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Union, Progress and Democracy

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Union, Progress and Democracy
Unión Progreso y Democracia
Spokesperson Andrés Herzog[1]
Founded 26 September 2007 (2007-09-26)
Headquarters C/ Cedaceros, 11, 2º H, 28014, Madrid
Think tank Progress and Democracy Foundation
Membership 6,071 (2014)[2]
Ideology Progressivism[3][4]
Social liberalism[5][6][7]
European federalism[17]
Radical centrism[18][19]
Spanish nationalism[8][20][21][22][23]
Political position Centre[7][11][18][19][24][25][26]
International affiliation None
European Parliament group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colours      Magenta
Congress of Deputies
5 / 350
Spanish Senate
0 / 266
Regional Parliaments
1 / 1,268
European Parliament
4 / 54
Local Government (2015)
129 / 67,611
Politics of Spain
Political parties

Union, Progress and Democracy[21][29][30][31][32][33][34] (Spanish: Unión Progreso y Democracia[35][36][37][note 1] [uˈnjon pɾoˈɣɾeso i ðemoˈkɾaθja], official abbreviation UPyD [upeiˈðe], occasionally referred to as UPD [upeˈðe]) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007.

It is a social liberal party[6] that rejects peripheral nationalism in all its forms including the separatist Basque and Catalan movements.[38] It proposes substituting the current electoral law for a more proportional one.[39] The party also wants a federal system for Europe, without duplicities between the functions of the European government, the national one and the regional one.[40] Mikel Buesa at a party's presentation in 2007 and Irene Lozano in a television interview in 2013 have explained the meaning of the 3 concepts which make up party's name: Union because of their unconditional defence of "the unity of Spain", Progress because they affirm to be "a progressive party, respectful of individual freedom" and Democracy because they claim to be "a radical party which is committed to deepen democracy".[41][42][43][44]

UPyD first stood for election in the 2008 general election, held on 9 March. It received 303,246 votes, or 1.2% of the national total, and one seat in the Congress of Deputies[45] for party co-founder Rosa Díez, becoming the newest party with national representation in Spain.

UPyD's core is in the Basque Autonomous Community, with roots in anti-ETA civic associations, yet it addresses a Spain-wide audience. Prominent members of the party include philosopher Fernando Savater, party founder and former PSOE MEP Rosa Díez, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, and writer Álvaro Pombo.

At its Second Party Congress in November 2013, UPyD reported 6165 registered members, down from an all-time high of 6634 in 2011.[46] In 2009, UPyD founded the think tank "Fundación Progreso y Democracia" (FPyD: Progress and Democracy Foundation) which has since been presided over by the party's spokesperson, Rosa Díez.[47]

In the most recent general elections, held on 20 November 2011, the party won 1,143,225 votes (4.70%), winning five seats in the Congress of Deputies[48] (four in Madrid and one in Valencia) and becoming the fourth largest political force in the country. It was also the party that experienced the greatest increase of votes compared to the previous general election.[49]


Álvaro Pombo (left) with Fernando Savater at a meeting of Union, Progress and Democracy.

On 19 May 2007, 45 people met in San Sebastián to debate the necessity and possibility of creating a new political party that would oppose both the main parties at national level, the People's Party (PP) and the PSOE. At the meeting, most of those present were Basques, many of whom had long experience in political, union, and civic organizations, in many cases coming from a background of left-wing politics, but also from liberal and civic backgrounds. After that meeting, in order to create a broadly based social and political project, the first step was to create an association, Plataforma Pro, which united those who considered it necessary to form a new political party at national level, whose aim would be to put forward new political proposals of interest to people from across the democratic political spectrum. The initial motives established were:

  • The fight against ETA and any type of politically motivated violence.
  • Regeneration of Spanish democracy.
  • Opposition to "compulsory nationalism".
  • The reform of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to reinforce civil liberties and equality, independent of the regional origins of each citizen.

Among the members or supporters of Plataforma Pro were the philosopher Fernando Savater, the spokesman of ¡Basta Ya!, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán (who was the coordinator of the same group), and the former PSOE MEP Rosa Díez. Díez later resigned from PSOE membership and her position as MEP in August 2007 in order to become involved with the UPyD project.

Other groups that showed their support for the Platform included the association Citizens of Catalonia, most notably Albert Boadella, Arcadi Espada, and Xavier Pericay, as well as the association ¡Basta Ya!, which had been a major influence on the new movement.

