Page semi-protected

Black History Month

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Black History Month
Also calledAfrican-American History Month
Observed byUnited States, Canada,[1] United Kingdom[2]
SignificanceCelebration of the African diaspora including, African-American history
Date
  • February (US and Canada)
  • October (Europe)
FrequencyAnnual

Black History Month is an annual observance originating in the United States, where it is also known as African-American History Month. It has received official recognition from governments in the United States and Canada, and more recently has been observed in Ireland, and the United Kingdom. It began as a way of remembering important people and events in the history of the African diaspora. It is celebrated in February in the United States[4] and Canada,[5] while in Ireland, and the United Kingdom it is observed in October.[6][7]

History

Carter G. Woodson (1875–1950)

Negro History Week (1926)

The precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 in the United States, when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH) announced the second week of February to be "Negro History Week".[8] This week was chosen because it coincided with the birthday of Abraham Lincoln on February 12 and that of Frederick Douglass on February 14, both of which dates Black communities had celebrated together since the late 19th century.[8] For example, in January 1897 school teacher Mary Church Terrell persuaded the Washington, D.C. school board to set aside the afternoon of Douglass's birthday in February to teach about his life and work in the city's segregated public schools, and this became known as Douglass Day.[9] The thought process behind the week was never recorded, but scholars acknowledge two reasons for its birth: recognition and importance.[10] In 1915, Woodson had participated in the Lincoln Jubilee, a celebration of the 50-years since emancipation from slavery held in Bronzeville, Chicago. The summer-long Jubilee drew attendance from across the county with thousands of attendees to see exhibitions of heritage and culture, impressing Woodson with need to draw organized focus to the history of black people, and he led the founding of the ASNLH that fall.[9]

Early in the event´s history, African-American newspapers lent crucial support.[11] From the event's initial phase, primary emphasis was placed on encouraging the coordinated teaching of the history of Black Americans in the nation's public schools. The first Negro History Week was met with a lukewarm response, gaining the cooperation of the departments of education of the states of North Carolina, Delaware, and West Virginia as well as the city school administrations of Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.[12] Despite this far-from-universal observance, the event was regarded by Woodson as "one of the most fortunate steps ever taken by the Association", and plans for a repeat of the event on an annual basis continued apace.[12]

At the time of Negro History Week's launch, Woodson contended that the teaching of Black History was essential to ensure the physical and intellectual survival of the race within broader society:

If a race has no history, it has no worthwhile tradition, it becomes a negligible factor in the thought of the world, and it stands in danger of being exterminated. The American Indian left no continuous record. He did not appreciate the value of tradition; and where is he today? The Hebrew keenly appreciated the value of tradition, as is attested by the Bible itself. In spite of worldwide persecution, therefore, he is a great factor in our civilization.[13]

By 1929, The Journal of Negro History was able to note that with only two exceptions, officials with the state departments of education of "every state with considerable Negro population" had made the event known to that state's teachers and distributed official literature associated with the event.[14] Churches also played a significant role in the distribution of literature in association with Negro History Week during this initial interval, with the mainstream and Black press aiding in the publicity effort.[15]

Throughout the 1930s, Negro History Week countered the growing myth of the South's "lost cause", as epitomized in both the novel and the film Gone with the Wind. That myth argued that slaves had been well-treated, that the Civil War was a war of "northern aggression", and that Black people had been better off under slavery. "When you control a man's thinking you do not have to worry about his actions", Woodson wrote in his book The Miseducation of the American Negro, "you do not have to tell him not to stand here or go yonder. He will find his 'proper place' and will stay in it."[16]

Negro History Week grew in popularity throughout the following decades, with mayors across the United States endorsing it as a holiday.[8]

United States: Black History Month (1970)

The Black United Students first Black culture center (Kuumba House), where many events of the first Black History Month celebration took place

Black History Month was first proposed by Black educators and the Black United Students at Kent State University in February 1969. The first celebration of Black History Month took place at Kent State a year later, from January 2 to February 28, 1970.[4]

Six years later, Black History Month was being celebrated all across the country in educational institutions, centers of Black culture and community centers, both great and small, when President Gerald Ford recognized Black History Month in 1976, during the celebration of the United States Bicentennial. He urged Americans to "seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of Black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history".[17]

In the Black community, Black History Month was met with enthusiastic response; it prompted the creation of Black history clubs, an increase in interest among teachers, and interest from progressive whites.[8]

On February 21, 2016, 106-year Washington, D.C., resident and school volunteer Virginia McLaurin visited the White House as part of Black History Month. When asked by President Barack Obama why she was there, McLaurin said: "A Black president. A Black wife. And I'm here to celebrate Black history. That's what I'm here for."[18]

