White people in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
White people in the United Kingdom
White percentage UK wide.svg
Geographic distribution of White people in the United Kingdom (2011)
Total population
White: Total – 55,073,552 (87.2%) (2011)[1]

of which
White British51,736,290 (81.9%)
White Irish1,105,673 (1.7%)
White Gypsy or Irish Traveller63,193 (0.1%)
White Polish61,201 (0.1%)
Other White2,107,195 (3.4%)


Regions with significant populations
 United Kingdom
England England45,783,401 (81%) (2021)[1][2]
Scotland Scotland5,080,195 (95.9%) (2011)[1][3]
Wales Wales2,915,848 (94.2%) (2021)[1][2]
Northern Ireland1,841,713 (96.77%) (2021)[1][4][5]
Languages
British English · Hiberno-English · Polish · Romanian · Welsh
Angloromani · Beurla Reagaird · Cornish · French · German · Irish · Italian · Scottish Gaelic · Shelta
Religion
Predominantly:
Christianity
Minorities:
Irreligion · Judaism · Islam • Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
White Americans · White South Africans · White Australians · White New Zealanders · Irish People · White Canadians

White people in the United Kingdom are a multi-ethnic group of UK residents who identify as and are perceived to be white people. White people constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United Kingdom, with 87.2% of the population identifying as white in the 2011 United Kingdom census. This represented a national white demographic decline from a 92.1% share of the UK's population in 2001.

The Office for National Statistics designates white people into several subgroups, with small terminology variations between the administrative jurisdictions of England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. These are local: White British, White Irish, White Gypsy or Irish Traveller, and immigrant descended Other White, and in Scotland; White Polish. In Northern Ireland ethnic group data is collected differently, where only the term 'White' is used, and with National Identity ('British', 'Irish', 'Northern Irish', or combinations) collected separately.

British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, and can influence who may be defined, whether informally, in media and academia, or UK Government statistics, as white Britons or white British people. Millions of white people in the United Kingdom, who hold British citizenship, do not identify with the White British ethnicity classification (or its subgroups, such as 'White English', 'White Welsh' or 'White Scottish') at censuses.

Outside of the census, white people in Great Britain are the subject of academic research, public discourse in international and British media, and are widely identified as a broad racial or social class within the country.

Terminology and background[edit]

White people in the United Kingdom are studied, polled, and analyzed as a demographic, anthropological, economic, and social grouping. The scope of the definition often exceeds categorisation by the Office for National Statistics, and its ethnicity or nation-defined subcategories, such as White British or White Polish.[citation needed]

Census[edit]

Within the Census in the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics collects information on white people who are resident in the United Kingdom, regardless of citizenship status. As censuses have progressed each decade, further categories have been included to accommodate subgroupings of white people in the country. As of the 2011 census, these subgroups are White British, White Irish, White Gypsy or Irish Traveller, White Polish (in Scotland), and Other White. There are small variations between the phrasing or terminology of these categories across the administrative regions of England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.[1]

Use in academia and government[edit]

A multitude of scholars, academics, statisticians, and scientists, as well as government departments, think tanks, trade unions, and charities, have identified white people in the United Kingdom as an observable demographic, historical, anthropological, economic, social and racial grouping.

In governmental terms, the UK Government uses the category of white people to help define and understand demography in the country. The Office for National Statistics collects census information on white people.[1] Devolved administrations, such as the Scottish Government and Welsh Government make use of the racial category for social and equality impacts.[6][7] Ministerial departments such as the Home Office and Ministry of Justice,[8][9] non-ministerial, such as the Cabinet Office and office for Mayor of London,[10][11] HM Inspectorate of Constabulary,[12] and public bodies such as the Equality and Human Rights Commission,[13] and UK Statistics Authority, have produced research and analysis on, what they have defined as, white persons within the country.[14][15]

Academic, research and statistical organisations, such as British Election Study, NatCen Social Research and ICM Research, Savanta ComRes, define and categorise whites living in the UK, in order to study and poll respondents of all backgrounds.[16][17][18][19] Think tanks, including the Policy Studies Institute, Resolution Foundation, Smith Institute and Social Issues Research Centre, utilise the grouping of white people in the United Kingdom,[20][6][21][22] along with Stroke Association and Trades Union Congress.[23][24]

Sociologists, social scientists, and academics of race and ethnicity, such as Peter J. Aspinall, Richard Dyer and Mary J. Hickman identify whites in Britain as an intersecting social and racial category.[25][26][27]

Homogeneity myths and exclusions[edit]

Anthropologists Jeanette Edwards, Gillian Evans and Katherine Smith published in 2012:[28]

Anthropological studies that have focused on white people in Britain have, however, undermined the imagined homogeneity of white Britishness, particularly with respect to differences of class and territorial affiliation. For example, Ronnie Frankenberg’s (1957) ethnography of a mining village in North Wales in the 1950s showed sharp divisions, made locally, between insiders and outsiders, and this division is repeated over again in subsequent ethnographic examples from Britain (e.g., Edwards 2000; Rapport 1993; Strathern 1981).

University of the West of Scotland's Chris Gilligan argues that; "The idea that White people in the United Kingdom constitute a race or ethnic group is based on racialised thinking. It works with the logic of the race relations framework, it does not challenge it."[29] In her 2015 research, University of Southampton fellow Rosalind Willis studied the intersection of the White Irish category in England, where there have been examples of distinctions made against the White British which are culturally rejected or ignored.[30] In this regard, professor Mary J. Hickman has written how a combination of othering the ethnic Irish, and a presupposition of the positivity of integration, has provided "tacit support for the 'myth of homogeneity' of white people in Britain".[26]

Demographics[edit]

White people are the current and historical majority of the United Kingdom's population. The 2011 United Kingdom census recorded 51,736,290 of White British, 585,087 of White Irish, 63,193 of White Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 61,201 of White Polish (in Scotland only), and 2,107,195 of Other White ethnicity, making a total white population of 55,073,552 or 87.2 per cent of the total population. These figures did not include self-reported people of mixed ethnicity.[1]

The 2011 population represented a 919,654 increase on the 2001 United Kingdom census figures. Two of the three subcategories (White British and White Irish), which had existed in 2001, rose in their own right, representing outright population growth for those ethnic groups. The Other White population fell by 508,227. The overall share of the population constituted a national white demographic decline, with a falling share of the UK's white populace from 92.1% to 87.2%.

The 2001 census showed a minor numerical difference in the white male and white female population.[31]

Total White population within the United Kingdom
Ethnic Group Year
1991[32][33] 2001[34][35][36] 2011[37][38][39][40]
Number % Number % of total population Proportional amount of white population Number % of total population Proportional amount of white population
Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg White: British 52,037,485 88.52% 96.1% 51,736,290 81.88% 93.94%
Flag of Ireland.svg White: Irish 837,464 1.48% 691,232 1.18% 1.27% 585,087 0.92% 1.06%
White: Gypsy / Traveller / Irish Traveller 1,710 63,193 0.1% 0.01%
White: Other 1,423,471 2.42% 2.62% 2,690,088 4.25% 4.88%
White: Total 53,415,915 94.65% 54,153,898 92.12% 55,073,552 87.17%

Population in constituent nations of the United Kingdom[edit]

White: Total population pyramid in 2011

England[edit]

Ethnic group Year
1981[41][42] 1991[43][44] 2001[45] 2011[46]
Population % Population % Population % Population %
Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg White: British 42,747,136 87.0% 42,279,236 79.8%
Flag of Ireland.svg White: Irish 624,115 1.3% 517,001 1.0%
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy[note 1] 54,895 0.1%
White: Other 1,308,110 2.7% 2,430,010 4.6%
White: Total 95.4% 44,144,339 93.8% 44,679,361 91% 45,281,142 85.4%

