Podemos (Spanish political party)
This article needs to be updated.(October 2021)
|General Secretary||Ione Belarra|
|Spokesperson in Congress||Pablo Echenique|
|Spokesperson in Senate||Esperanza Gómez Corona|
|Founders||Pablo Iglesias Turrión|
Juan Carlos Monedero
|Founded||16 January 2014|
|Headquarters||Calle Zurita 21, 28012 Madrid, Spain|
|Think tank||Instituto 25M|
|Youth wing||Rebeldía Joven|
|National affiliation||Unidas Podemos|
|European affiliation||Now the People|
|European Parliament group||The Left in the European Parliament – GUE/NGL|
|Slogan||Sí se puede ("Yes, We Can")|
|Congress of Deputies|
24 / 350
0 / 265
3 / 59
72 / 1,248
6 / 19
Podemos (Spanish: [poˈðemos], translated in English as "We Can")[a] is a left-wing populist political party in Spain. Part of the anti-austerity movement in Spain, it was founded in January 2014 by political scientist Pablo Iglesias Turrión and other academics in the aftermath of the 15-M Movement protests against inequality and corruption. It is on the left wing of the political spectrum.
Podemos is a democratic socialist party which holds anti-austerity, anti-corruption, and anti-establishment views. It takes a soft Eurosceptic stance, and promotes direct democracy, federalism, patriotism, republicanism, and an alternative social democracy to that of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) through a populist rhetoric.
In the 2014 European Parliament election in Spain, Podemos won 8.0% of the vote and five seats. The newly founded party's big impact received significant media attention, having defied the odds and polls, while major parties lost out. By October 2014, Podemos was the second largest political party in Spain by number of members after the People's Party.
On 9 May 2016, Podemos formed the Unidos Podemos electoral alliance with the United Left, Equo, and regionalist left-wing parties. In May 2018, the party joined Maintenant le Peuple. After the fall of government talks with the PSOE after the April 2019 Spanish general election, the November 2019 Spanish general election, in which the party and its allies won 12.8% of the vote and 35 seats in the Congress of Deputies, resulted in the Sánchez II Government through a coalition government between Podemos and the PSOE, the first multi-party cabinet in the Spanish democratic era.
This section needs to be updated.(October 2021)
Background and foundation
Podemos emerged from the Indignados movement against inequality and corruption in 2011. The group was inspired by the populist leaders of Latin America's Pink tide, which included Venezuela's Hugo Chávez and Bolivia's Evo Morales.
In January 2014, it released the manifesto Mover ficha: convertir la indignación en cambio político ("Move A Piece: Turn Indignation Into Political Change"), which was signed by thirty intellectuals and personalities, including Juan Carlos Monedero, Alberto San Juan, associate professor of political science at the National University of Distance Education (UNED) Jaime Pastor, the writer and philosopher Santiago Alba Rico, the former leader of the Left Trade Union Current Cándido González Carnero and Bibiana Medialdea, associate professor of applied economy at the UCM.
Podemos' manifesto stated that it was necessary to create a party list for the 2014 European Parliament election, with the goal of opposing the dominant policies of the European Union from the left. On 14 January, Pablo Iglesias Turrión, a professor of political science at the UCM and a TV presenter, was announced as head the movement. The movement was organised by the party Anti-Capitalist Left (Izquierda Anticapitalista), the Spanish section of the Trotskyist Fourth International, which had written the Mover ficha manifesto. One of the points highlighted by Iglesias was the derogation of the 135th article of the Constitution, which was made in 2011 by the major parties People's Party (PP) and Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE); full application of the 128th article of the constitution ("All wealth of the country in all its forms and no matter who owns it, is subordinated to the people's interest"); and maintaining abortion rights. They also demanded Spain exit from NATO and support self-determination rights.
The Podemos movement was officially launched on 16 January 2014 in the Teatro del Barrio in the Lavapiés neighbourhood of Madrid, with a press conference attended by hundreds of people. The speakers at the launch included Pablo Iglesias, Juan Carlos Monedero, Teresa Rodríguez, psychiatrist and member of the Marea Blanca Ana Castaño, Íñigo Errejón and Miguel Urbán. The party's fundamental goal was to oppose the austerity policies of the government.