United Kingdom (1987)

1822 handbill advertising a Black boxing tutor in Alnwick, Northumberland; tweeted by Northumberland Archives as part of Black History Month in 2020[19]

In the United Kingdom, Black History Month was first celebrated in October 1987[20] (which year was also coincidentally the 150th anniversary of Caribbean emancipation, the centenary of the birth of Marcus Garvey and the 25th anniversary of the Organization of African Unity, an institution dedicated to advancing the progress of African states).[21] Black History Month in the UK was organised through the leadership of Ghanaian analyst Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, who had served as a coordinator of special projects for the Greater London Council (GLC) and created a collaboration to get it underway.[22][23]

In the UK, Black History Month was first celebrated in London in 1987, as part of African Jubilee Year, when on October 1 Dr Maulana Karenga from the US was invited to an event at County Hall to mark the contributions of Black people throughout history, and Addai-Sebo drew up a plan to recognise the contributions of African, Asian and Caribbean people to the economic, cultural and political life in the UK, with other boroughs beginning formally to institute October as Black History Month in the UK.[24]

Black History Month UK does not support the use of the term "black" to refer to all people of colour in the UK (see: Political blackness), and has criticised institutions for supporting Black History Month with images of people from British Asian backgrounds.[25]

Germany (1990)

In Berlin in 1990, members of the Black German community began observing Black History Month, and these celebrations spread to other German cities. Programs have included discussions of black Europeans, international African perspectives, the history of civil rights in the U.S., and apartheid in South Africa.[26]

Canada (1995)

In 1995, after a motion by politician Jean Augustine, representing the riding of Etobicoke—Lakeshore in Ontario, Canada's House of Commons officially recognized February as Black History Month and honored Black Canadians. In 2008, Senator Donald Oliver moved to have the Senate officially recognize Black History Month, which was unanimously approved.[5]

Currently Canada defines the festivity as an opportunity to celebrate “the achievements and contributions of Black Canadians and their communities who … have done so much to take make Canada a culturally diverse, compassionate, and prosperous country”.

Republic of Ireland (2010)

Ireland's Great Hunger Institute, at Quinnipiac University in Connecticut, notes: "Black History Month Ireland was initiated in Cork in 2010. This location seems particularly appropriate as, in the 19th century, the city was a leading center of abolition, and the male and female anti-slavery societies welcomed a number of black abolitionists to lecture there, including Charles Lenox Remond and Frederick Douglass."[27]

Developments

When first established, Black History Month resulted in some controversy.[28] Those who believed that Black History Month was limited to educational institutions questioned whether it was appropriate to confine the celebration of Black history to one month, as opposed to the integration of black history into mainstream education for the whole of the year. Another concern was that contrary to the original inspiration for Black History Month, which was a desire to redress the manner in which American schools failed to represent Black historical figures as anything other than slaves or colonial subjects, Black History Month could reduce complex historical figures to overly simplified objects of "hero worship". Other critics refer to the celebration as a form of racism.[29] Actor and director Morgan Freeman and actress Stacey Dash have criticized the concept of declaring only one month as Black History Month.[30][31] Freeman noted, "I don't want a Black history month. Black history is American history."[32]

Since its inception, Black History Month has expanded beyond its initial acceptance in educational establishments. Carter Woodson's organization, now known as, the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) designates a theme each year: for example, " Black Health and Wellness" in 2022 focused on medical scholars, health care providers, and health outcomes.[33] In 2018, Instagram created its first-ever Black History Month program with the help of its then Head of Global Music & Youth Culture Communications, SHAVONE. Instagram's Black History Month program featured a series of first-time initiatives, including a #BlackGirlMagic partnership with Spotify and the launch of the #CelebrateBlackCreatives program, which reached more than 19 million followers.[34] By 2020, Black History Month had become a focus beyond schools. The Wall Street Journal describes it as "a time when the culture and contributions of African Americans take center stage" in a variety of cultural institutions including theaters, libraries and museums.[35] It has also garnered attention from the U.S. business community.[36] In February 2020 Forbes noted that "much of corporate America is commemorating" Black History Month including The Coca-Cola Company, Google, Target Corporation, Macy's, United Parcel Service and Under Armour.[37]

