United States military deployments

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The military of the United States is deployed in more than 150 countries around the world, with approximately 165,000 of its active-duty personnel stationed outside the United States and its territories.[1] This list consists of deployments excepting active combat deployments, which consist of troops in Iraq,[2] Afghanistan,[3] and Syria.[4] The exact number of these troops is currently in flux due to troop withdrawals.[5][6]

Outside of active combat, US personnel are typically deployed as part of several peacekeeping missions, military attachés, or are part of embassy and consulate security. Nearly 40,000 are assigned to classified missions in locations that the US government refuses to disclose.[7]

The deployment of the US Military in foreign countries can also have prominent effects on the host economy and community. Namely, the benefits include economic improvements and decrease in human rights violations, while the risks consist of increase in crimes, especially of sexual nature, displacement of native residents, and negative environmental impacts.[citation needed]

The following regional tables provide detail of where personnel from the five major branches of the US military are currently deployed. These numbers do not include any military or civilian contractors or dependents. Additionally, countries in which US military are engaged in active combat operations are not included. The numbers are based on the most recent United States Department of Defense statistics as of March 31, 2021.[1]

Americas[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 United States
(excl. Alaska & Hawaii)
1,136,892 400,065 295,436 142,145 263,347 35,899
 Alaska 20,594 10,001 45 21 8,591 1,936
Guantanamo Bay 654 111 455 80 0 8
 Honduras 364 197 2 17 147 1
 Puerto Rico 154 85 26 21 22 0
 Canada 141 11 37 12 76 5
 Greenland 139 0 0 0 139 0
other 625 119 132 276 67 31
Total 1,159,563 410,589 296,133 142,572 272,389 37,880

East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Ocean[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Japan 55,297 2,567 19,772 20,094 12,846 18
 Hawaii 41,920 15,387 12,553 7,098 5,597 1,285
South Korea 24,870 16,332 348 204 7,984 2
 Guam 6,125 187 3,619 219 2,100 0
 Australia 795 29 69 613 83 1
 Singapore 204 12 157 10 18 7
 Philippines 166 12 11 132 10 1
 Thailand 96 34 11 32 19 0
other 271 61 37 139 30 4
Total 129,744 34,621 36,577 28,541 28,687 1,318

Europe[edit]

US military bases in Germany in 2014
Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Germany 35,124 21,198 441 418 13,057 10
 Italy 12,455 4,042 3,584 86 4,741 2
United Kingdom 9,402 163 289 56 8,881 13
 Spain 2,868 27 2,263 192 385 1
 Belgium 1,146 631 97 36 382 0
 Norway 1,007 20 13 939 35 0
 Netherlands 412 125 30 16 212 29
 Greece 372 8 330 8 26 0
 Portugal 245 4 47 20 174 0
 Poland 161 46 81 9 25 0
 Romania 120 9 88 11 12 0
other 542 92 57 258 132 3
Total 63,854 26,365 7,320 2,049 28,062 58

West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Indian Ocean[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Bahrain 3,898 17 3,209 316 18 338
 Kuwait 2,191 576 2 1,574 39 0
 Turkey 1,683 140 7 33 1,503 0
 Saudi Arabia 597 215 21 293 58 10
 Qatar 459 204 1 46 208 0
 Egypt 259 212 5 23 19 0
 Jordan 232 16 2 202 12 0
Diego Garcia 202 0 202 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 197 28 21 73 75 0
 Djibouti 194 4 3 185 2 0
 Kenya 125 14 4 100 7 0
 Israel 94 47 7 27 13 0
other 907 158 61 601 87 0
Total 11,038 1,631 3,545 3,473 2,041 348

Unspecified[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
Overseas 7,210 184 14 4,926 1,152 934
Domestic 5,948 5,948 0 0 0 0
Total 13,158 6,132 14 4,926 1,152 934

Effects of Military Deployments on Host Economy and Community[edit]

The stated benefits of hosting a US military base, especially for underdeveloped countries, include learning new marketing strategies, development of modern technology found in the US, and increased security from the presence of a large-scale military. Moreover, the initial creation of the base creates brief economic growth as materials are purchased from the local markets, and construction jobs are out-sourced to the local residents.[8] One year, 2005, upwards of 80,000 locals were employed by US bases in foreign countries.[9] As long as it is not central to the US global defense, and thus the US does not have a strong incentive to stay under the presence of human rights violations, the host state may also show increased respect for human rights.[10]

The negative effects include relocation of and violence against native residents, which may also lead to destruction of local government; negative environmental impacts including the destruction of native landscape; and economic dependence created by the newly implemented marketing strategies and technology.[11] The presence of US military can also have direct effects on increase in prostitution and sex-trafficking, because of the greater demand for adult entertainment created through the surge of mainly male residents in these areas.[12] Moreover, the significant physical space taken up by the base could instead be used for schools, businesses or housing amenities which can support the local economy and increase skilled workers.[13]

Effects of Military Deployments on the United States[edit]

