List of Governors of Arkansas

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Governor of Arkansas
Seal of Arkansas.svg
Asa Hutchinson 2006 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Asa Hutchinson

since January 13, 2015 (2015-01-13)
Style
Status
ResidenceArkansas Governor's Mansion
SeatLittle Rock, Arkansas
Term lengthFour years, renewable once (Seventy-third Amendment to the Arkansas Constitution of 1874)
Constituting instrumentArkansas Constitution of 1836
PrecursorGovernor of Arkansas Territory
Inaugural holderJames Sevier Conway
FormationSeptember 13, 1836
(182 years ago)
 (1836-09-13)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Arkansas
SalaryUS$128,000 per year
(2016)[1]
Websitegovernor.arkansas.gov

The Governor of Arkansas is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The governor is the head of the executive branch of the Arkansas government and is charged with enforcing state laws. They have the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arkansas General Assembly, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[2]

The state has had 46 elected governors, as well as 11 acting governors who assumed powers and duties following the resignation or death of the governor. Before becoming a state, Arkansas Territory had four governors appointed to it by the President of the United States. Orval Faubus served the longest term as state governor, being elected six times to serve twelve years. Bill Clinton, elected five times over two distinct terms, fell only one month short of twelve years. The shortest term for an elected governor was the 38 days served by John Sebastian Little before his nervous breakdown; one of the acting successors to his term, Jesse M. Martin, took office only three days before the end of the term, the shortest term overall. The current governor is Republican Asa Hutchinson, who took office on January 13, 2015.

Governors[edit]

History of Arkansas
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas portal

Governors of the Territory of Arkansas[edit]

Arkansaw Territory (renamed Arkansas Territory around 1822)[a] was split from Missouri Territory on July 4, 1819.[4]

As secretary of the territory from 1819 to 1829, Robert Crittenden served as acting governor whenever the appointed governor was not in the state. This meant he was the first person to perform the office of Governor of Arkansas Territory, since James Miller did not arrive in the territory until nine months after his appointment.[5]

Governors of the Territory of Arkansas
No. Governor Term in office Appointed by Notes
1 AR Miller James.jpg James Miller March 3, 1819

December 27, 1824
James Monroe [b][c]
2 George Izard.jpg George Izard March 4, 1825

November 22, 1828
[d][e]
John Quincy Adams
3 AR Pope John.jpg John Pope March 9, 1829[8]

March 9, 1835
Andrew Jackson [f][g]
4 WSFulton.jpg William S. Fulton March 9, 1835

September 13, 1836[h]
[i]

Governors of the State of Arkansas[edit]

Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836.[12] The state seceded on May 6, 1861,[13] and was admitted to the Confederacy on May 18, 1861.[14] When Little Rock, the state capital, was captured on September 10, 1863, the Confederate state government relocated to Washington, Arkansas, and a Union government was installed in its place, causing an overlap in the terms of Confederate Governor Harris Flanagin and Union Governor Isaac Murphy.[15] Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Fourth Military District. Arkansas was readmitted to the Union on June 22, 1868.[16]

The Arkansas Constitution of 1836 established four-year terms for governors,[17] which was lowered to two years in the 1874, and current, constitution.[18] An amendment in 1984 increased the terms of both governor and lieutenant governor to four years.[19] Governors were originally limited only to serving no more than eight out of every twelve years,[17] but the 1874 constitution removed any term limit. A referendum in 1992 limited governors to two terms.[20]

Until 1864, the constitutions provided that, should the office of governor be rendered vacant, the president of the senate would serve as acting governor until such time as a new governor were elected or the disability removed, or the acting governor's senate term expired.[21][22] This led to some situations where the governorship changed hands in quick succession, due to senate terms ending or new senate presidents being elected. For example, after John Sebastian Little resigned in 1907, three senate presidents acted as governor before the next elected governor took office. Should the president of the senate be similarly incapacitated, the next in line for the governorship was the speaker of the state house of representatives.

