Biscay (Spanish Congress electoral district)

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Biscay
Congress of Deputies
Electoral Constituency
SpanishCongressDistricts(Biscay).png
Location of Biscay within Spain.
Province Province of Biscay
Autonomous community Basque Country
Population 1,148,775 (2016)
Electorate 948,080 (2016)
Major settlements Bilbao, Barakaldo, Getxo
Current constituency
Created 1977
Seats 10 (1977–1989)
9 (1993–2004)
8 (2008–)

Biscay (Basque: Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is one of the 52 electoral districts (Spanish: circunscripciones) used for the Congress of Deputies—the lower chamber of the Spanish Parliament, the Cortes Generales. The electoral system uses the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation, with a minimum threshold of 3%.

It is located in the Basque Country and the largest city is Bilbao where around 30% of the electorate of almost a million live. At the time of the 2008 election, Barakaldo and Getxo were the only other large municipalities with electorates over 50,000.[1]

Overview[edit]

Boundaries and electoral system[edit]

Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution [2] the boundaries must be the same as the province of Vizcaya and under Article 140 this can only be altered with the approval of congress. Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The electoral system used is closed list proportional representation with seats allocated using the D'Hondt method. Only lists which poll 3% or more of all valid votes cast, including votes "en blanco" i.e. for "none of the above" can be considered for seats. Under article 12 of the constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.

Electoral procedures[edit]

The laws regulating the conduct and administration of elections are laid out in detail in the 1985 electoral law. (Ley Orgánica del Régimen Electoral General.[3]) Under this law, the elections in Vizcaya, as in other districts, are supervised by the Electoral Commission (Junta Electoral), a permanent body composed of eight Supreme Court judges and five political scientists or sociologists appointed by the Congress of Deputies. The Electoral commission is supported in its work by the Interior Ministry. On election day, polling stations are run by electoral boards which consist of groups of citizens selected by lottery.[4]

The format of the ballot paper is designed by the Spanish state, however, the law allows political parties to produce and distribute their own ballot papers, either by mailing them to voters or by other means such as street distribution, provided that they comply with the official model. The government then covers the cost of all printed ballot papers. These must then be marked by voters, either in the polling station or outside the polling station and placed inside sealed envelopes which are then placed inside ballot boxes in the polling station. Following the close of polls, the ballots are then counted in each individual polling station in the presence of representatives of the political parties and candidates. The ballots are then immediately destroyed, with the exception of those considered invalid or challenged by the candidates' representatives, which are retained for further scrutiny. The result is that full recounts are impossible.[5]

Eligibility[edit]

Article 67.3 of the Spanish Constitution prohibits dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Article 70 also makes active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals ineligible.[2] Additionally, under Article 11 of the Political Parties Law, June 2002 (Ley Orgánica 6/2002, de 27 de junio, de Partidos Políticos), parties and individual candidates may be prevented from standing by the Spanish Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo), if they are judged to have violated Article 9 of that law which prohibits parties which are perceived to discriminate against people on the basis of ideology, religion, beliefs, nationality, race, gender or sexual orientation (Article 9a), foment or organise violence as a means of achieving political objectives (Article 9b) or support or compliment the actions of "terrorist organisations" (Article 9c).[6] Article 55, Section 2 of the 1985 electoral law also disqualifies director generals or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[3] Lastly, following changes to the electoral law which took effect for the 2007 municipal elections, candidates' lists must be composed of at least 40% of candidates of either gender and each group of five candidates must contain at least two males and two females.[4]

Number of members[edit]

In the general elections from 1977 until 1989 Vizcaya returned 10 members. That figure was reduced to 9 members for the 1993 General Election onwards. Vizcaya was one of the few districts whose electorate fell between 2000 and 2004 and it returns one member more than Asturias despite the latter now having a larger electorate.[7] As a result it lost a seat at the 2008 General Election being reduced to eight members.[8]

Under Spanish electoral law, all provinces are entitled to a minimum of 2 seats with a remaining 248 seats apportioned according to population.[9] These laws are laid out in detail in the 1985 electoral law. (Ley Orgánica del Régimen Electoral General) The practical effect of this law has been to overrepresent smaller provinces at the expense of larger provinces.