See also

Other history months

Heritage months

International

Footnotes

  1. ^ Compton, Wayde, "Remembering Hogan's Alley, hub of Vancouver's black community", CBC News, February 14, 2016. Archived March 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "Black History Month Introduction; Prime Minister, Theresa May" Archived March 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, September 28, 2016.
  3. ^ Veal, Lou (February 3, 1970), "'Black History Month' begins with opening of culture center", Daily Kent Stater, Volume LV, Number 52, Kent State University Archived March 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b Wilson, Milton. "Involvement/2 Years Later: A Report On Programming In The Area Of Black Student Concerns At Kent State University, 1968–1970". Special Collections and Archives: Milton E. Wilson, Jr. papers, 1965–1994. Kent State University. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "About Black History Month". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  6. ^ Ryan, Órla. "Ireland becomes fourth country in world to celebrate Black History Month". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  7. ^ "BHM365". Black History Month 365. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Scott, Daryl Michael, "The Origins of Black History Month", Archived February 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2011, www.asalh.org/.
  9. ^ a b Chambers, Veronica; Law, Jamiel (February 25, 2021). "How Negro History Week Became Black History Month and Why It Matters Now". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  10. ^ Reddick, L. D. (January–June 2002). "25 Negro History Weeks". The Negro History Bulletin. 65.
  11. ^ Delmont, Matthew F. (2019). Black Quotidian: History. Black Quotidian: Everyday History in African-American Newspapers. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1503607040. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  12. ^ a b Woodson, C. G. (April 1926). "Negro History Week". Journal of Negro History. 11 (2): 238–242. doi:10.2307/2714171. JSTOR 2714171. S2CID 150316762.
  13. ^ Woodson, C. G. (April 1926). "Negro History Week". Journal of Negro History. 11 (2): 239. doi:10.2307/2714171. JSTOR 2714171. S2CID 150316762.
  14. ^ "Negro History Week: The Fourth Year", Journal of Negro History, vol. 14, no. 2 (April 1929), p. 109.
  15. ^ "Negro History Week: The Fourth Year", p. 110.
  16. ^ "'Birth of a Nation' and the Birth of Black History Month". The Attic. Archived from the original on March 3, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  17. ^ "President Gerald R. Ford's Message on the Observance of Black History Month". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. University of Texas. February 10, 1976. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  18. ^ "'I am so happy': 106-year-old woman dances with joy as she meets Obama". CTVNews. February 22, 2016. Archived from the original on December 2, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  19. ^ "#BlackHistoryMonth – Boxers 1/2". Northumberland Archives twitter feed. October 8, 2020. Archived from the original on October 8, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  20. ^ Ammar Kalia, "From emperors to inventors: the unsung heroes to celebrate in Black History Month" Archived November 30, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, October 8, 2019.
  21. ^ Addai-Sebo, Akyaaba (October 13, 2020). "Black children must be able to believe in themselves. That's what Black History Month is for". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  22. ^ Zamani, Kubara, "Akyaaba Addai-Sebo Interview" Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Every Generation Media, reproduced from New African magazine.
  23. ^ Wong, Ansel (September 28, 2017). "How did Black History Month come to the UK?". Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (CRER). Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  24. ^ "Black History Month FAQ". Black History Month. Archived from the original on February 21, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  25. ^ Mohdin, Aamna (March 3, 2018). "'Political blackness': a very British concept with a complex history". Quartz.
  26. ^ Florvil, Tiffany (February 22, 2019). "Rethinking Black History Month in Germany".
  27. ^ "How Ireland is celebrating its National Black History Month". IrishCentral.com. October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  28. ^ Pitre, Abul (November 3, 2002). "The Controversy Around Black History". The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.
  29. ^ Hirsch, Afua (October 1, 2010). "Black History Month has to be more than hero worship". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  30. ^ McCarter, William Matt (2012). "There is a White Sale at Macy's: Reflections on Black History Month". International Journal of Radical Critique. 1 (2). Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  31. ^ "Stacey Dash says Morgan Freeman agrees with her views on Black History Month, ask for apology from 'Twitter haters'". TheGrio. January 27, 2016. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016.
  32. ^ "Freeman calls Black History Month 'ridiculous'". MSNBC. Associated Press. December 15, 2005. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  33. ^ Franklin, Jonathan (February 1, 2022). "Here's the story behind Black History Month — and why it's celebrated in February". NPR. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  34. ^ Long, Tia (February 27, 2019). "SHAVONE. Is Stepping Out of Tech and Into Her Own". PAPER MAGAZINE. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  35. ^ Hughes, Robert J. (January 21, 2000), "During Black History Month, Enjoy a Slice of American Culture", The Wall Street Journal. Archived October 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "Secrets of Wealthy Women: African-American Women on Overcoming Obstacles", The Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2019 (subscription required). Archived October 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ Todd, Samantha (February 3, 2020), "How Google, Coca-Cola And Other American Companies Are Celebrating Black History Month 2020", Forbes. Archived October 27, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading

External links