United States Strategic Command
|United States Strategic Command|
The official seal of the United States Strategic Command.
|Active||1 June 1992 to present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Type||Functional Combatant Command|
|Role||"Leaders in Strategic Deterrence and Preeminent Global Warfighters In Space and Cyberspace."|
|Part of||U.S. Department of Defense|
|Garrison/HQ||Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, U.S.|
|Admiral Cecil D. Haney, USN|
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). It is charged with space operations (such as military satellites), information operations (such as information warfare), missile defense, global command and control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR), global strike and strategic deterrence (the United States nuclear arsenal), and combating weapons of mass destruction.
Strategic Command was established in 1992 as a successor to Strategic Air Command (SAC). It is headquartered at Offutt Air Force Base south of Omaha, Nebraska. In October 2002, it merged with the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM). It employs more than 2,700 people, representing all four services, including DoD civilians and contractors.
Strategic Command is one of the three Unified Combatant Commands organized along a functional basis. The other six are organized on a geographical basis. The unified military combat command structure is intended to give the President and the Secretary of Defense a unified resource for greater understanding of specific threats around the world and the means to respond to those threats as quickly as possible.
On 1 June 1992, President George H. W. Bush established the U.S. Strategic Command from the Strategic Air Command (SAC) and other Cold War military bodies, now obsolete due to the change in world politics. The Command unified planning, targeting and wartime employment of strategic forces under one commander. Day-to-day training, equipment and maintenance responsibilities for its forces remained with the Air Force and Navy.
As a result of the 2002 Nuclear Posture Review, the Cold War system of relying solely on offensive nuclear response was modified. Shortly after a meeting between President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow in May 2002, a summit was held during which both leaders signed a treaty promising bilateral reductions that would result in a total of 1,700 to 2,200 operationally deployed strategic nuclear weapons for each country by the year 2012.
Space and Global Strike reorganization
The activation of the new USSTRATCOM took place on 1 October 2002. The merged command was responsible for both early warning of and defense against missile attack as well as long-range strategic attacks.
President George W. Bush signed Change Two to the Unified Command Plan on 10 January 2003, and tasked USSTRATCOM with four previously unassigned responsibilities: global strike, missile defense integration, Department of Defense Information Operations, and C4ISR (command and control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance). This combination of roles, capabilities and authorities under a single unified command was unique in the history of unified commands.
After some consideration concerning the separation of the Joint Functional Component Command (JFCC) for Space and Global Strike missions, according to AirForceTimes.com and InsideDefense.com, In 2005, General Cartwright began the process of separating the JFCC for Space and Global Strike into two individual JFCCs: a JFCC for Space (JFCC Space) and a JFCC for Global Strike and Integration (JFCC GSI). U.S. Strategic Command officials were expected to deliver a detailed plan on the separation to General Cartwright for approval by September 2006.[clarification needed]
Some officials believed this would allow each to focus more effectively on its primary mission and allow the mission of space to have focused attention and be better integrated with other military capabilities. This comes after some concern by officials and lawmakers such as U.S. Senator Wayne Allard (R-Colo.), an advocate for national security space activities, complained in a March 2006 memo to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld about what he saw as a declining emphasis on space within the U.S. Department of Defense and specifically the way space has been organized at U.S. Strategic Command.
As result of the separation, the Missile Correlation Center in Cheyenne Mountain AFS was broken into two separate entities. NORAD/NORTHCOM (N2C2) now controls the Missile and Space Domain (MSD) and JFCC Space controls the Missile Warning Center (MWC). They are both still located at Cheyenne Mountain AFS. It was expected that MSD would eventually move to Peterson AFB to join the rest of N2C2.