Teresa Giménez Barbat, member of Council of UPyD in Catalonia and president of Citizens of Catalonia.

In September 2007, the then-president of the Forum Ermua, Mikel Buesa, announced their intention to participate in the political party arising from the Plataforma Pro (later on, he resigned in 2009 due to disagreements with Rosa Díez).

Finally, at a public meeting on 29 September 2007, in the Auditorium of the Casa de Campo in Madrid, the new party, Union, Progress and Democracy, was formed. Those involved in the formation of the new party included the Catalan dramatist Albert Boadella, the Basque philosopher Fernando Savater, the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, and Rosa Díez. Also present were journalist Arcadi Espada, anthropologists Teresa Giménez Barbat and Felix Perez Romera (three prominent members of Citizens of Catalonia), historian Antonio Elorza, painter Agustín Ibarrola, the ex-leader of the Forum Ermua Mikel Buesa, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, the deputies of Citizens Albert Rivera and Antonio Robles, Peruvian writer Fernando Iwasaki, former Secretary General of the UGT Nicolas Redondo, and Basque MP of the People's Party Fernando Maura. Maura subsequently joined the new grouping on 6 November 2007, as a member of its advisory council. Later on, writer Álvaro Pombo also expressed support for UPyD, and went on to run as a candidate for the party.


Ideologically, UPyD is not defined by itself as either left or right and in its electoral mass there are collected voters with an affinity for the political right as well as part of the Socialist Party's disenchanted voters.[50]

Rosa Díez in a party meeting.

When UPyD is asked to be placed on the left–right political spectrum, it defines itself as a "progressive party, politically located on the centre"[51] but it's simultaneously included in the called "transversalism": it's a party which embraces concepts and ideas of both political axes.[52] According to its spokesperson Rosa Díez, the party is "progressive and cross-sectional", "it's got leftist people and right-wing, liberal people".[53] Álvaro Anchuelo also commented that UPyD is a "monarchist party insofar as the monarchy fulfils its function".[54] They assert as additional identity signs "constitutionalism", defining it as the upholding of the Spanish state of law under the Spanish Constitution of 1978; "secularism", as the defence of a neutral State with beliefs, in which any religious confession isn't privileged over others;[55] "Spanish patriotism", as the defence of common values: justice, freedom and equality;[56] "liberal democracy", as the form of government that best attunes wielding of power to safeguard of individual rights;[57][58] and "postnationalism", as opposition to compulsory nationalism.[59] Rosa Díez defines UPyD in opposition to peripheral nationalist and pro-independence parties of the Spanish political system as "an unequivocally national party, with a unique project for Spain".[60] Besides, she has pointed out that UPyD is "a radical party which wants to transform politics by bringing off substantial, in-depth changes from within the institutions".[61] Lastly, Rosa Díez has detailed that the political doctrine which UPyD would identify itself more with is "social liberalism" because the party combines elements of "political liberalism" and "social democracy".[62] UPyD has been rated by the vast majority of political scientists and media such as the European Social Survey or the British newspapers Financial Times and The Economist as a centre party. UPyD has exceptionally been located on the centre-left (for example, by Navarra confidencial[63]) and on the centre-right (by the Encyclopædia Britannica[29]), though.

Its key proposals, according to its terminology, are:

  1. Reform of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, focusing on three areas:
    • Doing away with the autonomic Spanish model. UPyD wants Spain to adopt a system of symmetric federalism with a wide political centralization as territorial model,[64] clearly defining which competences are unique of the State and which ones are delegated to the autonomous communities or municipalities. The party wants to centralize the competences that concern about citizens' fundamental rights like education, health and justice[65] among others because it considers that the State of Autonomies is "elephantine", "politically unviable" and "economically unsustainable"[66] and, above all, because it creates inequalities across the whole country.[67][68] Another aspect of UPyD's symmetric federalism is the abolition of Navarra's and the Basque Country's chartered regimes, together with all historical rights, setting a common system of funding for all autonomous communities.[69] At last, other noteworthy features are the suppression of the provincial councils and district councils,[70] municipalities' merger[71] and the elimination of the Senate.[72]
    • Improvement and reinforcement of individual rights and obligations, strictly defining the same for all Spanish citizens, without territorial, linguistic, ideological or religious inequalities. "The unity of Spain" would be "the only instrument to ensure the equality of the whole of the Spanish citizenry".[73]
    • Deepening of the separation of powers, widening the autonomy of the judicial power from the executive and legislature ones, thereby consolidating the judiciary unity in the country and trying to ensure the independence of the Constitutional Court, the Court of Accounts and regulatory organs with an economic nature from the executive power.
  2. By making Spain into a secular state, the magenta party supports a revision of the existing concordats with the Holy See, the self-financing of the Catholic Church and other religious confessions and the total separation between Church and State.[74] UPyD only assures of its respect for "those religions which are compatible with human rights and the state of law", so the party despises Islam because of "women's stoning" or "homosexuals' murder".[75][76] Accordingly, UPyD agrees with the banning of Islamic headscarves (burqa and hijab) in all public spaces because they're considered "a way to subjugate women to men within Islam".[77][78]
  3. Reform of the electoral Law in order to try to achieve each voter's equality regardless of his residence place and, therefore, to increase minority parties' representation, which are underrepresented with today's electoral system compared with those which represent most Spanish citizens (PP and PSOE). In 2008, Rosa Díez submitted a bill related to amend the Organic Act of the General Electoral Regime (LOREG) in the Congress of Deputies, which entailed increasing the MPs number from 350 to 400. From the total of 400 MPs, 1 would be elected per province and 1 per autonomous city, for a total of 52. Another 146 MPs would be elected by autonomous communities, distributed in proportion to the population thereof. The remaining 200 parliamentary members would be elected in a single national character constituency. Furthermore, it proposed the elimination of the requirement to collect 0.1% of the constituencies' electorate that nowadays the extra-parliamentary parties need to run for.[79] Later, UPyD added Hare quota as replacement for D'Hondt method.[80]
  4. Improvements in public education that, as well as promoting secularism and scientific investigation, eradicate language discrimination and ensure the language choice freedom of all nonlinguistic subjects at the autonomous communities which have got a co-official language. Nevertheless, UPyD guarantees bilingualism by being compulsory to learn the Spanish language and regional one through their corresponding subject of "Language and Literature".[81] Apart from in education, they reject language discrimination dealing with the Administration and in all public services.[82][83]
  5. Changes in the democratic system: an open-list electoral system,[84] the direct election of mayors in a two-round system as a preventative against post-electoral pacts which misrepresent citizens' will,[85] a limit of two successive full terms for executive public officeholders,[86] the impossibility of combining two or more public offices[87] and the toughening of former high officeholders' regime of incompatibilities.[88] Moreover, the party suggests taking measures so as to make political parties' funding more transparent and therefore improve their independence from great economic powers.
  6. Proceedings to tackle terrorism that put the emphasis on defeating ETA or any other terrorist organization, pursuing its funding channels and censoring its political justification. Consequently, UPyD wants to toughen the law of parties to outlaw the political groups of Amaiur, Bildu, EH Bildu and Sortu because it considers they're ETA's political arm. It puts forward that they don't condemn ETA's terrorism and even justify it, for example, when ETA's imprisoned members are called "jailed politicians".[89][90]
  7. Economic and social measures promoting the Spanish economy development and correcting inequalities. According to its view, the State should improve workers' education, training and safety, bring about the internal market integration through infrastructures, favour the research and innovation in businesses and guarantee the economic freedom and competition.
  8. Higher immigration control: UPyD argues that Ceuta’s and Melilla’s border fences have to be protected but treating illegal immigrants with sensitivity and humanity.[91] The party believes that the Civil Guard should stop illegal immigrants and legally repatriate them to their origin countries or return them to the country which they entered from, without violating the human rights of thereof.[92] So, it's against the use of razor wires[93] and shooting rubber bullets as deterrents.[92] It also asks the European Union for a European action protocol to bring illegal immigration to a halt as it affects the whole of Europe.[92] Thus, it wants the European Commission to include Ceuta and Melilla at the European customs area so that the European Union can get definitely involved in the administration of European external borders in both cities.[94] As regards Europe, UPyD would like to strengthen the European Union's territorial integration.
  9. Environmental policy measures that make the technological and economic development compatible with the environment and biodiversity protection. Some examples of these measures are: the use of nuclear energy as an important part of the energy mix which, together with renewable energies, Spain should have,[95] the usage of hydraulic fracturing,[96] the opposition to the coastline and sensitive natural areas destruction due to urbanization or other abusive misuses, the scientific research of climate change and its possible corrective measures and the improvement of the legislature on the natural areas protection.
  10. Regarding abortion, UPyD would bet for a Limits Law, it proposes to decriminalize induced abortion until a fourteen-week provisional period in which any woman can freely abort.[97] The definitive limit would be established by a medical and scientific consensus based on the early detection of possible malformations. Beyond that period, UPyD only defends abortion in case of mother's death risk during pregnancy or childbirth with the aim of reconciling mother's right to a consenting maternity with unborn person's juridical protection.[98] However, from party's point of view, abortion is always "a drama" and, hence, it mustn't be considered a positive right. Therefore, it believes that secondary education has to tackle this issue at sex education area since an early age, thereby informing students of all existing contraceptives methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and fostering the notion that abortion should be avoided as much as possible.[99] To conclude, UPyD stands against minors' access to abortion without parental consent.[100]


