Biscay (Spanish Congress electoral district)

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Biscay
Congress of Deputies
Electoral Constituency
SpanishCongressDistricts(Biscay).png
Location of Biscay within Spain
Province Biscay
Autonomous community Basque Country
Population 1,148,775 (2016)
Electorate 948,080 (2016)
Major settlements Bilbao, Barakaldo, Getxo
Current constituency
Created 1977
Seats 10 (1977–1993)
9 (1993–2008)
8 (2008–)

Biscay (Basque: Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is one of the 52 constituencies (Spanish: circunscripciones) represented in the Congress of Deputies—the lower chamber of the Spanish parliament, the Cortes Generales—. The constituency elects eight deputies. The electoral system uses the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation, with a minimum threshold of 3%.

Overview[edit]

The constituency was created as per the Political Reform Act 1977 and was first contested in the 1977 general election. The Act provided for the provinces of Spain to be established as multi-member districts for the Congress of Deputies,[1] with this regulation being maintained under Article 68.2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Additionally, Article 141.1 of the Constitution would require for any modification of the provincial limits to be approved under an organic law, needing an absolute majority in the Cortes Generales.[2]

The Spanish electoral system is regulated under the General Electoral System Organic Law 5/1985. Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage, with all nationals over eighteen and in the full enjoyment of all political rights entitled to vote—the only exception being in 1977, when this was limited to nationals over twenty-one and in the full enjoyment of all political and civil rights—. A 2011 amendment to the electoral law required for Spaniards abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "requested" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado). Provinces are entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with additional seats awarded in proportion to population. The number of seats allocated to Biscay is currently set at eight. Deputies are elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3% of valid votes—which includes blank ballots—being applied. Parties not reaching the threshold are not taken into consideration for seat distribution.[2][3][4]

Registered parties and federations of parties are allowed to field candidates, as well as party alliances formed within 10 days from the Cortes' dissolution. Additionally, groups of electors—a legal figure in Spain referring to temporary associations of citizens grouped for the sole purpose of contesting a particular election—are required to obtain the signatures of at least 1% of registered voters in the district in order to be able to field candidates. Since 2011, parties, federations of parties and coalitions left out from the Congress in the previous election are also required to obtain the signatures of at least 0.1% of registered voters in the districts they intend to contest. No party, federation, coalition or group of electors may field more than one list of candidates per district for the same election, and member parties of a contesting federation or alliance are barred from fielding their own lists. From 2002—and in compliance with the Political Parties Organic Law 6/2002—fielded candidates are also forbidden from continuing or succeeding the activities of judicially illegalized, dissolved, or suspended political parties.[3]

Deputies[edit]

Deputies for Biscay 1977–
Legislature Election Distribution
Constituent 1977
3 4 2 1
1st 1979
2 2 4 2
2nd 1982
1 4 4 1
3rd 1986
2 1 3 3 1
4th 1989
2 1 1 2 3 1
5th 1993
1 3 3 2
6th 1996
1 1 2 3 2
7th 2000
2 4 3
8th 2004
3 4 2
9th 2008
4 3 1
10th 2011
2 2 3 1
11th 2015
1 2 1 3 1
12th 2016
1 3 1 2 1

Elections[edit]

