Wikipedia:WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/DNB Epitome 20

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This listing page belongs to Wikipedia:WikiProject Dictionary of National Biography, spun out of the “missing article” project, and is concerned with checking whether Wikipedia has articles for all those listed in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), a 63-volume British biographical dictionary published 1885-1900 and now in the public domain. This page relates to volume 20 running from name Forrest to name Garner.

Scope of the subproject:

It is envisaged that the following work will be done:

  • Checks made that links on this page point to a wikipedia article about the same person;
  • Addition of new articles for all red-links based on DNB text;
  • Checking whether blue-linked articles would benefit from additional text from DNB.

Listings are posted as bulleted lists, with footnotes taken from the DNB summaries published in 1904. The listings and notes are taken from scanned text that is often corrupt and in need of correction. Not all the entries on the list correspond to actual DNB articles; some are “redirects” and there are a few articles devoted to families rather than individuals.

If you are engaged in this work you will probably find quite a number of unreferenced articles among the blue links. You are also encouraged to mention the DNB as a reference on such articles whenever they correspond to the summary, as part of the broader campaign for good sourcing. A suggested template is {{DNB}}.

Locating the full text:

DNB text is now available on Wikisource for all first edition articles, on the page s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Vol 20 Forrest - Garner. Names here are not inverted, as they are in the original: Joe Bloggs would be found at Wikisource s:Bloggs, Joe (DNB00). The text for the first supplement is available too: NB that this Epitome listing includes those supplement articles also.

List maintenance and protocols:

List maintenance tasks are to check and manipulate links in the list with piping or descriptive parenthetical disambiguators, and to mark list entries with templates to denote their status; whilst as far as possible retaining the original DNB names:

  • piping: [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester|Charles Abbot]]
  • descriptive parenthetical disambiguators [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)]]
  • both combined [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)|Charles Abbot]]

The work involves:

  • Checking that bluelinks link to the correct person; if so, {{tick}} them. If not, try to find the correct article and pipe or disambiguate the link.
  • Check whether redlinks can be linked to an article by piping or disambiguation.
  • Create articles based on the DNB text for redlinks for which no wikipedia article can be found
  • Check whether existing blue-linked articles could benefit from an input of DNB text (e.g. the article is a stub), and if so, update the article from DNB

A number of templates are provided to mark-up entries:

  • {{mnl}} the link runs to a wrong person; - produces the text: [link currently leads to a wrong person]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{dn}} the link runs to a dab page - produces the text [disambiguation needed]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{tick}} the link has been checked and runs to the correct person - YesY
  • {{tick}} {{tick}} the text of the linked article has been checked against DNB text and would not benefit from additional DNB text - YesY YesY
  • {{tick}} {{cross}} the text of the linked article looks short enough to suggest it would benefit from additional DNB text - YesY No

Note that before creating new articles based on DNB text you should undertake searches to check that the article's subject does not already have an article. It is easily possible that the disambiguation used in this page is not the disambiguation used in an existing wikipedia article. Equally, feel free to improve upon the disambiguation used in redlinks on this page by amending them.

Supplement articles:

Because of the provenance of the listing, a number of the original articles will not in fact be in the announced volume, but in one of the three supplement volumes published in 1901. Since the DNB did not include articles about living people, this will be the case whenever the date of death is after the publication date of the attributed volume. In due course there will be a separate listing.

General thoughts:

This project is intended as a new generation in “merging encyclopedias”, as well as being one of the most ambitious attempted. For general ideas of where we are, and some justification of the approach being taken, see the essay Wikipedia:Merging encyclopedias.

Helpful access templates:

helpful templates

There are two templates to help link to the correct page: {{Cite DNBIE}} and {{DNBIE}}. The page number automatically link to the correct url for the page at the Internet Archive site.

{{Cite DNBIE|title=Dove, John|page=358}}
 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358. 

and

{{DNBIE|title=Dove, John|page=358}}
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainLee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358. 

if a wstitle= parameter is used in place of title= then the templates also link the DNB article on Wikisource:

{{cite DNBIE|wstitle=Dove, John (d.1665?)|page=358}}
 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John (d.1665?)". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358. 