The missions of U.S. Strategic Command are to deter attacks on U.S. vital interests, to ensure U.S. freedom of action in space and cyberspace, to deliver integrated kinetic and non-kinetic effects to include nuclear and information operations in support of U.S. Joint Force Commander operations, to synchronize global missile defense plans and operations, to synchronize regional combating of weapons of mass destruction plans, to provide integrated surveillance and reconnaissance allocation recommendations to the SECDEF, and to advocate for capabilities as assigned.
- Marine Corps Forces Strategic Command Helps to coordinate USMC and StratCom in areas such as "space, cyberspace, electronic warfare, and combating weapons of mass destruction".
Primary functional units
USSTRATCOM exercises command authority over four joint functional component commands, also known as JFCCs as well as Joint Task Forces and Service Components. This combination of authorities, oversight, leadership and management is supposed to enable a more responsive, flattened organizational construct according to the commands leadership.
- U.S. Cyber Command
- United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)—The CYBERCOM is a subordinate unified command under United States Strategic Command. The current commander is Admiral Michael S. Rogers. CYBERCOM was created by United States Defense Secretary Robert Gates on 23 June 2009, and activated in September of that year. The command was first led by the director of the National Security Agency, General Keith B. Alexander. It combines elements of JTF-GNO and JFCC-NW, which were dissolved in October 2010. In an interview of General Alexander (April 2015), now retired, he stated that United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) was a viable model for the future evolution of CYBERCOM.
- Joint Functional Component Commands These commands are responsible for the day-to-day planning and execution of primary mission areas: space and global strike; intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; network warfare; integrated missile defense; and the recently added mission of combating weapons of mass destruction.
- Joint Functional Component Command for Global Strike (JFCC-GS) The Commander Eighth Air Force (AFSTRAT-GS) serves as the Joint Functional Component Commander for Global Strike. JFCC-GS conducts planning, integration, execution and force management of assigned missions of deterring attacks against the U.S., its territories, possessions and bases, and should deterrence fail, by employing appropriate forces. Some of these tasks belonged to a JFCC for Space and Global Strike before being split into two components.
- Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC Space) The Commander 14th Air Force (AFSTRAT-SP) serves as the commander for JFCC Space. This component conducts planning, execution, and force management, as directed by the commander of USSTRATCOM, of the assigned missions of coordinating, planning, and conducting space operations.
- Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense (JFCC IMD)—The Commander, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command, also serves as the commander for the JFCC IMD. This component is responsible for meeting USSTRATCOM's Unified Command Plan responsibilities for planning, integrating, and coordinating global missile defense operations and support. JFCC IMD conducts the day-to-day operations of assigned forces and coordinates activities with associated combatant commands, other USSTRATCOM Joint Functional Components and the efforts of the Missile Defense Agency.
- Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JFCC-ISR)—The Commander, JFCC-ISR, also serves as the Director, Defense Intelligence Agency. This component is responsible for coordinating global intelligence collection to address DoD worldwide operations and national intelligence requirements. It will serve as the center for planning, execution and assessment of the military's global Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance operations; a key enabler to achieving global situational awareness.
- Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (SCC WMD)—The Secretary of Defense recently assigned USSTRATCOM responsibility for integrating and synchronizing DoD's efforts for combating weapons of mass destruction. SCC WMD works closely with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and declared Initial Operating Capability on 26 January 2006 in a ceremony in Washington, D.C.
- Standing Joint Force Headquarters for Elimination (SJFHQ-E) Fort Belvoir, VA – Plans and trains to enable the command and control of weapons of mass destruction elimination (WMD-E) operations in support of Geographic Combatant Commands (GCCs); on order, deploys to augment an existing HQ or to provide the core of a Joint Task Force that executes WMD-E operations.
- Joint Warfare Analysis Center (JWAC) Dahlgren, VA – JWAC is a premier science and engineering institution tasked with solving complex challenges for our nation's warfighters. JWAC uses social and physical science techniques and engineering expertise to assist warfighters in support of our national security. JWAC coordinates directly with the staffs of all Unified Commands, Combatant Commands, Department of Defense (DoD) elements, military services, and other government departments and agencies in order to protect our country and help our nation's armed forces accomplish their missions.