Vizcaya had a ratio of 109,064 voters per deputy in 2004 [10] above the Spanish average of 98,777 voters per deputy.[11]

Deputies[edit]

Deputies for Biscay 1977–
Legislature Election Distribution
Constituent 1977
3 4 2 1
1st 1979
2 2 4 2
2nd 1982
1 4 4 1
3rd 1986
2 1 3 3 1
4th 1989
2 1 1 2 3 1
5th 1993
1 3 3 2
6th 1996
1 1 2 3 2
7th 2000
2 4 3
8th 2004
3 4 2
9th 2008
4 3 1
10th 2011
2 2 3 1
11th 2015
1 2 1 3 1
12th 2016
1 3 1 2 1

Elections[edit]

2016 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2016.png
Summary of the 26 June 2016 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
United We Can (Podemos/Ahal DuguIUeQuo)1 179,347 28.87 –0.05 3 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 175,296 28.22 +0.31 2 –1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 86,425 13.91 +0.93 1 ±0
People's Party (PP) 78,965 12.71 +1.31 1 ±0
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu) 67,653 10.89 –1.60 1 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 20,685 3.33 –0.51 0 ±0
Blank ballots 3,907 0.63 –0.11
Total 621,219 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 621,219 98.32 +0.03
Invalid votes 4,225 0.68 –0.03
Votes cast / turnout 625,444 65.97 –3.44
Abstentions 322,636 34.03 +3.44
Registered voters 948,080
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2015 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2015.png
Summary of the 20 December 2015 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 182,604 27.91 –4.70 3 ±0
We Can (Podemos/Ahal Dugu) 170,728 26.10 New 2 +2
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 84,893 12.98 –8.41 1 –1
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)1 81,704 12.49 –6.70 1 –1
People's Party (PP) 74,560 11.40 –6.32 1 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 25,148 3.84 New 0 ±0
United LeftPopular Unity in Common (IU–UPeC) 18,466 2.82 –0.96 0 ±0
Blank ballots 4,840 0.74 –0.40
Total 654,177 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 654,177 99.29 +0.30
Invalid votes 4,647 0.71 –0.30
Votes cast / turnout 658,824 69.41 +1.33
Abstentions 290,353 30.59 –1.33
Registered voters 949,177
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2011 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2011.png
Summary of the 20 November 2011 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 208,683 32.61 +1.51 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 136,853 21.39 –15.60 2 –2
Amaiur (Amaiur)1 122,796 19.19 +14.54 2 +2
People's Party (PP) 113,401 17.72 –0.68 1 ±0
United LeftThe Greens: Plural Left (IU–LV) 24,205 3.78 –0.57 0 ±0
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 10,886 1.70 +0.75 0 ±0
Equo (eQuo) 7,387 1.15 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 7,285 1.14 –0.54
Total 639,880 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 639,880 98.99 –0.04
Invalid votes 6,552 1.01 +0.04
Votes cast / turnout 646,432 68.08 +1.49
Abstentions 303,039 31.92 –1.49
Registered voters 949,471
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2008 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2008.png
Summary of the 9 March 2008 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 233,371 36.99 +10.23 4 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 196,242 31.10 –6.19 3 –1
People's Party (PP) 116,110 18.40 –0.34 1 –1
United Left–Greens–Alternative (EB–B) 27,471 4.35 –4.23 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 19,605 3.11 –1.23 0 ±0
Aralar (Aralar) 9,740 1.54 –0.31 0 ±0
Blank ballots 10,581 1.68 +0.42
Total 630,917 100.00 8 –1
Valid votes 630,917 99.03 +5.25
Invalid votes 6,177 0.97 –5.25
Votes cast / turnout 637,094 66.59 –9.24
Abstentions 319,615 33.41 +9.24
Registered voters 956,709
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2004 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2004.png
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 258,488 37.29 +3.08 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 185,514 26.76 +3.90 3 +1
People's Party (PP) 129,889 18.74 –8.52 2 –1
United Left (EB/IU) 59,493 8.58 +2.79 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 30,096 4.34 –0.74 0 ±0