The 1864 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor[23] who would also act as president of the senate,[24] and who would serve as acting governor in case of vacancy.[25] The 1868 constitution maintained the position,[26] but the 1874 constitution removed it and returned to the original line of succession.[27] An amendment to the constitution, passed in 1914 but not recognized until 1925,[28] recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who becomes governor in case of vacancy of the governor's office.[29] The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

Arkansas was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic party. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 92 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

Governors of the State of Arkansas[j]
No.[k] Governor Term in office[l] Party Election Lt. Governor[m][n]
1 AR Conway James Sevier.jpg   James Sevier Conway September 13, 1836[h]

November 4, 1840
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1836 Office did not exist
2 Archibald Yell - 2er Gouverneur Arkansas.jpg Archibald Yell November 4, 1840

April 29, 1844
(resigned)[o]
Democratic 1840
Samuel Adams (governor).jpg Samuel Adams April 29, 1844

November 9, 1844[p]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
3 Thomas Stevenson Drew - Gouverneur von Arkansas.jpg Thomas Stevenson Drew November 5, 1844[p]

January 10, 1849
(resigned)[q]
Democratic 1844
1848
Richard C. Byrd January 10, 1849

April 19, 1849
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
4 AR Roane John.jpg John Selden Roane April 19, 1849

November 15, 1852
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1849
(special)[r]
5 Elias Nelson Conway.jpg Elias Nelson Conway November 15, 1852

November 15, 1860[s]
(term limited)
Democratic 1852
1856
6 Henry Massey Rector.jpg Henry Massey Rector November 16, 1860[s]

November 4, 1862
(resigned)[t]
Democratic 1860[u]
Thomas Fletcher November 4, 1862

November 15, 1862
(successor took office)[v]
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
7 Governor Harris Flanigin.jpg Harris Flanagin November 15, 1862

May 26, 1865[w]
(government-in-exile
disbanded)
[x]
Democratic 1862[y]
8 Isaac Murphy.jpg Isaac Murphy April 18, 1864

July 2, 1868
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1864[x]   Calvin C. Bliss[46]
9 Powell Clayton.jpg Powell Clayton July 2, 1868

March 17, 1871
(resigned)[z]
Republican 1868 James M. Johnson[48]
(resigned March 14, 1871)[z]
Vacant
O. A. Hadley (Arkansas Governor) 2.jpg Ozra Amander Hadley[aa] March 17, 1871

January 6, 1873
(not candidate for election)
Republican President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[z]
10 Elisha Baxter.png Elisha Baxter January 6, 1873

November 12, 1874
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1872[ab][ac] Volney V. Smith[50]
11 Augustus Hill Garland - Brady-Handy.jpg Augustus Hill Garland November 12, 1874

January 11, 1877
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1874 Office did not exist
12 WRMiller.jpg William Read Miller January 11, 1877

January 13, 1881
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1876
1878
13 Thomas James Churchill (2).jpg Thomas James Churchill January 13, 1881

January 13, 1883
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1880
14 AR James Berry.jpg James Henderson Berry January 13, 1883

January 15, 1885[ad]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1882
15 Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr - Gouverneur von Arkansas.jpg Simon Pollard Hughes Jr. January 15, 1885[ad]

January 17, 1889[54]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1884
1886
16 James Philip Eagle.jpg James Philip Eagle January 17, 1889[54]

January 14, 1893[55]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1888
1890
17 William Meade Fishback.jpg William Meade Fishback January 14, 1893[55]

January 18, 1895[56]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1892
18 AR Clarke John.jpg James Paul Clarke January 18, 1895[56]

January 18, 1897
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1894
19 Daniel Webster Jones (governor).jpg Daniel Webster Jones January 18, 1897

January 18, 1901[57]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1896
1898
20 Jeff Davis.jpg Jeff Davis January 18, 1901[57]

January 18, 1907
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1900
1902
1904
21 AR Little John.jpg John Sebastian Little January 18, 1907

February 11, 1907[ae]
(resigned)[af]
Democratic 1906
John Isaac Moore.jpg John Isaac Moore February 11, 1907[ae]

May 14, 1907
(legislature adjourned)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[ag]
PindallXO f.jpg Xenophon Overton Pindall May 14, 1907

January 11, 1909
(senate term expired)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[ag]
Jesse M. Martin January 11, 1909

January 14, 1909
(successor took office)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[ag]
22 Portrait of George Washington Donaghey.jpg George Washington Donaghey January 14, 1909