2016 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2016.png
Summary of the 26 June 2016 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
United We Can (Podemos/Ahal DuguIUeQuo)1 179,347 28.87 –0.05 3 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 175,296 28.22 +0.31 2 –1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 86,425 13.91 +0.93 1 ±0
People's Party (PP) 78,965 12.71 +1.31 1 ±0
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu) 67,653 10.89 –1.60 1 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 20,685 3.33 –0.51 0 ±0
Blank ballots 3,907 0.63 –0.11
Total 621,219 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 621,219 98.32 +0.03
Invalid votes 4,225 0.68 –0.03
Votes cast / turnout 625,444 65.97 –3.44
Abstentions 322,636 34.03 +3.44
Registered voters 948,080
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2015 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2015.png
Summary of the 20 December 2015 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 182,604 27.91 –4.70 3 ±0
We Can (Podemos/Ahal Dugu) 170,728 26.10 New 2 +2
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 84,893 12.98 –8.41 1 –1
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)1 81,704 12.49 –6.70 1 –1
People's Party (PP) 74,560 11.40 –6.32 1 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 25,148 3.84 New 0 ±0
United LeftPopular Unity in Common (IU–UPeC) 18,466 2.82 –0.96 0 ±0
Blank ballots 4,840 0.74 –0.40
Total 654,177 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 654,177 99.29 +0.30
Invalid votes 4,647 0.71 –0.30
Votes cast / turnout 658,824 69.41 +1.33
Abstentions 290,353 30.59 –1.33
Registered voters 949,177
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2011 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2011.png
Summary of the 20 November 2011 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 208,683 32.61 +1.51 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 136,853 21.39 –15.60 2 –2
Amaiur (Amaiur)1 122,796 19.19 +14.54 2 +2
People's Party (PP) 113,401 17.72 –0.68 1 ±0
United LeftThe Greens: Plural Left (IU–LV) 24,205 3.78 –0.57 0 ±0
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 10,886 1.70 +0.75 0 ±0
Equo (eQuo) 7,387 1.15 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 7,285 1.14 –0.54
Total 639,880 100.00 8 ±0
Valid votes 639,880 98.99 –0.04
Invalid votes 6,552 1.01 +0.04
Votes cast / turnout 646,432 68.08 +1.49
Abstentions 303,039 31.92 –1.49
Registered voters 949,471
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2008 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2008.png
Summary of the 9 March 2008 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 233,371 36.99 +10.23 4 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 196,242 31.10 –6.19 3 –1
People's Party (PP) 116,110 18.40 –0.34 1 –1
United Left–Greens–Alternative (EB–B) 27,471 4.35 –4.23 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 19,605 3.11 –1.23 0 ±0
Aralar (Aralar) 9,740 1.54 –0.31 0 ±0
Blank ballots 10,581 1.68 +0.42
Total 630,917 100.00 8 –1
Valid votes 630,917 99.03 +5.25
Invalid votes 6,177 0.97 –5.25
Votes cast / turnout 637,094 66.59 –9.24
Abstentions 319,615 33.41 +9.24
Registered voters 956,709
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2004 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2004.png
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 258,488 37.29 +3.08 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 185,514 26.76 +3.90 3 +1
People's Party (PP) 129,889 18.74 –8.52 2 –1
United Left (EB/IU) 59,493 8.58 +2.79 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 30,096 4.34 –0.74 0 ±0
AralarStand up (Aralar–Zutik) 12,791 1.85 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 8,754 1.26 –1.44
Total 693,185 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 693,185 93.78 –5.13
Invalid votes 45,979 6.22 +5.13
Votes cast / turnout 739,164 75.83 +8.84
Abstentions 235,578 24.17 –8.84
Registered voters 974,742
Source: Ministry of the Interior