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  1. ^ Arthur Forrest (d. 1770), commodore; served on West Indian and South American stations; captured merchant fleet off Petit-Goâve, 1768; died holding Jamaica command.
  2. ^ Ebenezer Forrest (. 1774), attorney; author of An Account of what seemed most remarkable in the five days peregrination of Messrs. Tothall, Scott, Hogarth, Thornhill, and F. (1782), illustrated by Hogarth.
  3. ^ Henry Forrest or Forres (d. 1533?), Scottish martyr; friar of the Benedictine order; burned as a heretic at St. Andrews for words spoken in approval of Patrick Hamilton.
  4. ^ John Forrest (1474?–1538). See Forest.
  5. ^ Robert Forrest (1789?–1852), sculptor ; stonemason in Clydesdale: executed the colossal figure of Lord Melville in St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh, the statue of Knox in the Glasgow necropolis, and that of Mr. Ferguson of Raith at Haddiugton.
  6. ^ Theodosius Forrest (1728–1784), author and lawyer; son of Ebenezer Forrest; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1762-81; solicitor to Co vent Garden Theatre and friend of Garrick and Colman; committed suicide.
  7. ^ Thomas Forrest (d. 1540). See Forret.
  8. ^ Thomas Forrest (fl. 1580), translator of three orations of Isocrates, 1580.
  9. ^ Thomas Forrest (1729?–1802?), navigator; formed for the East India Company new settlement at Balambangau, 1770; surveyed coasts of New Guinea and Sulu Archipelago, being the first to place accurately Waygiou on the chart, 1774-6; discovered Forrest Strait, 1790: publishedJournal of the Esther Brig... from Bengal to Quedah 1783, and Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergni Archipelago 1792; also wrote Treatise on the Monsoons lu East India
  10. ^ William Forrest (fl. 1581), Roman catholic priest and poet; of Christ Church, Oxford; afterwards one of Queen Mary's chaplains; his compilation from the 'De Regimine Principumand his paraphrase of the Psalms dedicated to the Duke of Somerset. His Second Gresyld a narrative in verse of the divorce of Queen Catherine of Arragou, was printed, 1875.
  11. ^ Alfred Henry Forrester (1804–1872), artist; worked with his brother, Charles Robert Forrester, under name ofAlfred Crowquill exhibited pen-andink sketches at the Royal Academy; contributed sketches (1845) toPunchand theIllustrated London News and woodcuts to Chambers's Book of Days; published more than twenty humorous works written and illustrated by himself: illustrated his brother's works, also The Tour of Dr. Syntax 1838, Albert R. Smith's Beauty and the Beast 1843, the Bon GaultierBallads 1849, Cuthbert Bede's Fairy Tales 1858, The Travels of Baron Munchauseu 1859, and Six Plates of Pickwickian Sketches
  12. ^ Charles Robert Forrester (1803–1850), miscellaneous writer: elder brother of Alfred Henry Forrester; published, under the pseudonym Hal Willis Castle Baynard 1824, andSir Roland 1827, two novels; contributed to Beutley's Miscellany as A. Crowquill his chief articles being reissued (1643) as Phantasmagoria of Fun Absurdities in Prose and Verse byAlfred Crowquill(1827), was the joint work of the brothers Forrester.
  13. ^ David Forrester (1588–1633), Scottish divine; M.A. St. Andrews, 1608; deposed from pastorate of North Leith for opposition to the five articles of Perth; restored, 1627.
  14. ^ Joseph James Forrester, Baron de Forrester in Portugal (1809–1861), merchant and wineshipper: went to Oporto, 1831; published chart of the Douro from Vilvestre to its mouth, with geological survey and maps of the port-wine districts, 1848; exerted himself to obtain reforms in the making and exportation of the wine; published prize essay on Portugal, 1851; drowned in the Douro; still known as Protector of the Douro
  15. ^ Thomas Forrester (1588?–1642), satirist of covenanters; M.A. St. Andrews, 1608; minister of Ayr, 1623, of Melrose, 1627-38; deposed for Arminianism; his satire included in Maidment's Book of Scottish Pasquils 1828.
  16. ^ Thomas Forrester (1635?–1706), Scottish theologian; renounced episcopacy and became a field preacher; deposed and imprisoned, 1674: minister of Killearn and St. Andrews after the Revolution; principal of the new college at St. Andrews, 1698; wroteThe Hierarchical JMshop's Claim to a Divine Right tried at the Scripture Bar 1699.