Scotland[edit]

Ethnic group 1991[47][48] 2001[49] 2011[50]
Number % Number % Number %
Flag of Scotland.svg White: Scottish 4,459,071 88.09% 4,445,678 83.95%
Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg White: Other British 373,685 7.38% 417,109 7.88%
Flag of Ireland.svg White: Irish 49,428 0.98% 54,090 1.02%
White: Gypsy/Traveller[note 1] 4,212 0.08%
Official flag of Poland.png White: Polish[note 1] 61,201 1.16%
White: Other 78,150 1.54% 102,117 1.93%
White: Total 4,935,933 98.74% 4,960,334 97.99% 5,084,407 96.02%

Wales[edit]

Ethnic group Year
1991[51][52] 2001[53] 2011[54]
Population % Population % Population %
Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg White: British 2,786,605 96.0% 2,855,450 93.2%
Flag of Ireland.svg White: Irish 20,841 0.7% 17,689 0.6% 14,086 0.5%
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy[note 1] 2,785 0.1%
White: Other 37,211 1.3% 55,932 1.8%
White: Total 2,793,522 98.5% 2,841,505 97.9% 2,928,253 95.6%

Northern Ireland[edit]

Ethnic group 2001[55] 2011[56]
Population % Population %
White: 1,670,988 99.15 1,778,449 98.21
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy 1,710 0.10 1,301 0.07
White total 1,672,698 99.25 1,779,750 98.28

Population in metropolitan areas[edit]

Population in counties[edit]

Education[edit]

In the 1991 census, white people were recorded as the most likely group to have tertiary education. By the 2001 census, this had changed, with British African-Caribbean females, and British Indian men and women, becoming more likely to be qualified to that level.[57]

Based on the 1994 Policy Studies Institute's NSEM survey, an International Migration Review-published study determined a factor of this shift, finding that between the ages of 21–64, 13.8% of British Hindus held a higher education, versus what the study defined as 11.3% of "White Christians" in Britain.[20] The Welsh Government's 2007 Minority Ethnic Youth Forum Report found that, based on 2005 ONS data; "Interestingly, Chinese, Black African, Indian and Other Asian groups are more likely to have degrees than white people in the UK."[7]

History[edit]

British Empire[edit]

The history of the racial classification of white people has its roots in the establishment of European colonies in Asia, Africa and the Americas, where they encountered and lived alongside people of colour. The United Kingdom [58] Historian Marika Sherwood writes that while there is no implication that "all whites in Britain were or became imbued with racism"; the classification of the "white race" rose in the nineteenth century due in part to the increasing rise of the eugenics and scientific racism movements of thought, with anthropologists classifying whites as distinct and separate race from other races such as Africans and Asians.[59]

After physician John Fothergill disparagingly referred to them as "nabobs"; in 1767, the Daily Gazetteer, within the context of their return to England, made the accusation that West Indian planters (such as those involved with the East India Company) were corrupting Britain's political system, and who "being bred the tyrants of their slavish blacks, may endeavour to reduce the white [in Britain] to the same condition by an aristocracy".[60]

Interwar and post-WWII periods[edit]

Social scientist Peter J. Aspinall has analyzed how interracial marriage in the UK, as a phenomenon, caused societal reactions from whites in the interwar, and post-World War II periods. These included violence and racism against African-American GIs, Chinese seamen, and towards children from their relationships with white women. Aspinall, an expert in ethnicity, wrote:[27]

Such experiences were shared by interracial people, couples and families throughout the twentieth century with their mere presence provoking or exacerbating the violence of white people in Britain, as evidenced during the numerous ‘race riots’, disturbances and attacks that occurred throughout the period.

This post-war period of history was recognised by Mill Hill School's marking of Black History Month, when the London school published a short history of the Windrush generation, including the abuse received by arrivals such as Floella Benjamin, exploring how; "Unfortunately, many white people in Britain did not welcome the new arrivals and Floella, and many like her were faced with hatred and cruelty."[61] Politician Enoch Powell, who became known for his anti-immigrant Rivers of Blood speech, has been identified by some media as an early source of defining white people as a racial interest group within Britain. In 1971, Powell had argued that “whites are being held back to accommodate the Asiatics and blacks".[62]

Late 20th century[edit]

According to the ONS's quarterly Labour Force Survey, in 1993-1994 white people undertook more employer‐funded training per capita than minority groups in the UK. Analysis by economists, Michael Shields and Stephen Wheatley Price, suggested that the situation may represent a failure in United Kingdom employment equality laws.[63] Anthony Lester, a key contributor to such legislation, stated in 1991 that "White people in Britain don't have the legacy of guilt about the past as there is in America about the period of slavery, even though there is plenty to be guilty about".[64]

In another comparison of the two nations, while accepting that "any portrait of Britain as a haven of multicultural understanding and friendship among different groups is an exaggeration"; University of Maryland professor Eric Uslaner has observed that "the effect of segregation on civic norms is far more pronounced for whites in the United States compared to whites in Britain."[65] Scholar Ron Walters also stressed the significance of correlation between white majorities and their behavioural patterns in the UK and US. Lecturer Clarence Lusane has written of Walter's use of themes, such as the "cultural similarity with regard to racial attitudes of Whites in Britain and the United States" and also, "the reception by the White host societies" towards black communities.[66]

21st century[edit]

The 2008 BBC series White attempted to address issues of white-related class and race issues in the country. Academic Vron Ware described the documentary as "a provocative series that claimed to address the marginality of working class white people in Britain."[67] Based on data from eligible voters, white people overall voted to leave the European Union in 2016's Brexit referendum in higher proportions than other racial groups in the country.[8]

Notable contributions[edit]

Arts and entertainment[edit]

There are many notable actors and actresses who are from or based in the United Kingdom, and have been identified as being white. Stage actor Richard Burbage, contemporary of William Shakespeare, was of English descent.[68] John Bennett,[69] and American Orson Welles, who spent many years in the UK working in British television and radio,[70] were of English ancestry, and Laurence Olivier was of English and French Huguenot heritage.[71] Yvonne Bryceland,[72] and John Justin were of a European Argentine and European South African background respectively.[73]

Actors such as Patrick Stewart,[74] Christian Bale,[75] Laurence Fox,[76] Edward Holcroft,[77] and actresses Florence Pugh,[78] Jessie Cave,[79] Emma Watson,[80] and Daisy Ridley are of English ancestry.[81] Joseph Fiennes,[82] and Tom Hardy are of English and Irish descent.[75] Dublin-born Michael Gambon,[83] and Scot Gerard Butler are of Irish ancestry.[75]

Actresses Imogen Poots is of English and Northern Irish descent,[84] and Tilda Swinton has English and Scottish heritage.[85] Actors Jonathan Pryce,[86] and Anthony Hopkins are of Welsh descent,[87] while Taron Egerton has English and Welsh heritage.[78] Thespian Luise Rainer was of German Jewish background,[88] and actor Ed Skrein has English and Austrian Jewish heritage.[75]

Broadcasting and journalism[edit]

Notable UK journalists, broadcasters, and presenters have been described as being white. Journalists David Dimbleby,[89] Fiona Lamdin,[90] Sarah Sands,[89] and former broadcasting executive James Purnell are of English descent.[89] Newsreader Huw Edwards has Welsh ancestry.[89] Broadcasting directors James Harding and Ian Katz both have English, and British Jewish and South African Jewish heritage respectively.[89]

Presenter Caroline Flack was of English descent,[91] while Dublin-born Laura Whitmore,[91] and Scot Lorraine Kelly are of Irish ancestry.[92]

Comedy[edit]

