.[6] Obadiah Gardner (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Vacant Charles J. Hughes, Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911.
New senator elected January 15, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Charles S. Thomas (Democratic) Unopposed[7]
Nevada
(Class 1)
William A. Massey Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected[8] January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Key Pittman (Democratic) 39.78%
William A. Massey (Republican) 39.34%
G. A. Steele (Socialist) 13.73%
S. Summerfield (Progressive) 7.15%[9]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
New senator elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term, but did not run for election to the following term (see below).
Democratic gain.
William R. Webb (Democratic)
Texas
(Class 2)
Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
New senator elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term, as well as to the next term (see below).
Democratic hold.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Idaho
(Class 3)
Kirtland I. Perky Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 24, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1915.
Republican gain.
James H. Brady (Republican) Unopposed[10]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Predecessor Jeff Davis (D) had died January 3, 1913 and interim senator was appointed January 6, 1913 to continue the term, but did not run to finish the term (see below).
New senator elected January 27, 1913 to finish the term.
Democratic hold.
William Kavanaugh (Democratic) Unopposed[11]

Races leading to the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1913; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. John H. Bankhead (Democratic) Unopposed[12]
Arkansas Jeff Davis Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected, but died January 3, 1913.
Winner elected January 29, 1913 to the next term.
Democratic hold.
Joseph T. Robinson (Democratic) Unopposed[13]
Colorado Simon Guggenheim Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.[8]
Democratic gain.
John F. Shafroth (Democratic) 47.34%
Clyde Dawson (Republican) 26.8%
Frank Catlin (Progressive) 23.48%
Mary E. Miller (Prohibition) 2.38%[14]
Delaware Harry A. Richardson Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (Democratic) Unopposed[15]
Georgia Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907
Incumbent re-elected July 15, 1912. Augustus Bacon (Democratic) Unopposed[16]
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907
1912
Incumbent re-elected. William Borah (Republican) Unopposed[17]
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[18]
Democratic gain.
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 80.39%
Frank H. Funk (Progressive) 10.78%
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 4.41%
Abstained 2.45%
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist) 1.96%[18]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. William S. Kenyon (Republican) Unopposed[19]
Kansas Charles Curtis Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.[8]
Democratic gain.
William H. Thompson (Democratic) 49.34%
Walter R. Stubbs (Republican) 43.35%
Allan Ricker (Socialist) 7.32%[20]
Kentucky Thomas H. Paynter Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic hold.
Ollie James (Democratic) Unopposed[21]
Louisiana Murphy J. Foster Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic hold.
Joseph E. Ransdell (Democratic) Unopposed[22]
Maine Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed)
1912 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1912.
Republican gain.
Edwin C. Burleigh (Republican)
Obadiah Gardner (Democratic)[23]
Massachusetts Winthrop M. Crane Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Republican hold.
John W. Weeks (Republican) Unopposed[24]
Michigan William A. Smith Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. William A. Smith (Republican) Unopposed[25]
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected.[8] Knute Nelson (Republican) 62.8%
Daniel Lawler (Democratic) 37.2%[26]
Mississippi LeRoy Percy Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic hold.
James K. Vardaman (Democratic) Unopposed[27]
Montana Joseph M. Dixon Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election as a Progressive.[8]
Democratic gain.
Thomas J. Walsh (Democratic) 41.17%
Joseph M. Dixon (Progressive) 32.1%
Henry C. Smith (Republican) 26.73%[28]
Nebraska Norris Brown Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[29]
Republican hold.
George W. Norris (Republican)
Ashton C. Shallenberger (Democratic)[30]
New Hampshire Henry E. Burnham Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
Henry F. Hollis (Democratic) 50.94%
John H. Bartlett (Republican) 32.62%
Henry B. Quinby (Republican) 4.85%
Edward N. Pearson (Republican) 3.77%
Robert P. Bass (Progressive) 3.24%
Sherman E. Burroughs (Republican) 1.35%
Gordon Woodbury (Democratic) 0.81%
Clarence Carr (Democratic) 0.54%
William Swart (Independent) 0.54%[31]
New Jersey Frank O. Briggs Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic gain.
William Hughes (Democratic)[32]
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Albert B. Fall (Republican) Unopposed[33]
North Carolina Furnifold Simmons Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Furnifold Simmons (Democratic) Unopposed[34]
Oklahoma Robert L. Owen Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected.[8] Robert L. Owen (Democratic) 50.43%
Joseph Dickerson (Republican) 33.28%
John Wills (Socialist) 16.3%[35]
Oregon Jonathan Bourne, Jr. Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination and then lost re-election as Progressive.[8]
Democratic gain.
Harry Lane (Democratic) 30.07%
Ben Selling (Republican) 28.79%
Jonathan Bourne, Jr. (Progressive) 19.41%
Benjamin Ramp (Socialist) 8.31%
A. E. Clark (Progressive-WI) 8.3%
B. Lee Paget (Prohibition) 5.13%[36]
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent retired.
Republican hold.
LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) Unopposed[37]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Tillman (Democratic) Unopposed
South Dakota Robert J. Gamble Republican [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost renomination[38]
Republican hold.
Thomas Sterling (Republican) Unopposed[39]
Tennessee Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired and was replaced by William R. Webb (D), a successor elected to finish the term ending March 3, 1913, who did not run for the following term (see above).
Winner elected to the following term.
Democratic gain.
John K. Shields (Democratic) Unopposed[40]
Texas Joseph W. Bailey Democratic 1901
1907
Incumbent retired and then resigned after the election.
Winner was also appointed to finish the current term.
Democratic hold.
Morris Sheppard (Democratic) Unopposed[41]
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early)
1899 (Early)
1906
Incumbent re-elected. Thomas S. Martin (Democratic) Unopposed[42]
West Virginia Clarence Watson Democratic [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican gain.
Nathan Goff, Jr. (Republican)[43]
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected in 1913. Francis E. Warren (Republican) Unopposed[44]