Shortly before the party's creation, on 13 December 2007 UPyD held a press conference headed by Rosa Díez, Mikel Buesa, and Fernando Savater in which it denounced "evidently unequal" treatment it received on the part of Spanish banks, which had denied the UPyD loans and recalled the debts of the other political parties with the banks, in addition to the great pardons made to these groups in the last few years. In this context, they explained, UPyD's activity was currently being funded thanks to membership fees and small donations, but they recognized that the party "could not continue this way" nor contest an election with such resources. For that reason, the leadership decided to start a funding system of personal loans, in the hope that citizens would commit themselves. This system consisted of selling personal loans to the value of 200, 500, and 1000 euros to fund the party's electoral campaign for the 2008 general elections after the refusal of financial institutions to bankroll the party. These bonds, which were to be issued to the total of somewhere between three to five million euros, could be purchased in the party offices, via the Internet, and via a free phone number. In addition, the party stated they would report the amount of the loans obtained and the state of its accounts. The party intends to return the money to citizens after the elections, thanks to the institutional funding received by parties with parliamentary representation.


Shortly after the party's foundation, the party's national spokesperson, Rosa Díez, won a seat in the general election of 2008. She was elected in Madrid Province with 3.74% of the vote. Other prominent candidates were the writer Álvaro Pombo for the Senate and Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, both of whom failed to win seats.

In 2009, the party gained representation in two other elections, the European Parliamentary election, and the Basque Regional Elections. Their MEP, Francisco Sosa Wagner, sat in the non-aligned group in the European parliament. In the Basque elections, Gorka Maneiro was elected to represent Álava.

In 2011, Luis de Velasco Rami and 7 other UPyD members were elected to the Madrid Assembly, with UPyD becoming the fourth largest party. In the 2011 local elections, the party won seats in cities such as Madrid, Burgos, Ávila, Granada, Alicante and Murcia.

In the 2011 general election, UPyD received the fourth largest number of votes, polling 1,143,225 (4.70%). Of the five seats the party won, four of them were in Madrid, won by Rosa Díez, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, Álvaro Anchuelo and Irene Lozano. Another candidate was elected in Valencia Province, the actor Toni Cantó.

In the 2014 European Parliament Elections Francisco Sosa Wagner was reelected and UPyD won three extra seats for Maite Pagazaurtundúa, Fernando Maura and Beatriz Becerra, consolidating their support in all Spain. The party's MEPs are set to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group.[101]


In July 2009, party co-founder Mikel Buesa announced his resignation from UPyD denouncing the "authoritarian control" he claimed a group of persons in the party had attempted to impose.[102] Following the First Party Congress in November 2009, one hundred UPyD critics (among whom were four founders) left the party. They felt "tired and disappointed" with the "authoritarian" Rosa Díez and "lack of internal democracy".[103] By early 2010 the party had lost 40% of its membership in Catalonia,[104] considering the political party to be a fraud.[105]

Election results

General elections

Election Congress of Deputies Senate Government Leader
Votes  % Seats won Seats won
2008 306,079 1.2
1 / 350
0 / 208
Opposition Rosa Díez
2011 1,143,225 4.7
5 / 350
0 / 208
Opposition Rosa Díez

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election Votes  % Seats won Candidate
2009 451,866 2.9
1 / 54
Francisco Sosa Wagner
2014 1,022,232 6.5
4 / 54
Francisco Sosa Wagner

Local councils

Local councils
Election Votes  % Seats won Leader
2011 464,824 2.1
152 / 68,286
Rosa Díez
2015 232,917 1.0
129 / 67,611
Rosa Díez

See also

Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (C's)

Notes and references


  1. ^ The official name in Spanish doesn't include a comma between "Unión" and "Progreso".