Comedians and comedy actors, who have been described as white, such as Leigh Francis,[93] Reece Shearsmith,[94] Noel Fielding,[95] Jennifer Saunders,[96] Robert Webb,[97] David Walliams and Matt Lucas, have been involved in some of the most notable British comedy series in the late 20th and early 21st century. These include Peep Show, French and Saunders, Bo' Selecta!, The Mighty Boosh, Little Britain and The League of Gentlemen.[92] They are predominantly of English extraction, as is stand-up comedian Daniel Kitson.[98] Noel Fielding has partial French heritage, and Matt Lucas has maternal German Jewish ancestry.[92]

Music[edit]

There are multiple musicians and artists, born or based in the UK, and from various ethnic backgrounds that, defined in media as white, have gained both commercial and cultural success. Singer-songwriters Elton John,[92] Stevie Winwood,[99] and Sam Smith,[100] singers Mazz Murray,[101] Sam Bailey,[101] Ruth Copeland,[102] and members of duo Disclosure are of an English background.[100] Singers Petula Clark,[103] and Adele have English and Welsh heritage.[104]

Dusty Springfield was of Irish descent,[105] as is Boy George.[106] Two of Britain's best-selling artists, Paul McCartney,[107] and Ed Sheeran are of English and Irish descent. Jay Kay has English and Portuguese ancestry.[106] Opera singer Adelina Patti, who settled in Wales, was of Italian heritage.[108] Jess Glynne has English and British Jewish ancestry,[100] and Kelly Osbourne is of English, Irish and Ashkenazi Jewish heritage.[92]

Sport[edit]

Many notable individuals involved with sport in the United Kingdom, who come from the UK or have been based in the country for their profession, have been identified as white people. Footballer Phil Foden,[109] and rugby player Tom Mitchell are of English descent.[110] Former footballers and national captains of Wales and England respectively, Vinnie Jones has English and Welsh ancestry,[111] and David Beckham has an English and maternal British Jewish background.[112] Yohan Cabaye, who spent five years in English football, is of French descent with some paternal Vietnamese ancestry.[113]

Culture and society[edit]

University of Essex professor Richard Berthoud has proposed that between 1970 and 2000, white families in Britain progressed towards modern individualism, and away from other traditional behaviours.[114]

Alcohol and smoking[edit]

Based on a 243-person study (103 whites, 83 British Pakistanis, and 57 British Indians) in Bradford, England in 1988, white people had higher rates of drinking and smoking than Asian British people.[115] This correlated with a study around 30 years later, which found that alcohol consumption is higher among whites in Britain than other groups. In 2017 the Mayor of London office published that; "51 per cent of ethnic minorities, and 16 per cent of white people, in Britain in 2017 had not consumed alcohol in the last week."[11] A 2018 Stroke Association report also found that white people had the highest levels of alcohol consumption and smoking in the UK.[23]

Integration and representations[edit]

White people are usually defined, in scholarly works and media, as the majority group in the country.[116][15] It is not always clear whether majority-based terminology is dependent on cultural perceptions, statistics (such as ONS censuses and UK Statistics Authority's Citizenship Surveys) or a combination of multiple factors. The scope of the term of white people, or reference to a white majority within the UK, is sometimes a source of debate or controversy.[117] For example, Richard Dyer's work, an academic who specialises in racal representations, suggests the ethnicity of white people in Britain is rarely scrutinised.[25]

There have been social challenges to integration, and adjustment to multiculturalism, in the United Kingdom among the white population. A study conducted by NatCen Social Research asked whites in the UK a number of questions, including: "Do you think most white people in Britain would mind/would you mind if a close relative were to marry a person of black or West Indian/Asian origin?" The results found that between 1983 and 2013, the white participants' opinions on "white people in Britain" dropped from around 80% 'would mind' to under 60%, and their personal opinions moved from around 60% to just over 30%.[17][118] A publicly-funded Citizenship Survey found that 56 percent of "Whites in Britain" had friendships exclusively with other white people. In a published 2005 report, the UK Statistics Authority wrote:[14]

It is in fact the Whites who are by far the most likely to have friends only from their own race - that is, other Whites. Given the much larger number of Whites in Britain, and the geographical concentration of ethnic minorities in large conurbations, many Whites will not have opportunity to meet ethnic minorities.

A 1982 study of riots in the UK in India Quarterly, outlined what it described as a "substantial displacement of the local whites in Britain." The journal suggested that "this has occurred in certain areas like Birmingham, Brixton, Manchester, Southall, Toxteth, Wolverhampton", and that "to a great extent this clustering has hampered the assimilation process."[119] After the 1991 United Kingdom census, newspaper The Independent reported: "Yet Britain as a whole remains very white indeed; there is nothing "multicultural" about it. At the census in 1991, ethnic minorities came to about 5.5 per cent of the population: that is, just over three million in a total population of almost 55 million."[120]

In 2000, The Observer reported the demographic prediction that white people would become a minority group in all or certain parts of the UK, while remaining the largest singular group (which is sometimes defined as a majority minority scenario). Governmental advisor, Lee Jasper, stated that "the demographics show that white people in London will become a minority by 2010", and that 'We could have a majority black Britain by the turn of the century."[121] Runnymede Trust, a leading British race equality think tank, published criticism which took issue with assumptions of future birth rates, and an "inadequacy" in the "use of the term 'whites'." [122]

A 2010 Ethnic and Racial Studies study, which analyzed UK and US census data, showed that UK-born white people in the country were more likely than white Americans to have a black partner or spouse.[123] With regards censuses, the White British category has, at times, been the focus of demography (above other groupings, such as White Irish) particularly in journalistic media.[26] In 2012, The Telegraph reported that the percentage reduction in whites recorded at the 2011 census had occurred "despite an influx" of White Polish people.[124]

Social and political issues[edit]

Employment and housing[edit]

A 2005 Smith Institute report on migration noted that income, and employment rates, of "British-born white individuals" and "foreign-born whites" were similar in the United Kingdom, and diverged almost inseparably in comparison with "non-white immigrants".[21] According to the Social Issues Research Centre, there is still, however, significant diversity within the white populace in terms of income. In 2008, the Oxford-based institute also reported that whites experienced half the rates of low income households as do ethnic minorities.[22] In 2009, writing for a Runnymede Trust publication, University of Iceland researcher Kjartan Sveinsson wrote:[125][126]

Feigning white working-class disadvantage as an ethnic disadvantage rather than as class disadvantage is exactly what rhetorically places this group in direct competition with minority ethnic groups. As such, it does little to address the real and legitimate grievances poor white people in Britain have.

Between 2012 and 2013, the Equality and Human Rights Commission found that white people were far less likely to live in poverty, compared with what the report defined as "Ethnic minority people".[13] Trades Union Congress research in 2017,[24] which was analyzed by the Scottish Government, showed that white people had higher rates of general employment and less chance of insecure employment, such as seasonal or agency work, than other racial groups in the Britain.[6] A 2019 study found that on income-related demography, British Indians are the only census-based ethnic group with similar earnings to white people in the UK.[127]

White people in the United Kingdom have the lowest rates of household crowding, with two percent of the population experiencing it.[128]

Discrimination[edit]

White people face less discrimination in the United Kingdom than ethnic minorities. For example, European Network Against Racism notes that white people in the country are around six times less likely than black people, and half as likely as Asians, to be stopped by police.[129] The British Election Study has defined "white people" in Britain, as part of a poll of 2,049 ethnic minority respondents regarding opinions on equal opportunity in British society.[16][130]

The Centre for Economic Performance revealed in a 2014 study that "Many white people in the UK feel that social landlords actively discriminate against them in favour of immigrants and ethnic minorities." Analyzing this trend, professor Alan Manning found "no basis in reality for this perceived discrimination".[131] Mona Chalabi, a notable data journalist, writing in 2015, suggested that while racism from white people in the UK has a greater significance than from ethnic minorities; "a lot of other white people in Britain genuinely believe racism affects them too".[132] Journalist Simon Kelner has stated a similar view, posing the question "Can white people in Britain really feel they’re the victims of racism?"[133]