2000 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress2000.png
Summary of the 12 March 2000 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 222,479 34.21 +5.01 4 +1
People's Party (PP) 177,272 27.26 +8.82 3 +1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 148,670 22.86 –0.93 2 ±0
United Left (EB/IU) 37,677 5.79 –3.93 0 –1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 33,047 5.08 –0.10 0 ±0
Blank ballots 17,584 2.70 +1.40
Total 650,387 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 650,387 98.91 –0.41
Invalid votes 7,138 1.09 +0.41
Votes cast / turnout 657,525 66.99 –5.50
Abstentions 324,046 33.01 +5.50
Registered voters 981,571
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1996 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1996.png
Summary of the 3 March 1996 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 204,056 29.20 –0.34 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) 166,293 23.79 –1.08 2 –1
People's Party (PP) 128,904 18.44 +3.15 2 ±0
Popular Unity (HB) 69,472 9.94 –2.58 1 ±0
United Left (IU/EB) 67,954 9.72 +2.67 1 +1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 36,234 5.18 –1.13 0 ±0
Basque Citizen Initiative (ICV–Gorordo) 11,833 1.69 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 9,063 1.30 +0.09
Total 698,859 100.00 9 ±0
Valid votes 698,859 99.32 +0.14
Invalid votes 4,770 0.68 –0.14
Votes cast / turnout 703,629 72.49 +1.41
Abstentions 266,963 27.51 –1.41
Registered voters 970,592
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1993 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1993.png
Summary of the 6 June 1993 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 197,392 29.54 +1.63 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE))1 166,172 24.87 –3.81 3 ±0
People's Party (PP) 102,172 15.29 +5.59 2 +1
Popular Unity (HB) 83,644 12.52 –2.53 1 –1
United Left (IU/EB) 47,091 7.05 +3.44 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity–Basque Left (EA–EUE) 42,175 6.31 –1.56 0 –1
The Greens (B/LV) 6,769 1.01 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 8,060 1.21 +0.53
Total 668,191 100.00 9 –1
Valid votes 668,191 99.18 +0.15
Invalid votes 5,495 0.82 –0.15
Votes cast / turnout 673,686 71.08 +3.79
Abstentions 274,085 28.92 –3.79
Registered voters 947,771
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1989 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1989.png
Summary of the 29 October 1989 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 171,582 27.91 –1.40 3 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 127,744 20.78 –5.78 2 –1
Popular Unity (HB) 92,493 15.05 –0.86 2 ±0
People's Party (PP)1 59,632 9.70 –0.97 1 ±0
Basque Country Left (EE) 48,559 7.90 –0.46 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 48,355 7.87 New 1 +1
United Left (IU/EB) 22,169 3.61 +2.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 21,144 3.44 –1.51 0 ±0
The Ecologist Greens (LVE) 6,589 1.07 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 4,176 0.68 +0.20
Total 614,724 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 614,724 99.03 +1.04
Invalid votes 6,044 0.97 –1.04
Votes cast / turnout 620,768 67.29 –1.03
Abstentions 301,825 32.71 +1.03
Registered voters 922,593
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1986 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1986.png
Summary of the 22 June 1986 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 179,130 29.31 –4.07 3 –1
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 162,323 26.56 –3.08 3 –1
Popular Unity (HB) 97,252 15.91 +2.80 2 +1
People's Coalition (APPDPPL)1 65,212 10.67 –1.35 1 ±0
Basque Country Left (EE) 51,090 8.36 +1.80 1 +1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 30,286 4.95 +3.47 0 ±0
United Left (IU) 9,638 1.58 New 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 6,863 1.12 –1.07 0 ±0
Blank ballots 2,935 0.48 –0.02
Total 611,221 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 611,221 97.99 +0.16
Invalid votes 12,549 2.01 –0.16
Votes cast / turnout 623,770 68.32 –11.20
Abstentions 289,194 31.68 +11.20
Registered voters 912,964
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1982 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1982.png
Summary of the 28 October 1982 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 221,801 33.38 +4.20 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 196,974 29.64 +10.58 4 +2
Popular Unity (HB) 87,100 13.11 –1.40 1 –1
Democratic Coalition (APPDPPDLUCD)1 79,866 12.02 –8.20 1 –1
Basque Country Left–Left for Socialism (EE) 43,591 6.56 +0.71 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 14,537 2.19 –3.58 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 9,815 1.48 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 3,318 0.50 +0.30
Total 664,570 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 664,570 97.83 +0.04
Invalid votes 14,728 2.17 –0.04
Votes cast / turnout 679,298 79.52 +14.19
Abstentions 174,906 20.48 –14.19
Registered voters 854,204
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1979 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1979.png
Summary of the 1 March 1979 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 161,480 29.18 –1.74 4 ±0
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE)1 105,481 19.06 –8.38 2 –1
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) 88,431 15.98 –0.43 2 ±0
Popular Unity (HB)2 80,280 14.51 +10.97 2 +2
Basque Country Left (EE) 32,363 5.85 +0.42 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 31,942 5.77 +0.38 0 ±0
Foral Union of the Basque Country (UFV)3 23,484 4.24 –2.40 0 –1
National Union (UN) 7,521 1.36 New 0 ±0
Communist MovementOrganization of Communist Left (MC–OIC) 7,292 1.32 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 1,127 0.20 –0.01
Total 553,407 100.00 10 ±0
Valid votes 553,407 97.79 +0.64
Invalid votes 12,478 2.21 –0.64
Votes cast / turnout 565,885 65.33 –11.05
Abstentions 300,300 34.67 +11.05
Registered voters 866,185
Source: Ministry of the Interior

1977 general election[edit]

BiscayMunicipalMapCongress1977.png
Summary of the 15 June 1977 Congress of Deputies election results in Biscay
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 171,991 30.92 4
Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) 140,643 25.28 3
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) 91,262 16.41 2
People's Alliance (AP) 36,934 6.64 1
Basque Country Left (EE) 30,209 5.43 0
Communist Party of the Basque Country (PCE/EPK) 29,968 5.39 0
Basque Socialist Party (ESB/PSV) 15,079 2.71 0
People's Socialist PartySocialist Unity (PSP–US) 12,038 2.16 0
Democratic Socialist Alliance (ASDCI) 6,224 1.12 0
Basque Christian Democracy (DCV) 6,034 1.08 0
Blank ballots 1,166 0.21
Total 556,235 100.00 10
Valid votes 556,235 97.15
Invalid votes 16,313 2.85
Votes cast / turnout 572,548 76.38
Abstentions 177,024 23.62
Registered voters 749,572
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References[edit]

  1. ^ Political Reform Act of 1977, Law No. 1 of January 4, 1977 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 27 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b Spanish Constitution of 1978, December 29, 1978 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 27 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985, Organic Law No. 5 of June 19, 1985 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 28 December 2016.
  4. ^ "Congress Functions". congreso.es. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 

Coordinates: 43°15′N 2°59′W / 43.250°N 2.983°W / 43.250; -2.983