  17. ^ Thomas Forret (d. 1540), Scottish martyr: studied at Cologne; canon regular in the monastery of Inchcolm; when vicar of Dollar, Clackmannanshire, was accused by the friars of heresy; eventually burned at Edinburgh with four others.
  18. ^ William de Fors , Earl of Albemarle (d. 1242).
  19. ^ William de Fors, Earl of Albemarle (d. 1260).
  20. ^ Edward Forsett (d. 1630?), political writer; active as justice of the peace in examination of the Gunpowder plot conspirators; published A Comparative Discovrse of the Bodies Natvral and Politiqve 1606, and 'A Defence of the Right of Kings 1624, in answer to Robert Parsons.
  21. ^ Josiah Forshall (1795–1863), librarian; fellow and tutor of Exeter College, Oxford; M.A., 1821; keeper of manuscript department, British Museum, 1827-37; F.R.S., 1828; secretary to the Museum, 1828-50; chaplain of the Foundling Hospital, 1829-63; edited catalogue of manuscripts (new series), the Description of the Greek Papyri and catalogues of some of the oriental and Sj'riao manuscripts; published editions of the Gospels.
  22. ^ Benjamin Forster (1736–1805), antiquary; fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1760: M.A., 1760; B.D., 1768; friend of Gray, Mason, and Gough; rector of Boconnoc. Broadoak, and Cherichayes, Cornwall, 1770.
  23. ^ Benjamin Meggot Forster (1764–1829), man of science; second son of Edward Forster the elder; published under initialsI ntroduction to the Knowledge of Funguses 1820; invented sliding portfolio and atmospherical electroscope; one of the first members of the anti-slave trade committee, 1788; framed the Child Stealing Act.
  24. ^ Edward Forster, the elder (1730–1812), banker and antiquary; while in Holland received from his relative, Benjamin Furly, some original letters of Locke; for nearly thirty years governor of the Russia Company; consulted by Pitt on paper currency.
  25. ^ Edward Forster (1769–1828), miscellaneous writer; son of Nathaniel Forster (1726?-1790); matriculated at Balliol College.Oxford, 1788; M. A. St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 1797; morning preacher at Berkeley and Grosvenor chapels, and at Park Street and King Street, 1800-14; chaplain to the British embassy at Paris, 18181828, where he died; published the British Gallery of Engravings 1807-13, editions of Jarvis's Don Quixote 1801, Galland's Arabian Nights, Anacreon, Rasselas 1805, and various illustrated dramatic collections.
  26. ^ Edward Forster, the younger (1765–1849), botanist; third son of Edward Forster the elder; treasurer of the Linnean Society, 1816, and vice-president, 1828; died from cholera, after inspecting the Refuge for the Destitute founded by him in Hackney Road. Besides a catalogue of British birds, he printed a Supplement to English Botany 1834. His herbarium was presented to the British Museum.
  27. ^ George Forster (d. 1792), traveller in service of the East India Company; author of A Journey from Bengal to England through the Northern Part of India ... and into Russia by the Caspian Sea 1798, and Sketches of the Mythology and Customs of the Hindoos 1785.
  28. ^ Henry Pitts Forster (1766?–1815), orientalist in service of the East India Company; helped to in;ik. Bengali an official and literary language by his English and Bengalee Vocabulary 1799, 1802.
  29. ^ Johann Georg Adam Forster, known as George (1754–1794), naturalist; born near Dantzig ; came to England with his father, Reinhold Forster, 1766; assisted him as naturalist in Captain Cook's second voyage, and was made F.R.S. for his share in the description of the flora of the South Seas, 1775; published a general account of the voyage, 1777; afterwards succesively professor of natural history at Wilna and librarian at Mainz.
  30. ^ Sir John Forster or Foster (1520?–1602), warden of the marches; commander of Harbottlu Castle, 1542; fought at Solway Moss, 1642, and Pinkie, 1547; knighted by Protector Somerset, 1547; sheriff of Northumberland, 1549-50; captain of Bamboroogb Castle, 1565 till death: warden of middle marches, 1500-95; dismissed from office, 1586, on charges of maladministration; restored, 1588.