In 2016, the Ministry of Justice issued a report noting that "white people in Britain" were four times less likely to be in prison than black Britons.[9] In 2017, HM Inspectorate of Constabulary found by studying England and Wales data that; "White people in the United Kingdom are more likely to be carrying drugs when stopped by police but less likely to be stopped, compared to black people who are disproportionately searched".[12] Between 2017 and 2018, Home Office data revealed that Dorset was the county where police were least likely to question white people in comparison with ethnic minority groups. Whites had around 17 times less chance of being subjected to Stop and Search.[8]

In a 2018 ICM Research poll conducted between 2013 and 2018, 4% of white people in the United Kingdom believed they had been treated like a shoplifter; 9% asked to leave an establishment for what seemed like no good reason; 18% believed they had been unfairly overlooked for a job; 52% felt a stranger was rude or abusive to them. (The results were 47% (treated like shoplifter), 25% (asked to leave), 43% (overlooked for job), and 69% (received abuse), respectively, for members of the BAME community).[18] A 2019 United Nations Human Rights Council report noted that the Cabinet Office's Race Disparity Unit had number of findings in relation to racism, including that; "One of the primary discoveries made through the audit had been that ethnic minorities were worse off than white people in the United Kingdom."[10] In 2020, a CNN and Savanta ComRes survey revealed that, among many other findings, that around half of white people in the country believed there was a fair representation of ethnic minorities in film and television (while 17 percent of black British people agreed). Whites were also twice as likely to say they had been treated with respect by British police.[19]

Health[edit]

1983 research of breast cancer rates in Birmingham, England found that whites in the United Kingdom had significantly higher rates of the disease than black and Asian people who had migrated to the country. The study examined white people who were born in either the UK or Republic of Ireland.[134] A 1999 study revealed that white people in the country had lower mortality rates from stroke than black people.[135]

In 2007, professor Andrew Hattersley studied the genomes of whites in the United Kingdom (as well as Finland and Italy), discovering what some researchers described as the first clear genetic link, via the FTO gene, to obesity. Presence of the gene beyond that initial subject pool was not yet studied.[136][137]

White people are the most likely racial group to have a form of atrial fibrillation conditions. The same 2018 data also showed that whites were around half as likely to suffer a stroke than black people in Britain.[23] Among a number of other disparities, 2019 research demonstrated that whites in Britain were prescribed antipsychotic drugs (as dementia treatment) for around 4 weeks less on average than black Britons, placing the latter into an excess of dosage recommendations.[138]

White people are less likely to die from COVID-19 than any other racial group in the United Kingdom.[139][140] White people in the country had half the chance of dying of the virus when compared with black Britons, while British Chinese showed similar fatality rates to white people. White males were at just under half the risk of men of British Bangladeshi and British Pakistanis ancestry.[141] A British government report confirms that Black and Asian people in Britain had higher death rates amid the COVID-19 pandemic than their white counterparts[142][143]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d New category created for the 2011 census