January 16, 1913
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1908
1910
23 Joseph T. Robinson cropped.jpg Joseph Taylor Robinson January 16, 1913

March 8, 1913[63]
(resigned)[ah]
Democratic 1912
William Kavanaugh Oldham March 8, 1913[63]

March 13, 1913
(new president of
the senate elected)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[ai]
Junius Marion Futrell March 13, 1913

August 6, 1913[aj]
(successor took office)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
[ai]
24 George Washington Hays August 6, 1913[aj]

January 10, 1917[ak]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1913
(special)[ai]
1914
25 Charles Hillman Brough in 1916.jpg Charles Hillman Brough January 10, 1917[ak]

January 11, 1921[al]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1916
1918
26 AR McRae Thomas.jpg Thomas Chipman McRae January 11, 1921[al]

January 13, 1925[72]
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1920
1922
27 Tom Terral January 13, 1925[72]

January 11, 1927
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1924
28 JohnEllisMartineau.jpg John Ellis Martineau January 11, 1927

March 14, 1928[am]
(resigned)[an]
Democratic 1926 Harvey Parnell
29 Harvey Parnell March 14, 1928[am]

January 10, 1933
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
1928 Lee Cazort
1930 Lawrence Elery Wilson
30 Junius Marion Futrell January 10, 1933

January 12, 1937
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1932 Lee Cazort
1934
31 Carl Edward Bailey January 12, 1937

January 14, 1941
(lost election)
Democratic 1936 Robert L. Bailey
1938
32 Homer Martin Adkins January 14, 1941

January 9, 1945
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1940
1942 James L. Shaver
33 Benjamin Travis Laney January 9, 1945

January 11, 1949
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1944
1946 Nathan Green Gordon
34 Sid mcmath1.JPG Sid McMath January 11, 1949

January 13, 1953
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1948
1950
35 Francis Cherry January 13, 1953

January 11, 1955
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1952
36 Orval Faubus speaking, 20 August 1959.jpg Orval Faubus January 11, 1955

January 10, 1967
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1954
1956
1958
1960
1962
1964
37 Winthrop Rockefeller.jpg Winthrop Rockefeller January 10, 1967

January 12, 1971
(lost election)
Republican 1966 Maurice Britt
1968
38 Dale Bumpers.jpg Dale Bumpers January 12, 1971

January 3, 1975[76]
(resigned)[ao]
Democratic 1970 Bob C. Riley
1972
Bob C. Riley January 3, 1975[76]

January 14, 1975
(successor took office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
39 AR Pryor David (cropped).jpg David Pryor January 14, 1975

January 3, 1979
(resigned)[ap]
Democratic 1974 Joe Purcell
1976
Joe Purcell January 3, 1979

January 9, 1979
(successor took office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
40 Bill Clinton (37899881792) (cropped2).jpg Bill Clinton January 9, 1979

January 19, 1981
(lost election)
Democratic 1978 Joe Purcell
41 Frank D. White 1995.jpg Frank D. White January 19, 1981

January 11, 1983
(lost election)
Republican 1980 Winston Bryant[aq]
42 Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton January 11, 1983

December 12, 1992
(resigned)[ar]
Democratic 1982
1984
1986[as]
1990 Jim Guy Tucker
43 Jim Guy Tucker.jpg Jim Guy Tucker December 12, 1992

July 15, 1996
(resigned)[at]
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
Mike Huckabee[au]
(elected November 20, 1993)[78]
1994
44 Huckabee-SF-CC-024.jpg Mike Huckabee July 15, 1996

January 9, 2007
(term limited)
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
Winthrop Paul Rockefeller
(elected November 19, 1996)[79]
(died July 16, 2006)
1998
2002
Vacant
45 MikeBeebe2009 (cropped).jpg Mike Beebe January 9, 2007