Special elections during the 63rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1913 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant 1909 election of William Lorimer (R) voided July 13, 1912.
Winner elected March 26, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1915.
Republican hold.
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 70.1%
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic) 12.25%
Frank H. Funk (Republican) 10.78%
Abstaining 4.41%
? McDonald (Socialist) 1.96%
John Fitzpatrick (Democratic) 0.49%[45]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William P. Jackson Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected November 4, 1913 to finish the term ending March 4, 1917.
Winner did not qualify until January 28, 1914.[46]
Democratic gain.
Blair Lee (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Claude A. Swanson won the Democratic primary with 67,495 votes over Carter Glass's 28,757 votes, which was tantamount to victory in the uncontested general election.[47]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1912, p. 457.
  2. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  3. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "AZ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  5. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=198
  6. ^ Byrd & Wolff, p. 118
  7. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=333039
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Senator was selected by some form of direct voting and then subsequently elected by state legislatures.
  9. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=36483
  10. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=391403
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=134481
  12. ^ "AL US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=332758
  14. ^ "CO US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  15. ^ "DE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  16. ^ "GA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  17. ^ "ID US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Senate Class II - History". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  19. ^ "IA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ "KS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  21. ^ "KY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  22. ^ "LA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  23. ^ "ME US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  24. ^ "MA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  25. ^ "MI US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  26. ^ "MN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  27. ^ "MS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  28. ^ "MT US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  29. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  30. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  31. ^ "NH US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  32. ^ "NJ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  33. ^ "NM US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  34. ^ "NC US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  35. ^ "OK US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  36. ^ "OR US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  37. ^ "RI US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  38. ^ "SD US Senate - R Primary". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  39. ^ "SD US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  40. ^ "TN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  41. ^ "TX US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  42. ^ "VA US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  43. ^ "WV US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  44. ^ "WY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Senate Class III - History". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  46. ^ The Election Case of William P. Jackson v. Blair Lee of Maryland (1914)
  47. ^ Bell, James B. (1911). Congressional Directory, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 107. 

References[edit]

See also[edit]