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h 2011 Census: KS201UK Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom ONS, Retrieved 21 October 2013
  2. ^ a b 2021 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 29 November 2022
  3. ^ Table 2 - Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011 Scotlands Census published 30 September 2013, Accessed 13 June 2014.
  4. ^ "2021 Census - Key Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 11 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Table DC2206NI: National identity (classification 1) by ethnic group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Brexit: social and equality impacts". Scottish Government. 2020. p. 2. Research by the Trades Union Congress and Resolution Foundation has found that black men and women are more likely to be in precarious employment than white people, including agency and seasonal work. Furthermore, people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are twice as likely to be unemployed than white people in the UK (as the chart below shows).
  7. ^ a b Minority Ethnic Youth Forum (PDF), Welsh Government, 1 October 2007, p. 4
  8. ^ a b c Bridget Byrne; Claire Alexander; Omar Khan; James Nazroo; William Shankley (2020). "Minority ethnic groups, policing, criminal justice system". Ethnicity and Race in the UK: State of the Nation. Policy Press. pp. 57–200. ISBN 978-1447351252. In 2017/18, the biggest difference in stop-and-search rates between black and white people was in Dorset ... Source: Home Office (2018c) ... in their analysis of policing in Manchester, Williams and Clarke (2016) found that white people overwhelmingly committed the largest proportion of police-defined incidents of serious youth violence (76% of the sample) ... Recent research that aims to fill this gap shows that while ethnic minority voters were less likely than white people to vote to leave the EU, the vote differed according to ethnicity
  9. ^ a b Noah Uhrig (2016), "Background" (PDF), Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic disproportionality in the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales, Ministry of Justice, p. 3
  10. ^ a b "Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and relatedforms of intolerance, follow-up to and implementationof the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action". United Nations. 15 August 2019.
  11. ^ a b "London at night: an evidence base for a 24-hour city - Executive report" (PDF). Mayor of London. November 2018.
  12. ^ a b Beatrice Dupuy (13 December 2017). "More White People Carry Drugs, But Black People Are the Ones Who Get Arrested". The Huffington Post.
  13. ^ a b Samuel Osborne (18 August 2016). "6 charts that show what its really like to be black or an ethnic minority in Britain". The Independent. Research on ethnicity and employment trends in 2013 found white people had a higher employment rate than those from ethnic minorities. People from ethnic minorities were more likely to live in poverty than white people in 2012/13.
  14. ^ a b Joe T. Darden (2000). "Race Relations in the City". In Ronan Paddison (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0803976955. The Citizenship Survey report has a tone quite different from the Commission for Racial Equality speech (although both were publicy fundeded) ... An academic analysis of the same data finds similar results - that over half of the White population have friends exclusively among the White population ... How worrying is the much higher figure of 56% for the White population? Perhaps neither figure is surprising given the demographics and geographies of Britain's ethnic group populations.
  15. ^ a b Benjamin T. Bowyer (2011). 'Rights for Whites'?: Racial Resentment and Perceptions of Discrimination in Contemporary Britain. American Political Science Association. This paper investigates majority group members’ perceptions of racial discrimination by local housing authorities in England, examining survey data from the 2008-09 Citizenship Survey ... general beliefs about the persistence of racial prejudice in Britain affect whites’ feelings of group disadvantage in the allocation of public housing.
  16. ^ a b Siobhan McAndrew; Maria Sobolewska (2015). "Mosques and political engagement in Britain: Participation or segregation?". In Timothy Peace (ed.). Muslims and Political Participation in Britain. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415725316. To test these hypotheses, we draw upon the Ethnic Minority British Election Study 2010 (EMBES) ... Non-White people don't have the same opportunities and chances in life as White people, as they are held back by prejudice and discrimination (agrees or strongly agrees); 39.9%; 466 of 1,140
  17. ^ a b Nancy Kelley; Omar Khan; Sarah Sharrock (2017), Racial prejudice in Britain today (PDF), NatCen Social Research, p. 10
  18. ^ a b Gregor Jackson (3 December 2018), The Guardian – Bias in Britain BAME Polling, ICM Research
  19. ^ a b Richard Allen Greene (22 June 2020). "Britain's big race divide". CNN. Drilling down on that finding, nearly half (44%) of White people said there was about the right amount of representation of Black people in film and television. Only one in six (17%) Black people agreed.
  20. ^ a b Suzanne Model; Lang Lin (2002). "The Cost of Not Being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada". International Migration Review. Vol. 36. SAGE Publications. pp. 1061–1092. The NSEM, which covers England and Wales, was undertaken by the Policy Studies Institute in 1994. ... Of those successfully contacted, 79 percent of minority households and 71 percent of households headed by British whites participated in the NSEM (Smith and Prior, 1996). ... our multivariate analysis compares the gap between minority and whites in Canada with the gap between minority and whites in Britain
  21. ^ a b perspectiveson migration (PDF), Smith Institute, 2005, As figure 1 shows, non-white immigrants have, on average, a dramatically lower employment rate than British-born white individuals. Foreign-born whites are very similar to the British-born whites. ... Our research also shows that labour market outcomes of non-white immigrants are more volatile over the economic cycle than for white immigrants and British-born whites.
  22. ^ a b Childhood and family life: Socio-demographic changes (PDF), Social Issues Research Centre, 2008, p. 23, Today there are still twice as many people from ethnic minorities living in low income households than White people in Britain, although we need to stress again that there is significant variation within the White population as well.
  23. ^ a b c "State of the Nation: Stroke statistics" (PDF). Stroke Association. February 2018. p. 13. White people in the UK are more likely to have atrial fibrillation (a type of irregular heart beat), smoke and drink alcohol than other ethnicities.
  24. ^ a b Insecure work and Ethnicity (PDF), Trades Union Congress, 2017, p. 2, This analysis show that Black and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are persistently disadvantaged in the labour market. Overall, the employment rates for White people (76.1 percent) is significantly higher than for those from a minority ethnic group (64.2 percent).
  25. ^ a b Anne-Marie Fortier (1982). "Ethnicity". Paragraph. Vol. 17. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 213–233. Whites in Britain are not only less ethnic than non-whites, their 'ethnicity' is never discussed, it is never put into focus (Dyer, 1988).
  26. ^ a b c Mary J. Hickman; Bronwen Walter (1995). "Deconstructing Whiteness: Irish Women in Britain". Feminist Review. Vol. 50. SAGE Publications. pp. 5–19.
  27. ^ a b Peter J. Aspinall (2018). "Introduction". Mixed Race Britain in The Twentieth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1137339270.
  28. ^ Jeanette Edwards; Gillian Evans; Katherine Smith (2012). "Class, community, and crisis in post-industrial Britain.". Focaal: Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology. SAGE Publications. p. 6. Further analysis of microdata suggests that the vast majority of the Scottish-born White Polish are the young children of recent Polish migrants rather than, e.g. offspring of migrants from previous eras, because nearly 80% are infants aged 3 or under.
  29. ^ Chris Gilligan (December 2018). "Northern Ireland and the limits of the race relations framework". Capital & Class. Vol. 43. SAGE Publications. pp. 105–121.
  30. ^ Rosalind Willis (September 2016). "The fragility of "white Irish" as a minority ethnic identity in England". Ethnic and Racial Studies. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1681–1699. Through the use of fieldnotes and interview extracts, I discuss how I became aware that my ethnic identity was not always recognized by participants, and in some cases the distinction between white Irish and white British was denied.
  31. ^ Howard M. Fillit; Kenneth Rockwood; Kenneth Woodhouse (2010). "The Epidemiology of Aging". Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: Expert Consult - Online and Print. Saunders. ISBN 978-1416062318. Table 2-2 shows the proportion of older people in the 2001 census by ethnic origin. There are a great preponderance of white people in the United Kingdom, with only very minor differences in the proportion between males and females.
  32. ^ As UK Census data past 2001 is unavailable through the ONS website, it has been recommended to use archival census collection websites to obtain data. Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for England, Scotland and Wales (Table 6) and the population total of Northern Ireland
  33. ^ Office of Population Censuses and Surveys ; General Register Office for Scotland ; Registrar General for Northern Ireland (1997): 1991 Census aggregate data. UK Data Service (Edition: 1997). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-1991-1 This information is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence
  34. ^ "Office of National Statistics; 2001 Census Key Statistics". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2021-09-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census – Summary Report". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2021-09-07.