January 13, 2015
(term limited)
Democratic 2006 Bill Halter
2010 Mark Darr[au]
(resigned February 1, 2014)
Vacant
46 Asa Hutchinson.jpg Asa Hutchinson January 13, 2015

present[av]
Republican 2014 Tim Griffin
2018

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The territory was formally organized with the name "Arkansaw", but spellings including "Arkansas" and "Arkansa" remained common until around 1822, when the popularity of the Arkansas Gazette helped standardize the spelling as "Arkansas".[3]
  2. ^ James Miller was appointed territorial governor on March 3, 1819, the same date the bill organizing Arkansaw Territory was signed. However, to avoid the hot southern summer, he delayed his departure from New Hampshire until September, and took a non-direct route, finally arriving in the territory on December 26, 1819.[6] Robert Crittenden, secretary of the territory, served as acting governor while Miller was delayed.[5]
  3. ^ Resigned citing poor health. At the time of his resignation, he had been absent from the territory for 18 months.[3]
  4. ^ George Izard did not arrive in Arkansas Territory until May 31, 1825; Robert Crittenden, Secretary of the territory, acted as governor in his stead, though Crittenden himself was out of state when Izard arrived.[7]
  5. ^ Died in office.
  6. ^ The office was vacant from November 22, 1828, until March 9, 1829. By the time notice of George Izard's death reached Washington, D.C., Andrew Jackson had been elected president, and the United States Senate refused to approve John Quincy Adams's choice for governor, preferring to wait until Jackson took office.[3]
  7. ^ Pope arrived in the territory in May 1829.[9]
  8. ^ a b Arkansas became a state on June 15, but Conway was not sworn in until September 13. Sourcing indicates that Fulton served until Conway's inauguration.[10]
  9. ^ William S. Fulton served as governor until statehood, when he was elected to the United States Senate.[11]
  10. ^ Data is sourced from the National Governors Association, unless supplemental references are required.
  11. ^ According to the numbering generally used, acting governors are not numbered.[30]
  12. ^ Most dates come from the Encyclopedia of Arkansas list of governors;[31] when differing, either the date was different in the actual articles on the governors and that agreed with other sources, or specific sourcing is supplied to explain the discrepancy.
  13. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1864 and abolished in 1874. It was recreated in 1914, and was not filled until 1927. The amendment to the constitution creating the office was narrowly voted in by the electorate in 1914. The Speaker of the House declared that the measure had lost, because even though it had received the majority of the votes cast for that particular ballot measure, winning 45,567 to 45,206, it had not received the majority of votes cast across the whole election, determined by looking at the question on the ballot with the highest total number of votes for or against. On that ballot, this figure was 135,517 votes, so it was ruled that at least 67,758 votes in favor would have been required for the measure to pass, essentially counting blank votes as votes against. In 1925, it was discovered that a 1910 law amended this requirement such that only a majority of the votes on the specific question was required. Therefore, the 1914 initiative was declared to be valid.[28]
  14. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  15. ^ Yell resigned to run for the United States House of Representatives, winning the election.[32]
  16. ^ a b The National Governors Association says Drew succeeded Adams on November 5,[33] but the Encyclopedia of Arkansas[34] and contemporary news coverage[35] say November 9.
  17. ^ Drew resigned due to the low salary he received as governor.[33]
  18. ^ Roane was elected in a special election to fill the remainder of the term vacated by Thomas Stevenson Drew's resignation.[36]
  19. ^ a b The National Governors Association says Rector succeeded Conway on November 15,[37] but the Encyclopedia of Arkansas[38] and contemporary news reports[39] say November 16.
  20. ^ Rector resigned two weeks before the end of his term. Most sources state it was due to badly losing his bid for re-election[40][41] but at least one source states it was due to unhappiness that the new constitution would shorten his term.[42]
  21. ^ This term was shortened to two years due to the 1861 constitution moving the election schedule.[43]