  31. ^ John Forster (1812–1876), historian and biographer; educated at Newcastle grammar school and University College, London; barrister, Inner Temple, 1843; made the acquaintance of Lamb and Leigh Hunt; dramatic critic to the Examiner 1833; contributed to Lardner's Cyclopaedia his Lives of the Statesmen of the Commonwealth 1836-9, that of Sir John Eliot being issued separately in an enlarged form, 1864; edited 4 Foreign Quarterly Review 1842-3, Daily News 1846, and Examiner 1847-55; secretary to the lunacy commission, 1856-61, and a lunacy commissioner, 18(11-72; took part in dramatic performances in connection with Guild of Literature and Art; contributed to Quarterly and Edinburgh Review; published works, includingHistorical and Biographical Essays 1858, The Anest of the Five Members andThe Debates on the Grand Remonstrance 1860, lives of his friends Landor(l869) and Dickens, 1872-4,Life and Times of Goldsmith 1854, and the first volume of a Life of Swift 1876; bequeathed his valuable library and art treasures to the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
  32. ^ John Cooper Forster (1823–1886), surgeon; educated at King's College School and Guy's Hospital; M.B. London, 1847; F.R.C.S., 1849; surgeon at Guy's, 1870-80; president of the College of Surgeons, 1884-5; published The Surgical Diseases of Children 1860.
  33. ^ Nathaniel Forster (1718–1757), scholar; educated at Eton and Corpus Christi College, Oxford; fellow, 1739; M.A., 1739: D.D., 1750; domestic chaplain to Bishop Butler from 1750 till Butler's death, and executor; chaplain to Archbishop Herring; vicar of Rochdale, 1754; prebendary of Bristol, 1755; F.R.S., 1755; chaplain to George III, 1756; published Reflections on the Natural Foundation of the high Antiquity of - Government, Arts, and Sciences in Egypt 1743, Appendix Liviana 1746, a defence of the genuineness of Josephus's account of Jesus, 1749, Biblia Hebraica sine punctis 1750, and other works.
  34. ^ Nathaniel Forster (1726?–1790), writer on political economy; cousin of Nathaniel Forster (17181757); M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1748; fellow of Balliol College, Oxford; D.D., 1778; rector of All Saints, Colchester, and of Tolleshunt Knights, Essex; friend of Samuel Parr the Latin scholar; chief works, An Enquiry into the Causes of the present High Price of Provisions 1767, and Answer to Sir John Dalrymple's pamphlet on the Exportation of Wool 1782.
  35. ^ Richard Forster (1546?–1616), physician; M.D. Oxford, 1573; president of the College of Physicians, 1601-1604 and 1615-16; Lumleian lecturer, 1602; published Epbemerides Meteorologicee 1575.
  36. ^ Sir Robert Forster (1589–1663). See Foster
  37. ^ Simon Andrew Forster (1801–1870), part author of the History of the Violin 1864: son of William Forster (1764-1824).
  38. ^ Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster (1789-1860), naturalist and astronomer; son of Thomas Fnrly Foreter; M.B. Cambridge, 1819; discovered a comet, : 1819; with Spurheim studied the brain at Fliubunrb. and subsequently wrote a sketch of tin- phrenological system; publishedResearches about Atmospheric Phenomena 1812, original letters of Locke Shaftesbury and Algernon Sydney to his ancestor, Benjamin Furlv 1, q - V,3W l* h ? reface 1830 Ob8 -vations sur Influence , des Cometes 1838, and Sati 1843, a Pythagorean 1"w, H WM the frlend of ay, Shelley, Hurechel,  ; and Whewell; lived at Bruges after 1833, dying at  ! Brussels. His Recueil de ma Vie 1835, and Epistolarium Forsterianum contain much biographical information.
  39. ^ Thomas Forster (fl. 1695–1712), limner, known for his excellent pencil miniatures on vellum engraved by Van der Gucht and others.
  40. ^ Thomas Forster (1675?–1738), James Edward the Old Pretender's general; M.P., Northumberland, 1708-16; surrendered at Preston when in command of the rebel army; escaped from Newgate, 1716, to France; died at Boulogne.
  41. ^ Thomas Furly Forster (1761–1825), botanist; eldest son of Edward Forster the elder; an original member of the Linnean Society; published Flora Tonbrigensis 1816 (reissued 1842). I
  42. ^ William Forster (fl. 1632), mathematician; pupil of William Oughtred, wrote treatise on the horizontal instrument for delineating dials upon any plane he translated and published, 1632.
  43. ^ William Forster (1739–1808), musical instrument maker Old Forster); set up a violin shop near St. Martin's Lane, London, removing afterwards to the Strand. As a publisher he introduced Haydn to the London public.