  36. ^ "Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service". 2001.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ "Office of National Statistics; 2011 Census Key Statistics". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2021-09-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic Group, local authorities in England and Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2021-12-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  39. ^ "2011 Census: Key Results from Releases 2A to 2D". Scotland's Census. Retrieved 2021-12-15.
  40. ^ "Table DC2206NI – National Identity (Classification 1) by Ethnic Group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ Rees, Phil; Butt, Faisal (2004). "Ethnic Change and Diversity in England, 1981-2001". Area. 36 (2): 174–186. ISSN 0004-0894.
  42. ^ Please note that these are estimations as the question on Ethnicity was not asked in the United Kingdom's censuses till 1991. Work in this table has been taken from Table 4 of source used.
  43. ^ As UK Census data past 2001 is unavailable through the ONS website, it has been recommended to use archival census collection websites to obtain data. Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for England (Table 6)
  44. ^ Office of Population Censuses and Surveys ; General Register Office for Scotland ; Registrar General for Northern Ireland (1997): 1991 Census aggregate data. UK Data Service (Edition: 1997). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-1991-1 This information is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence
  45. ^ "Key Statistics for local authorities; Ethnic Statistics for England and Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 September 2021. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  46. ^ "Key Statistics for England and Wales: Ethnic statistics". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 8 August 2021. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  47. ^ As UK Census data past 2001 is unavailable through the ONS website, it has been recommended to use archival census collection websites to obtain data. Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for Scotland (Table 6)
  48. ^ Office of Population Censuses and Surveys ; General Register Office for Scotland ; Registrar General for Northern Ireland (1997): 1991 Census aggregate data. UK Data Service (Edition: 1997). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-1991-1 This information is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence
  49. ^ "Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  50. ^ United Kingdom census (2011). "Table KS201SC - Ethnic group" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  51. ^ Office of Population Censuses and Surveys ; General Register Office for Scotland ; Registrar General for Northern Ireland (1997): 1991 Census aggregate data. UK Data Service (Edition: 1997). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-1991-1 This information is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence
  52. ^ As UK Census data past 2001 is unavailable through the ONS website, it has been recommended to use archival census collection websites to obtain data. Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for Wales (Table 6)
  53. ^ "Ethnic Statistics in Unitary authorities in Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2022-01-07. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  54. ^ "Key Statistics for Unitary authorities in Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2022-01-07. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  55. ^ "Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service". Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  56. ^ "Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service". Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  57. ^ Yaojun Li (November 2018). "Tertiary education and labour market position of second generation minority ethnic groups in Britain and the US (1990/1 – 2000/1)" (PDF). Institute for Social Change. p. 11. Here we find that Black Caribbean, Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi men and women were significantly less likely to have tertiary education than Whites in Britain in 1991 but Black Caribbean women, Indian men and women became more qualified than Whites in 2001.
  58. ^ C. L. R. James (1973). "The Free Colored in a Slave Society". In Lambros Comitas; David Lowenthal (eds.). Slaves, Free Men, Citizens: West Indian Perspectives. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0385042895. While whites in Britain dislike the half-caste more than the full-blooded Negro, whites in the West Indies favour the half-caste against the blacks. These, however, are matters of social prestige.
  59. ^ Marika Sherwood (2003). "White Myths, Black Omissions: the Historical Origins of Racism in Britain". History Education Research Journal. UCL IOE Press.
  60. ^ Susan Kingsley Kent (1999). "Introduction". Gender and Power in Britain, 1640-1990. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415147422.
  61. ^ "Black History Month Chapel". Mill Hill School. 8 October 2020.
  62. ^ Daniel Geary (20 April 2018). "Most Americans don't know who Enoch Powell was. But they should". The Washington Post. He claimed the nation was being overrun by foreigners who made white citizens feel like “strangers in their own country.” Whites, he argued, were becoming a “persecuted minority” because of laws that favored nonwhites.
  63. ^ Michael Shields; Stephen Wheatley Price (1999). "Ethnic Differences in the Incidence and Determinants of Employer‐funded Training in Britain". Scottish Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 46. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 523–551. Non‐white full‐time employees were offered, and undertook, less training than whites in Britain in 1993–4, according to data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey. ... These findings suggest that equal opportunities legislation has been unsuccessful in eliminating unequal access to employer‐funded training in Britain.
  64. ^ Sheila Rule (31 March 1991). "Black Britons Speak of a Motherland That Looks Upon Them as Outcasts". New York Times.
  65. ^ Eric M. Uslaner (2011), "Trust, Diversity, and Segregation in the United States and the United Kingdom", International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 10, Brill Publishers, pp. 224–225
  66. ^ Clarence Lusane (1997). "Hands across the Atlantic: Comparison of Black American and Black British Electoral Politics". In James Jennings (ed.). Race and Politics: New Challenges and Responses for Black Activism. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1859841983.
  67. ^ Vron Ware (2008), "Towards a Sociology of Resentment: A Debate on Class and Whiteness", Sociological Research Online, SAGE Publications
  68. ^ Mark Barratt (2005). Ian McKellen: An Unauthorised Biography. Lume Books. ISBN 978-1852272517. The problem was who should play Othello. The part was written for a white actor, Richard Burbage, who probably wore black make-up, and for 200 years or so that was the way things stayed. In 1825 the black actor Ira Aldridge played the role
  69. ^ Graeme Burke; Robert Smith (2013). Who's 50: The 50 Doctor Who Stories to Watch Before You Die ― An Unofficial Companion. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1770411661. It's impossible to know if the stereotypes would have been lessened by casting a Chinese actor as Chang, but the decision to cast a white actor ... certainly exacerbates the problem. I don't think anyone involved had sinister motives in casting John Bennett
  70. ^ Steven Croft (2004). "Introductory essays". Othello: Teacher Resource Book. Nelson Thornes. p. 5. ISBN 978-0748786053. The character of Othello has been played by white actors 'blacking up' ... Orson Welles play the role in the 1952 film version, and in 1964 Laurence Olivier was heavily made-up
  71. ^ Hugh Muir (21 June 2015). "Should white actors be able to play Othello? Perhaps, but don't black up". The Guardian. Berkoff enjoyed watching a blacked-up Laurence Olivier play Othello in the 60s before the “fiends of political correctness” created a so-called “no-go zone for white actors on that particular role”.
  72. ^ Lizbeth Goodman (1999). Women, Politics and Performance in South African Theatre Today: Volume 2. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-9057021831. She was the first black actor to play the part of Fugard's Lena, a black character written to be played by the (white) actor, Yvonne Bryceland.
  73. ^ Jessie Carney Smith (2013). Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 978-1578593699. Island in the Sun, a 1957 film in which she appeared opposite white actor John Justin, marked the first time the theme of interracial love was explored in the movies.
  74. ^ David Sanderson (June 26, 2020). "The age is the thing: Sir Ian McKellen to take on Hamlet at 81". The Times. In 1997 Sir Patrick Stewart, a white actor, played Othello at the Shakespeare Theatre in Washington DC while the rest of the cast was black.
  75. ^ a b c d "Actor Ed Skrein quits Hellboy after whitewashing criticism". BBC. 29 August 2017. Using white actors to play characters of a different ethnic origin has been going on for decades - such as .... Laurence Olivier blacking up for 1965's Othello. Christian Bale played Moses in 2014's Exodus: Gods and Kings, while there was criticism of 2016's Gods of Egypt, in which stars like Gerard Butler played Egyptian deities. And there was a similar outcry when Tom Hardy was rumoured to be playing Jafar in Guy Ritchie's new Aladdin ... Skrein's decision marks the first time a white actor has left a high-profile film project after receiving criticism
  76. ^ Jamie Doward (January 18, 2020). "Lecturer says she faced online abuse after Question Time clash with Laurence Fox". The Guardian. A mixed-race university lecturer accused of being racist by the white actor Laurence Fox has been bombarded with hate messages via social media, she has told the Observer.
  77. ^ Louise Jury (9 October 2014). "BBC in race row as white actor plays black role". The Independent. Black actors were “confused and understandably angry” when Edward Holcroft was chosen for London Spy after many of them had auditioned.