  1. ^ (Spanish)El portavoz de UPyD buscará un lugar para Díez al final de la legislatura, El Pais, 12 July 2015
  2. ^ (Spanish)UPyD saca pecho en plena guerra con C's y presume de tener 2.000 simpatizantes más - El Confidencial
  3. ^ Buck, Tobias (25 February 2014), "Spain's Popular party challenged by newcomers", Financial Times, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  4. ^ Could a pair of minority groups spell the end of Spain's two-party system? - El País
  5. ^ Painter 2013, p. 208: «The leftist ‘United Left’ and the moderate social liberal party Union, Progress and Democracy, saw their support increase by 3 per cent and 3.5 per cent, respectively»
  6. ^ a b Wolfram Nordsieck. "SPAIN". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Unión, Progreso y Democracia (UPD): Social liberalism 
  7. ^ a b c UPyD. Ideology: centralism, social liberalism. Political Position: Centre - European Social Survey
  8. ^ a b Dorange 2013, p. 100: «Partido españolista republicano, nacional y laico»
  9. ^ "Savater: "La educación es la única vía posible para salir de la crisis actual"". Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Fernández-Albertos, José (May 19, 2014). "EU election: idea of Europe remains powerful in Spain". The Conversation. Retrieved February 20, 2015. and the liberal-reformist and centralist Union Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 
  11. ^ a b «and a centralist and centrist party had emerged: UPyD» - Spanish Journal of Sociological Research
  12. ^ Pelayo, Andrea (29 November 2010). "UPyD no se rinde a pesar de no lograr el escaño". El Mundo. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  13. ^ It’s two years ago today when Mariano Rajoy led the Partido Popular to an overall majority - Typically Spanish
  14. ^ (Spanish) «La abigarrada diversidad de nuestro ALDE nos revela no sólo la convivencia de nacionalistas de distinto signo, sino también de formaciones de ascendencia radical, como UPyD» - Simón Alegre (political scientist)
  15. ^ Vidal & Jiménez Losantos 2012: «cualquier acuerdo con UPyD, la única fuerza reformista española»
  16. ^ (Spanish) UPyD y Ciudadanos no pueden resignarse a ser irrelevantes - El Mundo's editorial
  17. ^ The party is the most pro-European in Spain, and supports a federal Europe, which it sees as an important guarantor of individual rights - Demsoc Europe
  18. ^ a b "How much is enough?". The Economist. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2011. «Mr Savater and Rosa Díez, a former Basque Socialist leader, have set up a new party of the radical centre called Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), in an effort to combine social liberalism with a defence of the idea of Spain» 
  19. ^ a b Azagra Ros & Romero González 2012, p. 120: «más el radical-centrismo de UPyD»
  20. ^ Montero & Lago 2010, p. 361: «Los resultados de este capítulo han mostrado que la movilización del nacionalismo español fue un mecanismo efectivo de competición con el PSOE, dado que consiguió movilizar el voto de nuevos votantes y antiguos abstencionistas. La estrategia caló de tal forma que UPyD, un nuevo partido creado pocos meses antes de la convocatoria electoral, consiguió entrar en el Congreso de los Diputados abanderando posiciones claras sobre la política antiterrorista y enfatizando la identidad nacional española»
  21. ^ a b Cabestan & Pavković 2013, p. 116: «It condemns ETA violence and maintains a strong pro-Spanish nationalist orientation»
  22. ^ "UPyD is a (Spanish) nationalist party with a very critical stand with the way the process of devolution to the regions has evolved in Spain"- European Consortium for Political Research
  23. ^ Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio (October 23, 2007). "UPD, partido nuevo, viejos tópicos". El País. Retrieved October 23, 2014. Esta tesis sobre "el derecho a permanecer unidos e iguales" es el pretexto para combatir el nacionalismo vasco y catalán no con argumentos, sino con una buena dosis de nacionalismo español. De ahí el silencio elocuente de los ideólogos de este partido sobre el renacido nacionalismo español de la derecha 
  24. ^ Mallet, Victor (16 April 2011). "Centrist politician woos disenchanted Spaniards". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  25. ^ Cantalou, Julie (17 June 2013), The Spanish slump – political crisis and the need for institutional reform, Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  26. ^ Diez Challenging Spanish Politics, Voice of America, 27 May 2013, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  27. ^ Resultados provisionales- Eleccions Municiaples 2015, Ministry of the Interior, retrieved 25 May 2015