In order to run in the European elections of 2014, the members of the bare bones of Podemos set themselves three conditions: to receive the support of at least 50,000 people; that both the programme and the lists of candidates be prepared through open participation; and that unity be sought with other parties and movements of the left, such as United Left, the Popular Unity Candidacy, the X Party, the Andalusian Workers Union, Anova and the citizens' mareas ("tides"). The 50,000 signatures were obtained in less than 24 hours and the Podemos website crashed due to the high traffic.
In August 2015, Podemos endorsed Jeremy Corbyn's campaign in the Labour Party leadership election. The party's international secretariat released a statement that "In Podemos we share Jeremy Corbyn's view that another Europe is not just possible but necessary". It added: "Against the irresponsibility of the troika and the Eurogroup, against the Europe of financial lobbies and puppet representatives, a new democratic and social Europe is emerging, and Jeremy Corbyn's victory would be a great step in that direction".
2014 European Parliament election
In the 2014 European Parliament election in Spain on 25 May, Podemos received 7.98% of the national vote, with 1,200,000 votes cast, electing five Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). Iglesias chose Dina Bousselham to lead his cabinet of advisors as an MEP.
El País described Pablo Iglesias Turrión as pessimistic about the outcome of the election: "We have lost these European elections. They have been won by the People's Party. We cannot be happy about this". He stated that his objective is to "move forward until we throw the PP and the PSOE out of power" and that "[w]e will now work with other parties from the south of Europe to make it clear that we don't want to be a German colony". Iglesias said Podemos MEPs would not take the standard MEP salary of more than €8,000 a month, stating that "not one of our MEPs will earn more than €1,930, an amount that's three times the minimum wage in Spain".
First party congress
On 5 June 2014, Pablo Iglesias Turrión announced that the Asamblea Ciudadana "Sí se puede" (Citizens' Assembly "Yes, It Can Be Done") would take place in the autumn. Iglesias also announced that a team of twenty-five people would be responsible for preparing the assembly, to be chosen in open elections in which anybody could participate, with closed lists, with no limit to the number of lists which could be presented. The vote took place over the Internet on 12 and 13 June. Two lists were presented, one headed by Iglesias and the other promoted by the Círculo de Enfermería ("Nurses' circle"). The technical details of the election and the deadlines generated discussion within Podemos. In a meeting of Podemos circles which took place on 8 June in Madrid, there was criticism for both the closed lists and the short deadlines, which allegedly led to fewer lists being presented. The electoral process in which 55,000 people participated gave the victory to Iglesias' list, with 86.8% of the vote.
A major part of the citizens' assembly involved the writing of documents defining the political and organisational principles of the party as well as resolutions the party would adopt. Any member of Podemos could present a document and these would be adopted or rejected in a vote with all members of Podemos participating. These documents would determine the structure of the party. Internal elections would then take place, again with the participation of all members of Podemos, to fill the positions defined by this structure.
The citizens' assembly adopted five resolutions, all of which were submitted by circles, based on the votes of Podemos members, each of whom could vote for five resolutions. The approved resolutions were on improving public education (45%), on anti-corruption measures (42%), on the right to housing (38%), on improving public healthcare (31%) and on auditing and re-structuring the debt (23%).
The ethical, political and structure documents proposed by the "Claro que Podemos", which included Luis Alegre, Carolina Bescansa, Íñigo Errejón, Pablo Iglesias and Juan Carlos Monedero were approved by 80.7% of the vote, surpassing "Sumando Podemos" 12.3% of the vote, promoted by the MEPs Pablo Echenique, Teresa Rodríguez and Lola Sánchez in the vote for the structure document.
2015 local elections
In October 2014, Podemos decided not to stand candidates in the 2015 Spanish local elections. Instead, it decided that its members would support local grassroots candidacies, most notably Barcelona en Comú, the citizen platform led by anti-evictions activist Ada Colau in Barcelona and Ahora Madrid (led by ex judge Manuela Carmena) in Madrid.