  22. ^ Governor-elect Flanagin was not sworn in until November 15;[44] in the interim, Fletcher acted as governor.[42] Fletcher is omitted from most lists of Arkansas governors.
  23. ^ Some sources state Flanagin left office on April 18, 1864, but that was when Isaac Murphy was sworn in as provisional governor; Flanagin remained governor of the Confederate government-in-exile until May 26, 1865.[31]
  24. ^ a b Flanagin fled Little Rock as it fell to Union forces on September 10, 1863, leading a largely inept government in exile in Washington, Arkansas until 1865. Murphy was elected provisional governor by a loyalist government set up after Union control of the state was established, taking office on April 18, 1864, causing a slight overlap in terms, though due to the collapse of the Confederate effort in Arkansas, Flanagin had no authority over the state.[15]
  25. ^ The 1864 constitution was enacted during this term; however, it was drafted by the Union occupation, and had no effect on Flanagin's government. While term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1864.[45]
  26. ^ a b c Clayton resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. He had delayed his resignation to prevent Lieutenant Governor Johnson from succeeding him; party machinations led Johnson's resignation and acceptance of the office of secretary of state, so that Hadley, as president pro tempore of the senate, could act as governor for the remainder of the term.[47]
  27. ^ Ozra Amander Hadley's first name is sometimes spelled "Ozro" in sources; it is unknown which is correct.[47]
  28. ^ First term under the 1871 constitution, which shortened terms to two years.
  29. ^ Baxter was removed from office for a short time due to the Brooks–Baxter War.[49]
  30. ^ a b Sources disagree on when Hughes succeeded Berry, with the National Governors Association saying January 17,[51] contemporary sourcing saying January 15,[52] and the Encyclopedia of Arkansas using both dates.[31][53] This list uses the contemporary source as the least likely to be mistaken.
  31. ^ a b Sources disagree on when Little resigned. The Encyclopedia of Arkansas says February 7, but the National Governors Association and a book by University of Arkansas Press[58] say February 11. Due to wider use, February 11 is the date used here.
  32. ^ Little resigned after suffering a nervous breakdown soon after taking office.[59]
  33. ^ a b c As president of the senate, Moore acted as governor until the legislature adjourned,[60] at which time a new president pro tempore of the senate was chosen, Pindall, who acted as governor until his senate term expired.[61] For the remaining three days of the gubernatorial term, Martin, the new president pro tempore of the senate, acted as governor.[62]
  34. ^ Robinson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  35. ^ a b c Oldham acted as governor for six days before a new president of the senate was elected.[64] The new president, Futrell, acted as governor[65] until Hays was elected in a special election to fill the remainder of the term.[66] Conflict over whether or not Futrell could succeed Oldham as acting governor led to the Arkansas Supreme Court ruling that he could.[67]
  36. ^ a b Some sources state Hays succeeded Futrell on July 23, but that was when the special election that chose Hays occurred; he was sworn in on August 6.[68][69]
  37. ^ a b Sources disagree on whether Brough succeeded Hays on January 10 or January 11; a contemporary source states January 10,[70] so this list uses that date.
  38. ^ a b Sources disagree on whether McRae succeeded Brough on January 11 or January 12; a slim majority of sources say January 12.[71]
  39. ^ a b Most sources say Parnell resigned on March 2, though a few say March 4; however, it appears this was the day he was nominated for the judgeship, as contemporary news sources indicate he did not resign until March 14.[74][75]
  40. ^ Martineau resigned to be a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas[73]
  41. ^ Bumpers resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  42. ^ Pryor resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  43. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  44. ^ Clinton resigned in preparations to become President of the United States on January 20, 1993.
  45. ^ First term under a 1984 constitutional amendment, which lengthened terms to four years.
  46. ^ Tucker resigned after being convicted of mail fraud in the Whitewater scandal;[77]
  47. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party.
  48. ^ Hutchinson's second term begins on January 8, 2019, and expires in January 2023.