  78. ^ a b Rachel McGrath (3 February 2020). "Baftas 2020 red carpet: Renee Zellweger and Joaquin Phoenix leads stars at the Royal Albert Hall". Evening Standard. However, discussions around diversity have threatened to overshadow the ceremony after Bafta named an all-male Best Director shortlist, with Greta Gerwig failing to make the cut, while every acting nomination went to a white actor.
  79. ^ Sophie Thompson (15 September 2020). "16 plot holes in the Harry Potter movies you probably missed". Global. Jessie Cave, a white actress, portrayed Lavender Brown in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.
  80. ^ Sophie Gilbert (December 21, 2015). "Harry Potter and Theater's Colorblind Tradition". The Atlantic. Even though Hermione’s race is never specified in the Harry Potter series, Emma Watson’s casting in the film adaptations confirmed many readers’ assumptions that the character was white, leading to a blockbuster film franchise for children where the only characters of color featured in minor roles.
  81. ^ Yohana Desta (June 4, 2020). "Lucasfilm Stands Behind John Boyega: "You Are Our Hero"". Vanity Fair. In addition, it’s also been pointed out that Finn’s arc, though it began with promise, wasn’t given the same care or development as other characters—such as Rey, played by white actress Daisy Ridley—nor was his race ever taken into account and explored in a thoughtful way in the world of the films.
  82. ^ Hannah Ellis-Petersen (13 January 2017). "Sky pulls broadcast of show that cast white actor as Michael Jackson". The Guardian.
  83. ^ "Performance". OLC Othello. Oxford University Press. 2017. p. 78. ISBN 978-0198398981. Michael Gambon, in 1990, was probably the last white actor to play the role wearing black make-up.
  84. ^ "Superhero fans rally to keep The Flash's love interest black". BBC. May 1, 2016. The report suggests that a white actress, Imogen Poots, could be cast as Iris West Allen - a part played in the successful TV version by black actress Candice Patton.
  85. ^ Ben Child (3 May 2016). "George Takei on Doctor Strange controversy: 'Marvel must think we're all idiots'". The Guardian. Cargill suggested Marvel had one eye on sensitivities over Tibet in the world’s most populous nation when the studio cast white actor Tilda Swinton as the traditionally Asian mentor to Doctor Strange, the Ancient One.
  86. ^ Yutian Wong (2010). Choreographing Asian America. Wesleyan University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0819567031. Protest by Asian American members of Actor's Equity over the casting of a White actor, Jonathan Pryce, in the lead role of The Engineer
  87. ^ Thomas Cartelli; Katherine Rowe (2006). "Channelling Othello". New Wave Shakespeare on Screen. Polity. ISBN 978-0745633923. Laurence Olivier's black-face performance of Othello ... one of the last times the role was played by a prominent white actor, Anthony Hopkins's portrayal ... supplying the exception that proves the rule.
  88. ^ Yohana Desta (May 1, 2020). "Hollywood: The True Story of Anna May Wong and The Good Earth". Vanity Fair. The role is instead given to white actor Luise Rainer, who wins an Oscar for her portrayal—making the film an eternal sore spot for Wong.
  89. ^ a b c d e Vanessa Thorpe (22 July 2017). "Backlash over BBC's low-paid minority ethnic staff". The Guardian. The show’s main, white presenter Huw Edwards is the BBC’s sixth-highest paid on the list ... a high number of leading white presenters were not included as most of their pay came through a production company hired by the BBC ... David Dimbleby, host of Question Time, is one such case ... Off-screen, Harding, James Purnell, director of radio and education, Ian Katz, editor of BBC2’s Newsnight, and Sarah Sands, editor of Radio 4’s Today programme, are all paid more than £150,000 a year, and are also white.
  90. ^ Jumi Akinfenwa (10 August 2020). "Unsaid Stories review – a beginner's guide to racial inequality". The Guardian. From the BBC’s use of the N-word on daytime television by a white presenter to black Labour MP Dawn Butler being incorrectly stopped by police.
  91. ^ a b Dan Seddon (1 August 2020). "Love Island's Laura Whitmore responds to diversity criticism ahead of series 6". Digital Spy. Caroline Flack stepped down following her arrest last month ... Before Whitmore was appointed, This Morning's Rochelle Humes, Vick Hope and Maya Jama were reportedly in the mix for the job, and Whitmore has now responded to claims that producers should have helped further representation on TV by not choosing another white presenter.
  92. ^ a b c d e "Keith Lemon actor sorry for playing 'offensive' black characters". BBC. 5 June 2020. Leigh Francis has apologised for playing black people in his 2000s Channel 4 show, Bo' Selecta. Using masks, the white actor created exaggerated versions of Michael Jackson, Craig David and Mel B. Leigh ... In the show, white stars like Kelly Osbourne, Elton John and Lorraine Kelly were also portrayed in a similar way. ... There have also been some calls on social media for white actors David Walliams and Matt Lucas to apologise
  93. ^ Alex Marshall (5 June 2020). "Blackface on British TV Finally Faces a Reckoning". New York Times. The character was one of several caricatures of black celebrities on the show “Bo’ Selecta!” that were played by the white comedian Leigh Francis, wearing masks with grotesquely exaggerated features.
  94. ^ "The films and shows which have been pulled in the wake of Black Lives Matter protests". ITV News. 11 June 2020. The controversial character has been heavily criticised for years as white actor Reece Shearsmith was painted in blackface in the BBC Two comedy series.
  95. ^ Lanre Bakare (10 June 2020). "Netflix pulls The Mighty Boosh and The League of Gentlemen over blackface". The Guardian. The Mighty Boosh’s Spirit of Jazz and The League of Gentlemen’s Papa Lazarou characters were both played by white actors wearing blackface ... The Spirit of Jazz character is supposed to be the ghost of fictional jazz musician Howlin’ Jimmy Jefferson and was played by Noel Fielding in the series.
  96. ^ Patrick West (30 June 2020). "British theatre needs to re-examine its politics". The Spectator. Two years ago, in a West End production of Oscar Wilde's Lady Windermere's Fan, the Duchess of Berwick was played by the white actress Jennifer Saunders, while her biological brother Lord Lorton was played by Joseph Marcell, who is black.
  97. ^ "'Peep Show': Netflix Removes Blackface Scene From British Comedy". Newsweek. 29 June 2020. In the UK, cult Channel 4 comedy Peep Show has become the latest show to have a scene featuring a white actor in race-changing makeup removed from Netflix ... Jez (played by Robert Webb) ... painting him with dark brown face paint. ... white comedian Leigh Francis play characters like Michael Jackson, Spice Girl Mel B, and British R&B star Craig David.
  98. ^ Emine Saner (4 August 2017). "Paul Chowdhry: 'People write this abuse to me, and I've just got to take it?'". The Guardian. The comic Daniel Kitson’s show, in which he says the word “Paki” several times. The debate hinges on whether it is acceptable for a white comedian (in front of a largely white, although almost certainly liberal, audience) to use such a toxic word so casually, even to prove a point about racism.
  99. ^ Craig Hansen Werner (2006). "A Change Is Gonna Come". A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race & the Soul of America. University of Michigan Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0472031474. Featured a young Stevie Winwood, the one white singer whose voice James Baldwin admitted misidentifying as black.
  100. ^ a b c Jess Denham (October 24, 2014). "MOBO Awards 2014: Jess Glynne hits out at 'ridiculous' criticism of nominated white artists". The Independent. Jess Glynne has described the criticism of white artists nominated for MOBO Awards as "strange and annoying" ... "That's not a bad thing just because I have white skin," she said ... Should Ed Sheeran win Best Song for "Sing" this evening ... The white singer-songwriter topped the 1Xtra Power List ... who came third behind white brothers Disclosure and just ahead of the white son of a former City banker, Sam Smith.
  101. ^ a b Alice Vincent (15 August 2018). "And I Am Telling You: The turbulent history of Broadway's controversial, fortune-sealing song". The Daily Telegraph. An evening of musical numbers at the Royal Albert Hall, by white singer Mazz Murray ... She wasn’t alone: also in 2013, white former prison guard Sam Bailey was joined by Nicole Scherzinger to sing Telling before she won The X Factor.
  102. ^ Dorian Lynskey (21 May 2014). "Psychedelic soul: 10 of the best". The Guardian. It was co-written and produced by Ruth Copeland, a white singer from County Durham who opened for Sly Stone and David Bowie
  103. ^ Glen Jeansonne (2011). Elvis Presley, Reluctant Rebel: His Life and Our Times. Praeger Publishers. p. 179. ISBN 978-0313359040. Concert film The T.A.M.I. Show (1965) along with the television special in which white singer Petula Clark embraced black singer Harry Belafonte
  104. ^ Roisin O'Connor (28 November 2017). "Grammy nominations 2018 - live updates: Kendrick Lamar and Jay-Z dominate top categories". The Independent. If Sheeran and Lamar are both nominated for album of the year, we may be in for another fraught event - following the controversy that was Adele winning over Beyonce at the 59th awards. Sheeran beating Lamar would mark the fourth year in a row that a white singer has been picked for the award over a black artist.
  105. ^ James E. Perone (2012). "Dusty Springfield: Dusty in Memphis (1969)". The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0313379062. Springfield left the trio for a solo career and turned to pop and soul material. She was instrumental in the arrangements that brought top Motown acts to the United Kingdom in 1965, and she was the only white singer to be on the bill of some of the shows in which she appeared.
  106. ^ a b Joel Whitburn (2004). Joel Whitburn Presents Top R & B/hip-hop Singles, 1942-2004. Record Research. ISBN 978-0898201604. Born George O'Dowd on 6/14/1961 in Bexley Heath, Kent, England. White singer. Leader of Culture Club. ... Jamiroquai: Interracial alternative dance group led by white singer/songwriter Jason Kay