2015 general election
In the lead up to the 2015 general election, Podemos adopted a pledge that, if the party won the election, it would hold a nationwide referendum on whether Spain should retain the Spanish monarchy or become a republic. The party also promised to increase public spending and ban job cuts in profitable firms.
Following the failure of the 2015–2016 Spanish government formation negotiations to create a stable coalition government, on 2 May 2016 a second general election was called for June 2016. To contest the election, Podemos formed an electoral alliance with United Left, Equo and regional left-wing parties, the official name being announced on 13 May 2016 as Unidos Podemos ("United We Can"). The coalition received 21.2% of the vote.
Ideology and policies
This section needs to be updated.(October 2021)
Podemos has been described as a left-wing populist and democratic socialist party. The party supports anti-austerity views and abortion, and is openly republican and feminist. It opposes economic inequality.
Podemos has called for a renegotiation of austerity measures and seeks to curtail the Treaty of Lisbon. Former party Pablo Iglesias Turrión supports the right to self-determination of autonomous communities like Catalonia and the Basque Country. The party has called for the release of jailed Catalan leaders on trial in Spain’s Supreme Court.
Podemos presented a collaboratively written programme for the 2014 European Parliament election in Spain. Some of the most important policies were emphasis on public control, poverty reduction, and social dignity via a basic income for everyone, including lobbying controls and punitive measures against tax avoidance by large corporations and multinational organizations, as well as promotion of smaller enterprises. It also included revoking or curtailing the Treaty of Lisbon, abandoning the memorandum of understanding, withdrawing from some free trade area agreements, and promoting referendum on any major constitutional reform. On enviromentalism, it advocated reduction of fossil fuel consumption, promotion of public transport and renewable energy initiatives, reduction of industrial cash crop agriculture, and stimulating local food production by small and medium enterprises.
The support obtained by the new formation after the European elections in 2014 resulted in multiple analyses and reactions. While some sectors welcomed the results, there were also expressions of concern. Pedro Sanchez, Secretary General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) since July 2014, branded Podemos populist on numerous occasions at the beginning of his term while much of its electorate opted for the new party. The New York Times stated that a challenge for Podemos would be putting together a true agenda noting that "the party’s 36-page campaign program reads like a wish list, with little detail about how it could be financed at a time when Spain is still struggling under a heavy debt burden". Vicente Palacio of Fundación Alternativas said that Podemos could have "very beneficial effects in terms of regenerating the Spanish democratic system", but is in danger of going "toward populism and demagogy, as has happened in the case of Beppe Grillo and his Five Star Movement in Italy". As of November 2014, the PSOE has instead chosen to distance itself from populism and the extreme left to preserve the center left.
The leader of Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) Rosa Díez said that similarities could be found with the Greek left-wing coalition Syriza, with the Five Star Movement of Beppe Grillo and even with the French right-wing National Front of Marine Le Pen. The spokesman for the People's Party María Dolores de Cospedal said that poll results show a radicalisation of the left vote. Esperanza Aguirre, another prominent member of the People's Party, accused Pablo Iglesias of "being with the Castrismo, with Chavismo and ETA", which Iglesias responded to statements described as "slander" and announced he would consider legal action.
The leaders of Podemos also tried to distance themselves from the government of Venezuela following allegations of "murky" funding since many Podemos leaders were linked to Venezuela and other "revolutionary" movements in Latin America. Consulting work in leftist Latin American governments involving several members, including Iglesias, earned their consulting organisation, Center for Political and Social Studies Foundation (CEPS Foundation), €3.5 million, which helped fund their own television debate shows. Juan Carlos Monedero, one of Podemos' founding members, received €425,000 for political consultancy work for Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Nicaragua. Podemos called for an external auditor to observe accounts from February 2014 to December 2014 which showed that the total income from both private donations and state subsidies was at about €947,000; among the largest donors to the party were Podemos' own five MEPs, who donated €52,000 in 2014 from their salaries.