In addition to impacts on the host country, there are also many impacts of military deployments on military families. In the United States, about 1.4 million children have a parent in the military.[14] In many studies of military deployments, it is proven that there are negative impacts on not only the soldier, but also the military spouse and children. Military deployments are associated with higher suicide rates, behavioral problems in children, and a higher risk of divorce.[15] In a study of 1,507 children aged 11–17 with a deployed parent, it was found that these children had more emotional difficulties than children in national samples.[16]

Veteran families may experience conflict from actions or feelings of withdrawal, numbing, and irritability that are caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. Generally, these families also struggle with role ambiguity from the parent or partner that was deployed, due to anxiety and/or post-traumatic stress disorder.[17]

Impact on Childhood Development[edit]

Notably, the number of spouses/partners and children of deployed military personnel far outnumber the actual number of service members. These families must navigate long or extended deployment separations, relocations, destruction of familial routines or role changes, and the threat posed against their loved one. This combined with contextual factors, such as living arrangements during deployment, stress levels of the parent who remains home, and frequency of contact with the deployed parent can positively or adversely impact the family members, and lead to increased rate of mental health issues, work/academic issues, internal familial conflict, or maltreatment. These stressors pose a significant threat to the development of the children, depending on how old they are when they occur. For instance, young children may not fully understand the implications and threats posed on their loved one during deployment, but their definite absence in an indefinite amount of time can be highly stressful.

Children under five experience the most significant physical, emotional, and cognitive advancements because this occurs during this first five years of life, and they also make up the largest group of children with deployed service members (i.e., parents). Children above three with a deployed parent, are more likely to display behavior problems, such as need for attention, clinginess, temper tantrums, questions regarding deployed parents, defiance, appetite changes, and sleep problems or nightmares.

Elementary school-aged children may also be hindered by their limited coping/problem-solving skills regarding their parent's absence. Middle school-aged children may be more heavily impacted due to pubertal transitions and elicited questions or increased responsibilities to help out at home. Within this age group, significant levels of anxiety, both separation anxiety and physical symptoms, were found, and a study of five- to twelve-year-olds showed that one-third was in high-risk range for “psychosocial morbidity”, according to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Acute stress reaction/adjustments, mood, and behavioral disorders are also common.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Number of Military and DoD Appropriated Fund (APF) Civilian Personnel Permanently Assigned By Duty Location and Service/Component (as of March 31, 2021)". Defense Manpower Data Center. May 6, 2021.
  2. ^ "United States formally announces troop reduction in Iraq". Al Jazeera. September 9, 2020.
  3. ^ "US troops in Afghanistan: Allies and Republicans alarmed at withdrawal plan". BBC News. 18 November 2020.
  4. ^ Bo Williams, Katie (November 2, 2020). "Outgoing Syria Envoy Admits Hiding US Troop Numbers; Praises Trump's Mideast Record". Defense One.
  5. ^ Brannen, Kate; Goodman, Ryan (October 7, 2020). "We're suing the Pentagon to find out where U.S. troops are deployed". The Washington Post.
  6. ^ "'Endless Wars,' Here's Where About 200000 Troops Remain". The New York Times. October 21, 2019.
  7. ^ "America's Forever wars". The New York Times. 23 October 2017.
  8. ^ "U.S. Military Deployment and Host-Nation Economic Growth". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  9. ^ Johnson, Chalmers A.; Chalmers, Johnson (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Scribe Publications. ISBN 978-1-921215-76-6.
  10. ^ Bell, Sam R.; Clay, K. Chad; Martinez Machain, Carla (2017). "The Effect of US Troop Deployments on Human Rights". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61 (10): 2020–2042. doi:10.1177/0022002716632300. S2CID 156333176. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. ^ MacLeish, Kenneth T. (2010). "The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts edited by Catherine Lutz". American Ethnologist. 37 (2): 385–386. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01262_5.x. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  12. ^ Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E (2013). "Putting our best boots forward: US military deployments and host-country crime". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 30 (3): 263–285. doi:10.1177/0738894213484055. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275359. S2CID 41077614.
  13. ^ author., Vines, David, Base nation : how U.S. military bases abroad harm America and the world, ISBN 978-1-4945-6541-1, OCLC 956554400, retrieved 2021-03-05
  14. ^ a b Alfano, Candice A.; Lau, Simon; Balderas, Jessica; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C. (February 2016). "The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context". Clinical Psychology Review. 43: 17–29. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.003. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 26655960.
  15. ^ Schell, Terry L.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Friedman, Esther M.; Trail, Thomas E.; Beckman, Robin L.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne (2016-04-15). "How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian (December 2014). "The Impact of Military Deployment and Reintegration on Children and Parenting: A Systematic Review". Professional Psychology, Research and Practice. 45 (6): 452–464. doi:10.1037/a0035055. ISSN 0735-7028. PMC 4383395. PMID 25844014.
  17. ^ McFarlane, Alexander (July 2009). "Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c9064. PMID 19424067. S2CID 33825488 – via Lippincott Research.

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