  28. ^ "Rosa Díez se reune hoy con el presidente del Partido de Liberales y Demócratas por Europa, Graham Watson". Unión Progreso y Democracia. 
  29. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica 2014, p. 488: «and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPD, 7.7%) on the centre-right»
  30. ^ Ugarriza & Caluwaerts 2014, p. 68.
  31. ^ Bel i Queralt 2012, p. XVII.
  32. ^ Field & Botti 2013, p. 10.
  33. ^ Ross, Richardson & Sangrador-Vegas 2013, p. 77.
  34. ^ Ştefuriuc 2013, p. XII.
  35. ^ "Resultados provisionales". 
  36. ^ Registro Oficial de Partidos Políticos, Ministerio del Interior de España
  37. ^ "Elecciones al Parlamento Europeo 2009 - Recuento definitivo - UNIÓN PROGRESO Y DEMOCRACIA". 
  38. ^ Henderson, Karen; Sitter, Nick (2008), "Political Developments in the EU Member States", The JCMS Annual Review of the European Union in 2007 (Wiley): 196 
  39. ^ "browser – TPL_WARP_OUTDATEDBROWSER_PAGE_TITLE". Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  40. ^ "12 propuestas de UPyD | Europa federal". Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Union, Progress and Democracy (18 December 2007). "La economía hace aguas por todos los lados, se ha aumentado la presión fiscal en un 2 % del PIB" (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 January 2015. Mikel Buesa explicó el significado de la denominación del partido, “Unión porque somos un partido contra la disgregación política de la última legislatura y abogamos por la unión de España sin condiciones, Progreso porque somos un partido progresista de raíz liberal y socialdemócrata y, por otra parte, respetamos la libertad individual y de elección y Democracia porque es el sistema que alberga todas las identidades, podemos ser lo que queramos y lo podemos expresar libremente” 
  42. ^ Mezcua, Unai (18 May 2015). "UPyD: «El magenta es necesario para crear otros colores, como lo es UPyD para la regeneración de la democracia»" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 19 May 2015. En las directrices que Díez envió a la agencia figuraba una fundamental, según explica Labarthe: «que en el logotipo estuvieran representados los conceptos e ideas que defendemos como Unión, Progreso y Democracia». En 2007, cuando Díez presentó UPyD arropada por Mikel Buesa, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán y Fernando Savater, desde el partido se justificó la elección del nombre porque defendería incondicionalmente la unidad de España, respetaría las libertades individuales y apostaría por una democracia «radical» 
  43. ^ "Entrevista a Irene Lozano en La Noche en 24 horas (from 16 minute)" (in Spanish). RTVE. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Unión, o sea, que estamos a favor de que España esté unida; Progreso, o sea, que somos un partido progresista; y Democracia, o sea, que somos radicales en el sentido de que creemos que la democracia tiene mucho que profundizarse y que queda mucho por hacer en las instituciones que, en fin, yo creo que casi todo el mundo percibe como de muy baja calidad democrática 
  44. ^ (Spanish) "Unión: defendemos la unidad de España. Progreso: somos progresistas y Democracia: somos demócratas radicales"UPyD's Official Twitter
  45. ^ 2008 Cortes Generales Election Results. Ministerio del Interior. 10 March 2008. Last Retrieved 10 April 2008. (Spanish)
  46. ^ "UPyD alcanzó su cuota máxima de afiliación en 2011 con más de 6.600 miembros (spanish)". Europa Press. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  47. ^ Presentación (Spanish), Fundación Progreso y Democracia website, Retrieved 6 April 2014
  48. ^ Gobierno de España (20 November 2011). "Resultados de UPyD en las Elecciones Generales de 2011". Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  49. ^ "El llamativo ascenso de UPyD, región a región". La Voz Libre. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  50. ^ Muñoz Mendoza 2012, p. 65: «UPyD, que evita ubicarse con claridad en el eje izquierda-derecha, recoge algunos sectores descontentos del PSOE pero también ciertos sectores más o menos vinculados con la derecha»