Since March 2015, journalists have been critical of the relationship between the political party and the traditional media. In this sense, the Madrid Press Association (APM) issued a statement in March 2017 to give shelter to a collective of professionals who claimed it. The party's formation and campaigning were the subject of the documentary Politics, Instructions Manual.
This section needs to be updated.(October 2021)
According to GlobalPost, Podemos and other parties of the left have suddenly grown because of Europe's economic difficulties. Unemployment, especially among young Spanish adults, has created a positive sentiment towards Podemos and their appeal to the unsatisfied youth of Spain with an "irreverent style". Podemos also used its very well run social media presence to its benefit to find popularity.
After it received the fourth highest number of votes in the European elections, news related to the growth of Podemos started to be published. The hashtag Pablo Iglesias was the number 1 trending topic on Twitter in Spain the day after the elections and Iglesias appeared on the front page of prominent Spanish newspapers. Before the elections, Podemos was already the most popular political force within social networks, but it had increased from 100,000 to 600,000 "Likes" on Facebook between May and July 2014. The CIS' quarterly survey, polling over July 2014 (two months after the elections) showed Podemos as the second most popular party regarding direct intention of vote, surpassing the PSOE, but being a 0.9% behind the PP. In late July, Podemos started to allow individuals to sign up, with 32,000 people registering as members in the first 48 hours through Podemos' website for free. In the first 20 days, Podemos already had about 100,000 members, becoming the third largest Spanish party by membership, surpassing United Left (IU), Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), Convergence and Union (CiU) and Basque Nationalist Party (PNV/EAJ). In August 2014, Podemos already had 442,000 more "Likes" on Facebook than the "Likes" of the rest of the parties combined, having 708,763, with more than 2.6 million views on its YouTube channel. In September 2014, the interview of Iglesias in Viajando con Chester had almost 3 million watchers, being the most watched programme in its timeslot with 14.5% of the audience share. In October 2014, Iglesias' participation in La Sexta Noche (in which he was also interviewed) rose the audience share of the programme to 16,2%, which is its historical maximum. Iglesias' interview in Salvados also made the programme have its best ever audience, with a 23.8% and 5 million watchers. In late October, Podemos had more than 200,000 members. On 2 November 2014, El Pais published an opinion poll which gave Podemos 27.7% approval rating, compared to PSOE's 26.2% and PP's 20.7%; and gave Podemos a direct intention of vote of 22.2%, compared to PSOE's 13.1% and PP's 10.4%. The party lost much support in the polls during the final months of 2015 when elections were approaching (sinking to 13%) whereas during the election campaign experienced a huge rise in support in the polls up to 20% of vote days before the election.
|Election||Congress||Senate||Leading candidate||Status in legislature|
49 / 350
12 / 208
|12||Pablo Iglesias Turrión||Snap election|
|2016||Within Unidos Podemos||
47 / 350
11 / 208
|1||Pablo Iglesias Turrión||Opposition|
|Confidence and supply (from June 2018)|
|Within Unidas Podemos||
32 / 350
0 / 208
|11||Pablo Iglesias Turrión||Snap election|
|Within Unidas Podemos||
26 / 350
0 / 208
|0||Pablo Iglesias Turrión||Coalition (PSOE–UP)|
5 / 54
3 / 54
- Totals for Podemos in 2019 do not include elected seats from United Left (2) and Catalunya en Comú (1).
|Region||Election||Votes||%||No.||Seats||Status in legislature|
14 / 109
5 / 67
4 / 45
|Balearic Islands||2019||Within UP||
5 / 59
|Basque Country||2020||Within EP||
3 / 75
4 / 70
0 / 35
|Castile and León||2019||68,869||5.00%||5th||
2 / 81
|Castilla–La Mancha||2019||Within UP||
0 / 33
2 / 135
2 / 65
0 / 75
|La Rioja||2019||Within UP||
1 / 33
10 / 136
2 / 45
2 / 50
|Valencian Community||2019||Within UP||
5 / 99
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: This was before they started charging a membership fee to be a member in 2020. Current numbers are significantly lower.(June 2021)
As of 2019, there are 523,000 members and 25,000 activists.
|28 July 2014||0|
|17 August 2014||100,000|
|27 October 2014||200,000|
|29 December 2014||300,000|
|16 April 2016||400,000|
|23 May 2018||500,000|
- Balearic Islands
- Basque Country
- Valencian Community
- Iván Gil: "Instituto 25 de Mayo para la Democracia: Podemos ya tiene su 'think tank' oficial". El Confidencial. 17 April 2015.