AralarStand up (Aralar–Zutik) 12,791 1.85 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 8,754 1.26 –1.44
Total 693,185 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 693,185 93.78 –5.13
Invalid votes 45,979 6.22 +5.13
Votes cast / turnout 739,164 75.83 +8.84
Abstentions 235,578 24.17 –8.84
Registered voters 974,742
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2000 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2000.png
Summary of the 12 March 2000 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 222,479 34.21 +5.01 4 +1
People's Party (PP) 177,272 27.26 +8.82 3 +1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 148,670 22.86 –0.93 2 ±0
United Left (EB/IU) 37,677 5.79 –3.93 0 –1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 33,047 5.08 –0.10 0 ±0
Blank ballots 17,584 2.70 +1.40
Total 650,387 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 650,387 98.91 –0.41
Invalid votes 7,138 1.09 +0.41
Votes cast / turnout 657,525 66.99 –5.50
Abstentions 324,046 33.01 +5.50
Registered voters 981,571
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1996 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1996.png
Summary of the 3 March 1996 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 204,056 29.20 –0.34 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 166,293 23.79 –1.08 2 –1
People's Party (PP) 128,904 18.44 +3.15 2 ±0
Popular Unity (HB) 69,472 9.94 –2.58 1 ±0
United Left (IU/EB) 67,954 9.72 +2.67 1 +1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 36,234 5.18 –1.13 0 ±0
Basque Citizen Initiative (ICV–Gorordo) 11,833 1.69 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 9,063 1.30 +0.09
Total 698,859 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 698,859 99.32 +0.14
Invalid votes 4,770 0.68 –0.14
Votes cast / turnout 703,629 72.49 +1.41
Abstentions 266,963 27.51 –1.41
Registered voters 970,592
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1993 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1993.png
Summary of the 6 June 1993 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 197,392 29.54 +1.63 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE))1 166,172 24.87 –3.81 3 ±0
People's Party (PP) 102,172 15.29 +5.59 2 +1
Popular Unity (HB) 83,644 12.52 –2.53 1 –1
United Left (IU/EB) 47,091 7.05 +3.44 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity–Basque Left (EA–EUE) 42,175 6.31 –1.56 0 –1
The Greens (B/LV) 6,769 1.01 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 8,060 1.21 +0.53
Total 668,191 100.00 9 –1
Valid votes 668,191 99.18 +0.15
Invalid votes 5,495 0.82 –0.15
Votes cast / turnout 673,686 71.08 +3.79
Abstentions 274,085 28.92 –3.79
Registered voters 947,771
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1989 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1989.png
Summary of the 29 October 1989 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 171,582 27.91 –1.40 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 127,744 20.78 –5.78 2 –1
Popular Unity (HB) 92,493 15.05 –0.86 2 ±0
People's Party (PP)1 59,632 9.70 –0.97 1 ±0
Basque Country Left (EE) 48,559 7.90 –0.46 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 48,355 7.87 New 1 +1
United Left (IU/EB) 22,169 3.61 +2.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 21,144 3.44 –1.51 0 ±0
The Ecologist Greens (LVE) 6,589 1.07 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 4,176 0.68 +0.20
Total 614,724 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 614,724 99.03 +1.04
Invalid votes 6,044 0.97 –1.04
Votes cast / turnout 620,768 67.29 –1.03
Abstentions 301,825 32.71 +1.03
Registered voters 922,593
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1986 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1986.png
Summary of the 22 June 1986 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 179,130 29.31 –4.07 3 –1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 162,323 26.56 –3.08 3 –1
Popular Unity (HB) 97,252 15.91 +2.80 2 +1
People's Coalition (APPDPPL)1 65,212 10.67 –1.35 1 ±0
Basque Country Left (EE) 51,090 8.36 +1.80 1 +1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 30,286 4.95 +3.47 0 ±0
United Left (IU) 9,638 1.58 New 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 6,863 1.12 –1.07 0 ±0