References[edit]

General
  • "Arkansas: Past Governors Bios". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  • "The Encyclopedia of Arkansas, Category: Politics and Government, State". Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  • Herndon, Dallas Tabor (1922). Centennial History of Arkansas. Southern Historical Press. ISBN 978-0-89308-068-6. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  • "About The Office – Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas". Retrieved September 6, 2016.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ AR Const. art. VI
  3. ^ a b c "Arkansas History Timeline (1819–1861)". Historic Arkansas Museum. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  4. ^ Stat. 493
  5. ^ a b "Robert Crittenden (1797–1834)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  6. ^ "James Miller (1776–1851)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  7. ^ "George Izard (1776–1828)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  8. ^ Bruce, Henry Addington (1909). The Romance of American Expansion. Moffat, Yard & Company. p. 86.
  9. ^ Williams, Nancy A.; Jeannie M. Whayne (2000). Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. University of Arkansas Press. p. 226. ISBN 1-55728-587-X.
  10. ^ Hempstead, Fay (1911). Historical Review of Arkansas: Its Commerce, Industry and Modern Affairs, Volume 1. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  11. ^ "Fulton, William Savin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  12. ^ Stat. 50
  13. ^ "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  14. ^ An Act to admit the State of Arkansas into the Confederacy Archived August 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., accessed July 8, 2015
  15. ^ a b "Harris Flanagin (1817–1874)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  16. ^ 15 Stat. 72
  17. ^ a b 1836 Const. art. V, § 4
  18. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 1
  19. ^ AR Const. amendment 63
  20. ^ "State Term Limits". Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  21. ^ 1836 Const. art. V, § 18
  22. ^ 1861 Const. art. V, § 18
  23. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 19
  24. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 20
  25. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 23
  26. ^ 1868 Const. art. VI, § 1
  27. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 12
  28. ^ a b "About The Office – Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas". Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  29. ^ Arkansas Supreme Court, Bryant v. English, 311 Ark. 187, 843 S.W.2d 308 (1992).
  30. ^ "Office of the Governor". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  31. ^ a b c "Office of the Governor". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  32. ^ "Archibald Yell". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  33. ^ a b "Thomas Stevenson Drew". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  34. ^ "Thomas Stevenson Drew". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  35. ^ "The Inaugural of the Governor". Weekly Arkansas Gazette. November 13, 1844. Retrieved December 12, 2018. Thomas S. Drew, our Governor elect, was installed into office, on last Saturday..."; "Saturday, Nov. 9: This day being set part for the inauguration of the Governor, nothing was done.
  36. ^ "John Selden Roane". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  37. ^ "Elias Nelson Conway". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  38. ^ "Henry Massie Recor (1816-1899)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  39. ^ "No title". The Arkansian. November 24, 1860. Retrieved December 12, 2018. Judge Henry M. Rector, Governor elect was inaugurated on Thursday the 15th inst., ...
  40. ^ "Henry Massie Rector". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  41. ^ Yearns, Wilfred Buck (2010-05-01). The Confederate Governors. p. 51. ISBN 9780820335575. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  42. ^ a b Hempstead, Fay (1911). Historical Review of Arkansas: Its Commerce, Industry and Modern Affairs, Volume 1. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 250. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  43. ^ 1861 Const. art. IV, § 8
  44. ^ "Harris Flanagin". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  45. ^ 1864 Const. art. IV, § 8
  46. ^ Herndon p. 287
  47. ^ a b "Ozro Amander Hadley (1826–1915)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  48. ^ Herndon p. 293
  49. ^ "Elisha Baxter". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  50. ^ Herndon p. 306
  51. ^ "James Henderson Berry". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  52. ^ Arkansas Biennial Report of the Auditor of State. Office of Auditor of State, Arkansas. 1886. p. 39. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  53. ^ "Simon Pollard Hughes". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  54. ^ a b "Simon Pollard Hughes (1830-1906)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  55. ^ a b "No title". The Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. January 15, 1893. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  56. ^ a b "No title". Daily Arkansas Gazette. Little Rock, Kentucky. January 19, 1895. Retrieved December 13, 2018. Hon. James P. Clarke, who subscribed to the oath of office as Governor of Arkansas on Friday morning...
  57. ^ a b "Jeff Davis Inaugurated". Springfield News-Leader. Springfield, Missouri. January 19, 1901. Retrieved December 13, 2018. Jan. 18—Governor Jefferson Davis was inaugurated today...
  58. ^ Governors of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press. 1981. ISBN 9781610751711. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  59. ^ "John Sebastian Little". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  60. ^ "John Isaac Moore". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  61. ^ "Xenophon Overton Pindall". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  62. ^ "John Sebastian Little (1851–1916)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  63. ^ a b "Gov. Robinson's Busy Day". Baltimore Sun. Baltimore. March 10, 1913. Retrieved December 13, 2018. March 8: Gov. Joe T. Robinson today ... signed his own commission as United States Senator and completed the day's activity by sending his resignation as Governor...
  64. ^ "William Kavanaugh Oldham". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
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