- Press, Europa (16 October 2020). "Casi 19.000 personas se inscriben en el nuevo censo de militantes de Podemos, que abonarán una cuota de 3 euros". ElDiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 June 2021.
- "Pablo Iglesias: How the leader of the leftist Podemos party upset Spain's elites to reach the brink of power". The Independent. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- España, Senado de. "Cuadro resumen de Grupos Parlamentarios (Composición actual)". www.senado.es.
- Cristóval Rovira Kaltwasser (2014). Carlos de la Torre (ed.). Explaining the Emergence of Populism in Europe and the Americas. The Promise and Perils of Populism: Global Perspectives. University Press of Kentucky. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8131-4687-4.
- Cas Mudde (2016). On Extremism and Democracy in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-317-22221-7.
- Christopher Ross; Bill Richardson; Begoña Sangrador-Vegas (2016). Contemporary Spain. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-317-75164-9.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Spain's ruling PP wins EU vote, political fragmentation rises". Reuters. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Eclectic mix makes up new European Parliament". Washington Examiner. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- Norman Schofield; Gonzalo Caballero (2015). The Political Economy of Governance: Institutions, Political Performance and Elections. Springer International Publishing. p. 131. ISBN 978-3-319-15551-7.
- Ross, Christopher; Richardson, Bill; Sangrador-Vegas, Begoña (14 April 2016). Contemporary Spain. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-75164-9.
- "Spanish Socialists See Door Closed on Coalition With Podemos". Bloomberg. 27 July 2019.
Because the attempt to forge an alliance with anti-austerity party Podemos has failed, acting Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez will have to explore 'other possibilities,' the Socialist Party President Cristina Narbona told reporters in Madrid Saturday.
- Michelle Cini; Nieves Perez-Solorzano Borragan (2016). European Union Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-19-870893-3.
- Catherine E. De Vries (2018). Euroscepticism and the Future of European Integration. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-879338-0.
- Donatella della Porta; Joseba Fernández; Hara Kouki; Lorenzo Mosca (2017). Movement Parties Against Austerity. Wiley. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-5095-1147-1.
- Donatella della Porta; Hara Kouki; Joseba Fernandez (2017). "Left's Love and Hate for Europe: Syriza, Podemos and Critical Visions of Europe During the Crisis". In Manuela Caiani; Simona Guerra (eds.). Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media: Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-137-59643-7.
- Villarejo, Carlos Jiménez; Jané, Francesc Trillas (11 August 2015). "Tribuna | El federalismo de Podemos". El País – via elpais.com.
- Manetto, Francesco (24 June 2015). "¿Qué es ser patriota para Podemos?". El País – via elpais.com.
- Política, elDiario es (14 April 2017). "Pablo Iglesias: "No somos republicanos para cambiar una bandera, sino porque somos demócratas y patriotas"". ElDiario.es.
- "Podemos esgrimirá un "símbolo republicano" ante el Rey en los actos de la Constitución". El Plural. 5 December 2018.
- Santaeulalia, Inés (19 September 2020). "Iglesias: "Podemos tiene que trabajar y construir alianzas para avanzar hacia un horizonte republicano"". EL PAÍS.
- Francesco Manetto (30 November 2014). "Podemos: el rápido viaje ideológico hasta la socialdemocracia". El País.
- "Pablo Iglesias: "No nos hemos moderado. Estamos cómodos en la socialdemocracia"". Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Antón Baamonde (9 November 2014). "La alternativa socialdemócrata es Podemos". eldiario.es.