Blank ballots 2,935 0.48 –0.02
Total 611,221 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 611,221 97.99 +0.16
Invalid votes 12,549 2.01 –0.16
Votes cast / turnout 623,770 68.32 –11.20
Abstentions 289,194 31.68 +11.20
Registered voters 912,964
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1982 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1982.png
Summary of the 28 October 1982 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 221,801 33.38 +4.20 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 196,974 29.64 +10.58 4 +2
Popular Unity (HB) 87,100 13.11 –1.40 1 –1
Democratic Coalition (APPDPPDLUCD)1 79,866 12.02 –8.20 1 –1
Basque Country Left–Left for Socialism (EE) 43,591 6.56 +0.71 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 14,537 2.19 –3.58 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 9,815 1.48 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 3,318 0.50 +0.30
Total 664,570 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 664,570 97.83 +0.04
Invalid votes 14,728 2.17 –0.04
Votes cast / turnout 679,298 79.52 +14.19
Abstentions 174,906 20.48 –14.19
Registered voters 854,204
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1979 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1979.png
Summary of the 1 March 1979 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 161,480 29.18 –1.74 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE)1 105,481 19.06 –8.38 2 –1
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) 88,431 15.98 –0.43 2 ±0
Popular Unity (HB)2 80,280 14.51 +10.97 2 +2
Basque Country Left (EE) 32,363 5.85 +0.42 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 31,942 5.77 +0.38 0 ±0
Basque Country Foral Union (UFV)3 23,484 4.24 –2.40 0 –1
National Union (UN) 7,521 1.36 New 0 ±0
Communist Movement–Communist Left Organization (MC–OIC) 7,292 1.32 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 1,127 0.20 –0.01
Total 553,407 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 553,407 97.79 +0.64
Invalid votes 12,478 2.21 –0.64
Votes cast / turnout 565,885 65.33 –11.05
Abstentions 300,300 34.67 +11.05
Registered voters 866,185
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1977 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1977.png
Summary of the 15 June 1977 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 171,991 30.92 4
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 140,643 25.28 3
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) 91,262 16.41 2
People's Alliance (AP) 36,934 6.64 1
Basque Country Left (EE) 30,209 5.43 0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 29,968 5.39 0
Basque Socialist Party (ESB/PSV) 15,079 2.71 0
People's Socialist Party–Socialist Unity (PSP–US) 12,038 2.16 0
Democratic Socialist Alliance (ASDCI) 6,224 1.12 0
Basque Christian Democracy (DCV) 6,034 1.08 0
Blank ballots 1,166 0.21
Total 556,235 100.00 10
Valid votes 556,235 97.15
Invalid votes 16,313 2.85
Votes cast / turnout 572,548 76.38
Abstentions 177,024 23.62
Registered voters 749,572
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Number of voters by municipality 2008". Spanish census office. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  2. ^ a b Spanish Constitution Archived September 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b "Law governing electoral procedures". Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  4. ^ a b "OSCE observers task force report on 2008 Spanish election" (PDF). Organisation for security and cooperation in Europe OSCE. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  5. ^ "OSCE observers task force report on 2004 Spanish election" (PDF). Organisation for security and cooperation in Europe, OSCE. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  6. ^ "Law regarding registration of political parties". Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  7. ^ Asturias 2004 electorate
  8. ^ Vizcaya representation reduced
  9. ^ General features of Spanish electoral system
  10. ^ Vizcaya election result 2004
  11. ^ 2004 Spanish election

Coordinates: 43°15′N 2°59′W / 43.250°N 2.983°W / 43.250; -2.983