  51. ^ "UPyD acusa a Rivera de promover el transfuguismo" (in Spanish). La Voz de Galicia. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. Díez, pese a mantener su apuesta por «un proyecto político libre, autónomo, de centro, decente y progresista», ya no quiere aclarar si volverá a postularse como líder en el congreso extraordinario de junio y si aspirará a ser la candidata a la Moncloa 
  52. ^ (Spanish) "UPyD ofrece entendimiento a través del transversalismo, que bien pueden servir sin necesidad de inclinarse a un lado o a otro, ya que todos tienen algo positivo que aportar y la formación magenta sabe bien sintetizar lo mejor de cada idea, ofreciendo un dulce cóctel al ciudadano" - UPyD
  53. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez abre las puertas del nuevo partido a la "derecha liberal" - Libertad Digital
  54. ^ (Spanish) UPyD apoya la monarquía en la medida que "cumpla su función" - Agencia Efe
  55. ^ Fernández-Savater Martín, Fernando (October 1, 2013). "Laicismo y lengua común". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved October 31, 2014. 
  56. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez presenta a UPyD como el partido del voto útil - La Voz de Galicia
  57. ^ (Spanish) «y avanzar hacia una auténtica democracia liberal igualitaria» - Political resolutions of UPyD's second congress
  59. ^ Martínez Gorriarán, Carlos (27 November 2008). "Constitucionalistas" (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 August 2015. A mediados de los ochenta se hacía urgente encontrar un término alternativo al de “no nacionalistas” que usábamos para distinguirnos del nacionalismo obligatorio. Tenía que ser un nombre positivamente asociado a un concepto político, no algo meramente reactivo y descriptivo. Mario Onaindia lo había intentando unos años antes con el concepto de “posnacionalismo”, que Ramón Jáuregui adoptó briosamente 
  60. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez asegura que hay suficientes ciudadanos descontentos como para conseguir hasta dos diputados nacionales por Burgos - Radio Arlanzón
  61. ^ (Spanish) "Somos un partido radical y profundamente institucional, hay que transformar la política a fondo y de fondo desde las instituciones" - UPyD
  62. ^ "El día menos pensado - Rosa Díez: "Si fuera Rajoy hace tiempo que estaría negociando condiciones del rescate"" (in Spanish). RTVE. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Dentro de Unión, Progreso y Democracia coexisten y conviven bien esas dos grandes familias del pensamiento político europeo: el liberalismo político y la socialdemocracia. Si hubiera que buscarle un adjetivo, pero es que no me gustan los adjetivos, pues diría que somos un partido, por las políticas que defendemos y no porque nos definamos así, pues que podríamos decir social liberal. 
  63. ^ (Spanish) 3 perspectivas para analizar los resultados de las elecciones - Navarra Confidencial
  64. ^ (Spanish) «El federalismo de UPyD es simétrico porque todos los españoles somos iguales» - UPyD
  65. ^ (Spanish) "Las competencias de educación, sanidad y justicia deben volver a ser del Estado" - UPyD
  66. ^ (Spanish) Díez: "Tenemos un modelo de Estado elefantiásico, inviable e insostenible" - Libertad Digital
  67. ^ Magone 2009, p. 186.
  68. ^ (Spanish) UPyD denuncia el aumento de desigualdad en riqueza por habitante entre CCAA, con Extremadura y Euskadi en los extremos - Europa Press
  69. ^ “Suprimir la disposición adicional primera que consagra los derechos históricos de los territorios forales, por ser contrarios al valor superior de la igualdad que rige la Constitución y por consolidar una situación inaceptable de privilegio de unos españoles sobre otros, además de por pretender la existencia de derechos históricos anteriores a la Constitución, lo que es insostenible”Political resolutions of UPyD's first congress
  70. ^ Díez insiste en eliminar las comarcas y unir municipios - El Periódico de Aragón
  71. ^ Fusión de ayuntamientos y eliminación de Diputaciones - UPyD
  72. ^ ""Gobernar es elegir, y Rajoy ha elegido amnistiar a los defraudadores en vez de perseguir el fraude"". El Correo (in Spanish). 13 August 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. La portavoz de UPyD, que según la última encuesta del CIS es la política más valorada por los españoles, cree que la solución pasa por abordar reformas estructurales en el sistema institucional del Estado, entre ellas, la eliminación del Senado 
  73. ^ (Spanish) Discurso de Rosa Díez en la sesión de investidura de José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero - Libertad Digital