- John Abromeit; Bridget Maria Chesterton; Gary Marotta; York Norman (2015). "Introduction". In John Abromeit; York Norman; Gary Marotta; Bridget Maria Chesterton (eds.). Transformations of Populism in Europe and the Americas: History and Recent Tendencies. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4742-2522-9.
- Federico Finchelstein (2017). From Fascism to Populism in History. Univ of California Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-520-29519-3.
- Natalie Fenton (2016). "Politics in common in the digital age". In Ash Amin; Philip Howell (eds.). Releasing the Commons: Rethinking the futures of the commons. Taylor & Francis. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-317-37536-4.
- "European election 2014: Running results snapshot". The Sofia Globe. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Major victories for anti-EU and left wing blocs". CityAM. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "'We don't want to be a German colony'". BBC News. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- LoGiurato, Brett. "Spain's New Left-Wing Party Scored One Of The Most Stunning Victories In The European Elections". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Six Nations That Lurched Left, Not Right, At The EU Elections". HuffPost UK. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- Minder, Raphael (29 May 2014). "Spanish Upstart Party Said It Could, and Did. Now the Hard Part Begins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Spain's new leftwing party Podemos stuns pollsters". Financial Times. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Spain's major parties lose out in Euro elections". The Local Spain. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- García, Gustavo (28 October 2014). "Podemos ya tiene más 'militantes' que el PSOE". elboletin.com.
- "Spanish leftists Podemos boosted by new electoral alliance".
- ""Maintenant le Peuple": trois partis de gauche radicale lancent un mouvement commun". RTBF Info (in French). 13 April 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "A Marseille, les Insoumis, Podemos et leurs alliés veulent une..." Public Senat (in French). 11 May 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Spain's Podemos says no talks on government now, cannot support Sanchez". Reuters. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Factbox: Major measures agreed by Spain's new ruling coalition". Reuters. Madrid. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- "Spain adopts legislation to curb sexual assaults and gender violence". Euractiv. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- Keeley, Graham (16 March 2020). "Spain's King Felipe docks father's allowance over Saudi scandal". Al Jazeera. Madrid. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- "Pablo Iglesias Elected to Head Spain's Leftist Podemos Party". Agence France-Presse. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
... Podemos, a fast-growing Spanish far-left party set up in January ...
- Muller, Jan-Werner (2016). What Is Populism?. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9780812293784.
Both—especially Podemos—make a point of feeling inspired by what is commonly referred to as the “pink tide” in Latin America: the success of populist leaders such as Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, and, above all, Hugo Chávez.
- Sánchez, José Luis; Gil, Andrés (14 January 2014), "Pablo Iglesias prepara su candidatura a las europeas: "Me han pedido que dé el paso"", eldiario.es, retrieved 24 May 2014
- Redacción (14 January 2014), "Intelectuales y activistas llaman a "recuperar la soberanía popular" con una candidatura para las europeas", publico.es, retrieved 24 May 2014
- "Spanish state – Anticapitalist Left", International Viewpoint, 17 December 2014, retrieved 17 December 2014
- Gil, Andrés (21 January 2014), "Un boletín interno de Izquierda Anticapitalista preparó el terreno a Podemos", eldiario.es, retrieved 24 May 2014
- cuatro.es, ed. (14 January 2014). "Pablo Iglesias anuncia su intención de presentarse a la elecciones europeas". Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Alcalá, Cristina (17 February 2014), "Las diez claves de la candidatura de Pablo Iglesias", Estrella Digital, retrieved 24 May 2014
- Muriel, Fernando (28 January 2014), "Teresa Rodríguez: "Siempre animo a la gente de IU a luchar a este lado de la barricada"", La Marea, retrieved 24 May 2014
- Giménez San Miguel, Luis (17 January 2014), "Pablo Iglesias presenta Podemos como "un método participativo abierto a toda la ciudadanía"", publico.es, retrieved 24 May 2014
- Redacción (19 January 2014), "Pablo Iglesias consigue en un día los 50.000 apoyos que pedía para seguir adelante con Podemos", El Periódico, retrieved 24 May 2014
- Kassam, Ashifa (25 August 2015). "Podemos leader backs Jeremy Corbyn campaign for Labour leadership". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Manuel Castells (4 June 2015). Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-7456-9577-8.