USSTRATCOM relies on various task forces for the execution of its global missions. These include:
- Aerial Refueling/Tankers—Task Force 294—Air Force refueling aircraft greatly enhance the command's capability to conduct global combat and reconnaissance operations. Tankers are assigned to Eighteenth Air Force, Scott AFB, Illinois, with headquarters at Air Mobility Command, Scott AFB, Illinois.
- Airborne Communications—The Navy's E-6B Mercury aircraft provide a survivable communications link between national decision-makers and the nation's strategic forces. An airborne command post, the E-6B enables the President and the Secretary of Defense to directly contact crews on the nation's ballistic missile submarines, land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles and long-range bombers. The E-6B aircraft are assigned to Strategic Communications Wing One at Tinker AFB, Oklahoma.
- Atlantic Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBNs), Task Force 144. Atlantic SSBNs are based at Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, Georgia, with headquarters at Commander, Submarine Forces U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Naval Base Norfolk, Virginia;
- Pacific Ballistic Missile Submarines, Task Force 134. Submarines based at Bangor, Washington, with the headquarters of Commander Submarine Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet being located at Naval Station Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
- Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations (JTF-GNO)— JTF-GNO was dissolved and incorporated within the United States Cyber Command on September 7, 2010. It was a subordinate command Located in Arlington, Va., the Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations (JTF-GNO) was U.S. Strategic Command's operational component engaged in operation and limited defense of the DoD's Global Information Grid— supporting JFCC-NW in fighting Cyber-terrorism directed against the US military. This is done by integrating GNO capabilities into the operations of all DoD computers, networks, and systems used by DoD combatant commands, services and agencies. The Director, Defense Information Systems Agency also headed the Joint Task Force for Global Network Operations. This organization is responsible for operating and defending U.S. worldwide information networks, a function closely aligned with the efforts of the Joint Functional Component Command for Network Warfare, commanded by Director, National Security Agency, which has also since been merged into United States Cyber Command in October 2010.
- Strategic Bomber and Reconnaissance Aircraft—two B-52 Stratofortress wings and one B-2 Spirit wing assigned to Eighth Air Force, Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC), are instruments of global combat power for any area of the world. B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers are based at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, and Minot AFB, North Dakota. B-2 Spirit stealth bombers are stationed at Whiteman AFB, Missouri. Worldwide reconnaissance aircraft assigned to Eighth Air Force that support the USSTRATCOM mission include the RC-135 Rivet Joint, Offutt AFB, Nebraska, and the U-2S Dragon Lady, Beale AFB, California. Nuclear ordinance ready B-1B Lancer heavy bombers are available at Dyess AFB, Texas and Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, though the United States does not deploy nuclear weapons in the B-1B in compliance with international treaty. Eighth Air Force, or "The Mighty Eighth", of the Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) is also designated as STRATCOM's Task Force 204 to provide the president of the United States with alert ready nuclear bomber instruments of strategic deterrence.
- Land-based Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)—three Air Force missile wings dispersed in hardened silos across the nation's central tier, are a quick-reacting and highly reliable component of the nation's strategic deterrence. The intercontinental ballistic missile wings are placed under command of the Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) and the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Minuteman III missile launch control centers are based from F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; Malmstrom AFB, Montana; and Minot AFB, North Dakota. Peacekeeper missiles were based from F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. They were officially deactivated on 19 September 2005. ICBM crews report to Twentieth Air Force, F.E. Warren AFB which is also designated as STRATCOM's Task Force 214 (TF 214), 20th Air Force. The Twentieth Air Force maintains and operates deployed intercontinental ballistic missile, keeping them combat ready. The STRATCOM's Task Force 214 provides alert ready ICBMs to the president of the United States. Targeting and strategic communications are provided by the 625th Strategic Operations Squadron (625 STOS).