  74. ^ (Spanish) UPyD propone y defiende la autofinanciación de la Iglesia Católica y del resto de confesiones religiosas - UPyD of the Basque Country
  75. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez y UPyD respetan "todas las religiones excepto las que lapidan mujeres" - Libertad Digital
  76. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez desmonta la campaña de "sectarios" y "acomplejados" contra UPyD - Libertad Digital
  77. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez (UPyD), favorable a prohibir el velo islámico en espacios públicos - El Confidencial
  78. ^ (Spanish) UPyD critica la sentencia que avala el uso del burka en edificios municipales - Las Provincias
  79. ^ Montero & Riera 2010, p. 176.
  80. ^ (Spanish) Ignacio Prendes: "Proponemos la reforma electoral para que más ciudadanos se sientan representados en nuestro sistema político" - UPyD
  81. ^ (Spanish) Gorriarán: "Privar a un niño de una educación en lengua materna es un atentado contra sus derechos" - UPyD
  82. ^ (Spanish) UPyD planteará en el Congreso erradicar por ley la imposición lingüística - Libertad Digital
  83. ^ (Spanish) En defensa de la igualdad lingüística - UPyD
  84. ^ (Spanish) "Una reforma de la Ley Electoral no puede ser un parche para responder a un problema puntual" - UPyD
  85. ^ (Spanish) UPyD exige que los dirigentes políticos asuman su responsabilidad política en el caso de corrupción policial - Europa Press
  86. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez: "En UPyD establecemos limitación de mandatos para nosotros mismos. Y defendemos que para los cargos institucionales ejecutivos esa limitación de mandatos se incorpore en la ley" - Andalucía Información
  87. ^ (Spanish) UPyD apuesta por la celeridad en sus propuestas de medidas anticorrupción - Te interesa
  88. ^ (Spanish) UPyD pide una regulación más estricta para evitar "puertas giratorias" como la que permite a Aznar negociar comisiones - Europa Press
  89. ^ (Spanish) UPyD pide reforzar la Ley de Partidos para que los que apoyan al terrorismo "no destruyan la democracia desde dentro" - UPyD
  90. ^ (Spanish) Maneiro: "Cuando EH Bildu se refiere a los presos de ETA como "presos políticos" está justificando a ETA" - UPyD of the Basque Country
  91. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez dice que Fernández Díaz se "escondió" detrás de la Guardia Civil - Libertad Digital
  92. ^ a b c (Spanish) Inmigración. UPyD reclama un protocolo europeo para contener la inmigración ilegal - Lainformació
  93. ^ (Spanish) UPyD critica que el Gobierno recoloque las cuchillas en la valla de Melilla, "crueldad gratuita que atenta contra DDHH" - Europa Press
  94. ^ (Spanish) UPyD exigirá a la UE que Ceuta y Melilla se incluyan en el espacio aduanero europeo - UPyD
  95. ^ (Spanish) Rosa Díez pide una «Garoña II» y el mantenimiento de la actual planta - Diario de Burgos
  96. ^ (Spanish) Gorriarán: "No se puede prohibir el 'fracking' si queremos una política energética racional" - UPyD
  97. ^ (Spanish) Carlos M. Gorriarán UPyD: "Aborto: no se puede imponer por ley una moral particular" -
  98. ^ (Spanish) Ni de izquierdas, ni de derechas - El País
  99. ^ (Spanish) Enmienda a la totalidad de UPyD al Proyecto de Ley Orgánica de salud sexual y reproductiva y de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. ABORTO - UPyD
  100. ^ (Spanish) Toni Cantó pide un "debate serio y en profundidad" sobre la reforma - Europa Press
  101. ^ "UPyD anuncia su integración en ALDE, que respetará la integridad territorial - Sabado". 7 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  102. ^ "Mikel Buesa, fundador de UPyD, deja el partido por su 'autoritarismo'". El Mundo. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  103. ^ "Un centenar de críticos de UPyD abandonan el partidoSe confiensan "cansados y decepcionados" con el "autoritarismo" de Rosa Díez y por la "falta de democracia interna"". Público. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  104. ^ "Problemas para Rosa Díez – Un reguero de bajas deja tocada a UPyD en Cataluña en año electoral". El Semanal Digital. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  105. ^ "Un grupo de militantes catalanes de UPyD abandona el partidoCritican a Rosa Díez por "asfixiarles" y consideran que ha sido un "enorme fraude político"". Público. 21 January 2010. 


External links