- Prieto, Alberto D. (28 March 2019). "La "basura" de Podemos se esconde en Telegram: de los "azotes" de Iglesias a las "traiciones" de Errejón". El Español (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
- Gómez, Luis (26 May 2014). "The untamed ambition of Podemos, the surprise victor in Sunday's poll". El País in English. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Kassam, Ashifa (27 May 2014). "Podemos hopes to cement rise of citizen politics in Spain after election success". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Precedo, José (5 June 2014). "Podemos elige este mes un equipo para pilotar la asamblea fundacional de otoño". El País. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Europa Press (11 June 2014). "Podemos elige al equipo que organizará su asamblea de otoño entre al menos dos listas cerradas". Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "El círculo de enfermeras de Podemos presenta una lista alternativa". El País. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Precedo, José (9 June 2014). "Las bases de Podemos se enfrentan a sus fundadores para exigir democracia interna". El País. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Precedo, José (14 June 2014). "Pablo Iglesias obtiene el 86% de los votos para liderar Podemos". El País. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Pais Beiro, Mario (15 September 2014). "Podemos da el pistoletazo de salida a su maratón de decisiones". eldiario.es.
- García, Fernando (19 October 2014). ""No hemos venido para echarnos a un lado", replica una eurodiputada a Pablo Iglesias". La Vanguardia.
- "Malestar entre las bases críticas de Podemos por los "cambios en las reglas del juego"". El Confidencial. 22 October 2014.
- "Objetivos de Podemos: reestructuración de la deuda y paralización de los desahucios". Público. 19 October 2014.
- Riveiro, Aitor (27 October 2014). "Podemos confía en Pablo Iglesias: su modelo obtiene el 80,7% de los votos". Eldiario.es.
- Manetto, Francesco (27 October 2014). "Podemos confía todo el poder a la estrategia política de Pablo Iglesias". El País.
- Del Vecchio, Paola. "Podemos party revolutionizes Spanish politics". ansamed.info. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Phillips, Catherine (22 December 2014). "Podemos to Offer Referendum on Spanish Monarchy". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Kassam, Ashifa (21 December 2015). "Spanish election: national newcomers end era of two-party dominance". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Entscheidung in Spanien: Konservative sind Wahlsieger, verlieren aber Mehrheit. Spiegel Online, 20 Demcember 2015 (German)
- "Spain faces new elections in June after parties fail to form a government".
- "Spain's King Felipe calls new election amid political deadlock".
- "Izquierda Andalucista acuerda iniciar una negociación con Podemos e IULV-CA para unirse a su confluencia electoral". Eldiario.es (in Spanish). 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- "Podemos e IU presentan Adelante Andalucía como "alternativa al susanismo sin pasar por la derecha"". Eldiario.es (in Spanish). 29 June 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- "Podemos, IU, Primavera Andaluza e Izquierda Andalucista abogan por el "bloque de cambio" de Adelante Andalucía". 20minutos (in Spanish). 2 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- Villegas, A. (1 July 2018). "Rodríguez y Maíllo dan a conocer las claves del proceso de confluencia 'Adelante Andalucía'". Diario de Sevilla (in Spanish). Joly Digital. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- "Parties and Elections in Europe". 23 October 2018. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- Minder, Raphael (12 February 2017). "Head of Spain's Far-Left Party Survives Leadership Challenge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- "Podemos esgrimirá un "símbolo republicano" ante el Rey en los actos de la Constitución". El Plural (in Spanish). 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- "Wyborcza.pl". wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- (PDF). 27 May 2014 https://web.archive.org/web/20140527140956/http://podemos.info/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Programa-Podemos.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2014. Missing or empty