STRATCOM operational plans and contingency plans include OPLAN 8010-12. William Arkin listed two CONPLANs in his 2005 book Code Names: STRATCOM CONPLAN 8022, Global Strike, November 2003, and STRATCOM OPLAN 8044, formerly called the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP), April 2003. He also said that prior to 11 September 2001, STRATCOM was responsible for one OPLAN. Foreign Policy magazine reported in May 2014 that the designation 'CONOP 8888' had been utilized for the unclassified end product of a training session on how to produce Concepts of Operation.
In 2007, General Kevin P. Chilton took over command of USSTRATCOM. He served as the senior commander of the forces from the four branches of the military assigned to the command. His responsibilities include integrating and coordinating the necessary command and control capability to provide support with the most accurate and timely information for the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, and to regional combatant commanders.
On 7 May 2009, Chilton stated that the United States would not be constrained in its response to a cyber attack, therefore demonstrating the utility of his command which combines cyber defense with global strike.
|No.||Image||Name||Start of Term||End of Term|
|1.||General George L. Butler, USAF||1992||1994|
|2.||Admiral Henry G. Chiles, Jr., USN||1994||1996|
|3.||General Eugene E. Habiger, USAF||1996||1998|
|4.||Admiral Richard W. Mies, USN||1998||2002|
|5.||Admiral James O. Ellis, Jr., USN||2002||2004|
|6.||General James E. Cartwright, USMC||2004||2007|
|Acting||Lt. Gen C. Robert Kehler, USAF||4 August 2007||17 October 2007|
|7.||General Kevin P. Chilton, USAF||2007||2011|
|8.||General C. Robert Kehler, USAF||2011||2013|
|9.||Admiral Cecil D. Haney, USN||2013||Present|
A previous commander, General James Cartwright (2004–07) explored ways to incorporate communication technology tools, even including chat rooms and blogs, to introduce a collaborative element into what has traditionally been considered as a very centralized military environment. Speaking at a convention, Cartwright said,
Anything that comes off the face of the earth you have about 100 seconds to type it, figure out what it is, and act. I can't even get a phone call through that fast. But the national system is set up to have a phone conference about that. You try to do that in the middle of the night. You try to do that in the middle of the day, get people out of meetings. It's not possible. In that 100 seconds, what do we do when we get people on the phone? We describe what's going on so we spend most of the time in discovery rather than in options and activity and execution. We can't do business that way.
- Air Force Magazine, Journal of the Air Force Assoc.,Space Almanac 2008, August 2008
- Stratcom Homepage
- "Air Force Times". Air Force Times. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Inside Defense NewsStand: Inside Missile Defense 21 November 2007, Vol. 13, No. 24[dead link]
- Space News: U.S. Sen. Wayne Allard (R-Colo.) on US Dept of Defense, 29 November 2007[dead link]
- "MARFORSTRAT - Headquarters."
- U.S. Strategic Command Service Components
- "Former NSA Chief: Follow SOCOM Model for Cyber" accessdate=2015-04-17
- "National News".[dead link]
- Billings Gazette: Wyoming Peacekeeper Missile System
- U.S. Strategic Command: Service Components.
- US Nuclear War Plan Updated Amidst Nuclear Policy Review - FAS Strategic Security Blog. Blogs.fas.org (2013-04-16). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
- Arkin, Code Names, 61.
- "Cyber attack could bring U.S. military response". Securityfocus.com. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- General James Cartwright. NDIA Conference - US Strategic Command. June 6, 2007.
- The Unified Command Plan, Joint Forces Quarterly; Johnson, Spencer (September 2002).
- United States Strategic Command Official Website
- Air Force Magazine, Journal of the Air Force Assoc., August 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Strategic Command.|
- FAS: United States Space Command (USSPACECOM)
- GAO Report: Additional Actions Needed by U.S. Strategic Command to Strengthen Implementation of Its Many Missions and New Organization