  107. ^ Robert Staples (1987). Urban Plantation: Racism and Colonialism in the Post Civil Rights Era. Black Scholar Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0933296121. Certain oberservers thought it was an act or courage for white singer Paul McCartney to risk his standing with white audience by recording songs wth black artists such as Stevie Wonder
  108. ^ Rick Kennedy (2013). Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy: Gennett Records and the Rise of America's Musical Grassroots. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253007476. The name was inspired by the nineteenth-century black opera singer Sissieretta Jones, who was nicknamed Black Patti because her vocal gifts resembled those of Adelina Patti, a leading white singer of the day.
  109. ^ "Football racism: Alex Scott reacts to Raheem Sterling incident". BBC. 10 December 2018. Sterling posted two pictures showing headlines from the Daily Mail, one talked about a young black player, Tosin Adarabioyo buying a house, while the other headline talked about a young white footballer, Phil Foden buying his mum a home.
  110. ^ Kate Rowan (23 September 2020). "From Olympic heroes to redundancy: how Britain's Sevens heroes are coping with their new normal". The Daily Telegraph. Mitchell is conscious that, as a public school and Oxford-educated white athlete, his complaints at unfair treatment at the hands of the RFU might not be met with widespread sympathy.
  111. ^ African Concord. Vol. 5. Concord Press of Nigeria. 1990. p. 45. Vince Jones, a leading white footballer with Leeds United
  112. ^ Adam Howard (November 18, 2015). "Why is People magazine's 'Sexiest Man Alive' almost always white?". MSNBC. People magazine's pick for their annual “Sexiest Man Alive” cover story is … another white guy. David Beckham, the 40-year-old retired soccer star, received the nod on Tuesday, making him the latest in a long line of white men so honored since the magazine started awarding the title 30 years ago.
  113. ^ Alexandria Sage (28 October 2014). "In France, kebabs get wrapped up in identity politics". Reuters. One brand of potato chips is even kebab-flavoured, and advertised by Yohan Cabaye, a white footballer who plays for France and Paris Saint-Germain.
  114. ^ Richard Berthoud (2000). Family formation in multi-cultural Britain:three patterns of diversity1. Institute for Social and Economic Research. Patterns of family life have become increasingly diverse over the past thirty years among white people in Britain and other North European countries. Family relationships are said to be moving away from “old fashioned values” towards “modern individualism”. Different minorities are strongly represented at both ends of the spectrum.
  115. ^ Ahmad WIU; Kernohan EEM; Baker MR (1988). "Drinking and smoking habits among 'Asians' in Bradford". The National Medical Journal of India. Vol. 2. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. p. 130. 243 adult patients who were attending general practitioners at a health centre in Bradford,England. Of these 103 were white, 83 were of Pakistani origin and 57 were of Indian origin ... Smoking and drinking are less frequent amongst 'Asians' than whites in Britain and the obvious reasons are the religious and cultural taboos.
  116. ^ Sarah Cox (25 March 2019). "Ethnic minorities not 'hypersensitive' to microaggressions, research shows". Goldsmiths, University of London. Some critics of microaggression research, including psychologists, have also said that majority (e.g. white people in Britain) individuals would not respond to the same events so severely.
  117. ^ Joe T. Darden (2000). "Race Relations in the City". In Ronan Paddison (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0803976955. Any other arrangement, such as racial equality or control by people of colour, would threaten the 'white comfort zone' and therefore be unacceptable to most whites. The intensity to which most whites in Britain and the USA hold these views varies from very intense to passive (Figure 11.1).
  118. ^ Sociology Working Papers 2007-01 (PDF), Oxford University, p. 18, Do you think most white people in Britain would mind or not mind if a suitably qualified person of Asian* origin were appointed as their boss? (If mind) A lot or a little?
  119. ^ B. Vivekanandan (1982). "Riots in Britain: An Analysis". India Quarterly. Vol. 38. SAGE Publications.
  120. ^ Paul Barker (28 April 1996). "How many black men have white partners?". The Independent.
  121. ^ Anthony Browne (3 September 2000). "The last days of a white world". The Guardian.
  122. ^ Kate Gavron. "Predicting the Future". Runnymede Trust. It comments on neither the inadequacy nor the use of the term ‘whites’.
  123. ^ Suzanne Model; Gene Fisher (2010). "Unions between blacks and whites: England and the US compared". Ethnic and Racial Studies. Routledge. The results indicate that, with or without controls and irrespective of ethnicity, blacks in Britain are significantly more likely to have a native born white partner than their US counterparts.
  124. ^ Steven Swinford (11 December 2012). "Census 2011: fewer than half of people living in London are white". The Daily Telegraph. Overall, the proportion of white people in Britain has fallen from 91% in 2001 to 86% in 2011. The fall has taken place despite an influx of white immigrants from Poland.
  125. ^ Steve Garner (November 2011), White working-classneighbourhoods:Common themes and policy suggestions (PDF), Joseph Rowntree Foundation, p. 15
  126. ^ Steve Garner (January 2009), Who Cares about the White Working Class? (PDF), Runnymede Trust, p. 6
  127. ^ Arne Risa Hole; Anita Ratcliffe (2019). "The Impact of the London Bombings on the Well‐Being of Adolescent Muslims*". The Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Wiley-Blackwell. Indians also have similar or higher earnings relative to white people in the United Kingdom, while earnings can be much lower for people who have Pakistani or Bangladeshi backgrounds (Longhi and Brynin, 2017)
  128. ^ "How environmental racism is fuelling the coronavirus pandemic". Nature. 19 May 2020. Only 2% of white people in the United Kingdom live in crowded conditions, but 30% of Bangladeshi, 16% of Pakistani and 15% of black African households are overcrowded.
  129. ^ "Quick Facts". European Network Against Racism. Black people are stopped by police at 6 times the rate of White people in the United Kingdom and Asians at almost twice the rate of Whites
  130. ^ Anthony F. Heath; Stephen D. Fisher; Gemma Rosenblatt; David Sanders; Maria Sobolewska (2013). "Partisanship". The Political Integration of Ethnic Minorities in Britain. OUP Oxford. p. 115. ISBN 978-0199656639.
  131. ^ mmigrants'access to social housing: perception and reality (PDF), Centre for Economic Performance, 2014, pp. 11–13, Many white people in the UK feel that social landlords actively discriminate against them in favour of immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research by Alan Manning and colleagues finds no basis in reality for this perceived discrimination – but the recent history of social housing gives an indication of why that view has become so entrenched.
  132. ^ Mona Chalabi (5 October 2015). "We're all racist. But racism by white people matters more". The Guardian.
  133. ^ Simon Kelner (31 May 2016). "There's no such thing as racism against white people". i.
  134. ^ J. F. Potter; D. M. Dawkins; P. Terry; D. G. Beevers (October 1983), "Breast cancer in blacks, Asians and whites in Birmingham", Postgraduate Medical Journal, 59 (696): 661–3, doi:10.1136/pgmj.59.696.661, PMC 2417640, PMID 6647182, We have investigated the incidence of breast cancer amongst Asian and black immigrants in comparison with whites in Britain ... Caucasians were taken from those born in the United Kingdom or Eire. ... The incidence of breast cancer among Asian and black immigrants is low compared to that of the Caucasians and is similar to the rates in their countries of origin.
  135. ^ Judith A Stewart (1999), "Ethnic differences in incidence of stroke: prospective study with stroke register", The BMJ, BMA (United Kingdom), pp. 967–971, Mortality from stroke, however, is higher among black people than white people in the United Kingdom and the United States.
  136. ^ "Genetic link found for obesity". CBC.ca. 12 April 2007. The gene, called FTO, was found by studying the genome of 39,000 white people in the United Kingdom, Finland and Italy who gave blood samples, the team said in Thursday's online issue of the journal Science.
  137. ^ "Clear obesity gene link 'found'". BBC. 12 April 2007. Half of white Europeans carry one copy of the variant and one in six has two copies, experts estimate.
  138. ^ Jones ME; Petersen I; Walters K (January 2020). "Differences in Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Between Ethnic Groups of People with Dementia in the United Kingdom". Clinical Epidemiology. Dove Medical Press. pp. 61–71.
  139. ^ Olive Pometsey (22 May 2020). "Why has the coronavirus affected BAME Britons so badly?". GQ. The coronavirus doesn't care about heritage, yet BAME people are losing their lives at a higher rate than white people in Britain. GQ looks at the links between racial inequality and public health.
  140. ^ Saphora Smith (19 July 2020). "Black Lives Matter stirs hope for change in England's ancient city of York". NBC News. Data from the coronavirus pandemic has shown that death rates have been significantly higher for Black people and ethnic minorities than for white people in Britain.
  141. ^ "Data shows virus death risk twice as high for black Britons". Associated Press. 7 May 2020. The study showed that black people were 1.9 times more likely to die with the coronavirus than whites in Britain, while Bangladeshi and Pakistani men were 1.8 times more likely to die than white males. The Office of National Statistics said ethnic Chinese and those of mixed ethnicity have risks for virus-related deaths similar to white people.
  142. ^ Vakil, Caroline (3 December 2021). "Black, Asian people in Britain have higher COVID-19 death rates: study". The Hill. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  143. ^ "Final report on progress to address COVID-19 health inequalities". GOV.UK. 3 December 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2022.