- "En Marea reclama el «derecho a decidir» para Galicia ante Pablo Iglesias". abc (in Spanish). 16 December 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- ACN, Newsdesk / (26 April 2019). "General Election focus: the Podemos party". Spain in English. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- "Documento final del programa colaborativo" [Final Document of the Collaborative Programme] (PDF). Podemos (in Spanish). May 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Pedro Sánchez: "El populismo ha encontrado su expresión institucional en Podemos"". Publico. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "¿De dónde vienen los votos de Podemos?". Europa Press. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Minder, Raphael (29 May 2014). "Spanish Upstart Party Said It Could, and Did. Now the Hard Part Begins". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Diez, Anabel (30 November 2014). "El PSOE tratará de situar a Podemos en la extrema izquierda". El Pais. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Manetto, Francesco (1 December 2014). "El PSOE y Podemos se disputan la hegemonía de la izquierda". El Pais. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Rosa Díez cree que las propuestas de Podemos se parecen a las de Syriza, Beppe Grillo e incluso Le Pen". Europa News. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Elecciones europeasCospedal ve "prematuro y alejado de la realidad" enterrar el bipartidismo". ABC.es. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Manetto, Francesco (4 July 2014). "Pablo Iglesias ve "infamia" en las palabras de Aguirre y contempla acciones legales". El Pais. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Badcock, James (2 March 2015). "Podemos struggles to rebuff Venezuela link". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Chicote, Javier (24 February 2015). "Las actas de la fundación chavista CEPS acreditan los lazos con los líderes de Podemos". ABC. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Reviews of March 2015". EP.
- "Spanish party Podemos accused of intimidating journalists". El País.
- "Política, manual de instrucciones (2016)". IMDb. 3 June 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Ames, Paul (15 November 2014). "Europe looks left". Global Post. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Trendinalia. "Trending topics en Twitter en España el 26 de mayo de 2014".
- Bollero, David (16 August 2014). "Podemos se consolida como la primera fuerza política en redes sociales". Público.
- Hernández, Marisol (4 August 2014). "Podemos supera al PSOE en intención de voto directa". El Mundo.
- Álvaro Carvajal (31 July 2014). "Podemos suma 32.000 'afiliados' en 48 horas". El Mundo.
- "Podemos suma casi 100.000 inscritos en 20 días". Huffington Post. 17 August 2014.
- Redacción (29 September 2014). "Pablo Iglesias gana la batalla de la audiencia a Artur Mas". La Vanguardia.
- Terán, Borja (5 October 2014). "Pablo Iglesias lanza a 'La Sexta Noche' a máximo histórico de audiencias". lainformacion.com.
- Migelez, Xabier (27 October 2014). "'Salvados', con Pablo Iglesias, bate su récord histórico con un 23,8% y más de 4,9 millones". Fórmula TV.
- López de Miguel, Alejandro (27 October 2014). "La propuesta de Iglesias para constituir Podemos gana por amplia mayoría con un 80,71%". Público.
- Garea, Fernando. "Podemos supera a PSOE y PP y rompe el tablero electoral". El País.
- "Podemos 2020: el reto de gobernar mientras se pacifica el partido y se rearman los territorios". eldiario.es. 23 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "Podemos ya es la tercera fuerza en afiliados con 100.000 registrados". Público. 17 August 2014.
- "Iniciar sesión – Podemos". Podemos.
- Varela, Manuel (30 April 2019). "La ruptura de Podemos con En Marea hunde la representación de la sucursal de Iglesias en Galicia". La Voz de Galicia. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- "Compromís, Podemos e IU logran un acuerdo para la lista valenciana al Congreso" (in Spanish). RTVE. 13 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- Fernández-Albertos, José (2015) Los Votantes de Podemos: Del partido de los indignados al partido de los excluidos. Madrid: Libros de la Catarata.
- Ramiro, Luis; Gómez, Raúl (2016) Radical-left populism during the great recession: Podemos and its competition with the established radical left. Political Studies. org/10.1177/0032321716647400. doi:10.1177/0032321716647400.[permanent dead link]
- Rodríguez Teruel, Juan; Barrio, Astrid; Barberà, Oscar (2016) "Fast and Furious: Podemos' quest for power in multi-level Spain". South European Politics and Society. Taylor and Francis. doi: 10.1080/13608746.2016.1250397. Published online.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Podemos.|