  44. ^ William Forster (1764–1824), violin-maker; music-seller to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cumberland; son of William Forster (1739-1808)
  45. ^ William Forster (1788–1824), violin-maker ; son of William Forster (1764-1824)
  46. ^ William Forster (1784–1854), minister of the Society of Friends; helped his sister-in-law, Elizabeth Fry, in philanthropic work; visited United States, 1820-5; checked the spread of Unitarian views among quakers; averted a secession in Indiana caused by the slavery question, 1845; investigated the condition of the Irish distressed by the potato famine, 1846-7; travelled on the continent in the interests of abolitionism, 1849-52; died in East Tennessee; published Christian Exhortation to Sailors (1813).
  47. ^ William Edward Forster (1818–1886), , statesman; sou of William Forster (1784-1854); I educated at quaker schools in Bristol and Tottenham; I entered woollen trade at Bradford, 1842; accompanied his father to Ireland, 1846; did much to moderate the I chartists in Bradford, lecturing on Pauperism and its j Proposed Remedies 1848; reissued Clarkson'sLife of Peun with a preface defending the quakers from Macaulay's charges, 1849; left the society on his marriage in 1860 with a daughter of Dr. Arnold; liberal M.P. for Bradford, 1861-86: under-secretary for the colonies, 1865; took prominent part in reform debates, 1860-7; as vice-president of the council (1868-74), carried the Endowed Schools Bill, the Elementary Education Bill, and in 1871 had charge of the Ballot Bill; proposed as leader of the opposition, 1874; gave way to Lord Hartington: returned as an independent liberal, 1880; appointed by Mr. Gladstone chief secretary for Ireland, 1880; failed to carry the Compensation for Disturbance Bill and to obtain the conviction of the leaders of the land league; resigned office after two yearsstruggle with them and his opponents in the cabinet whose Kilmainham treaty he refused to sanction; again offered his services after the Phoenix Park murders (1882), but naver again held office; during his last four years generally opposed liberal foreign policy, but supported county franchise bill; first chairman of the Imperial Federation League and of the committee on the Manchester Ship Canal Mill.
  48. ^ Alexander John Forsyth (1769–1843), inventor of the percussion lock, for which he was awarded a pension, after declining 20,OOOJ. from Napoleon to reveal the secret; LL.D. Glasgow.
  49. ^ James Forsyth (1838–1871), Indian traveller and civilian; M.A.: published The Sporting Rifle and its Projectiles 1862, and a posthumous work describing his tour of the central provinces.
  50. ^ Joseph Forsyth (1763–1815), schoolmaster and author; M.A. King's College, Aberdeen, 1779; a prisoner in France, 1803-14: published valuableRemarks on Antiquities, Arte, and Letters, during an Excursion in Italy in the years 1802 and 1803 1813.
  51. ^ Robert Forsyth (1766–1846), miscellaneous writer; published, among other works, The Beauties of Scotland 1805-8, and Remarks on the Church of Scotland 1843, the latter being severely handled by Hugh Miller in the Witness
  52. ^ Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth (1827–1886), Indian civilian; educated at Sherborne, Rugby, Haileybury, and Calcutta; rendered valuable services at Umballa, 1857, and as special commissioner after the capture of Delhi; created C.B. for his conduct in the mutiny; commissioner of the Punjab, 1860-72; promoted trade with Turkestan, and obtained definition in favour of the amir of Kabul of territories in dispute betweeti him and the HiHsiau government; visited the amir of Yarkand; removed (1872) for measures taken to suppress Ram Singh's rebellion; as envoy to Kashgar, 1873, concluded commercial treaty with the amir; obtained from the king of Burmah agreement that the Karenee States should be acknowledged independent; K.C.S.I.
  53. ^ William Forsyth (1722–1800), merchant; made Cromarty, his native town, a great trading centre by introducing flax from Holland and coal from Leith (1770) and originating the manufacture of kelp; an agent of the British Linen Company; eulogised by Hugh Miller.
  54. ^ William Forsyth (1737–1804), gardener; succeeded Philip Miller in the ApothecariesGarden, Chelsea, 1771; superintendent of the royal gardens at St. James and Kensington, 1784; publishedObservations on the Diseases, &c., of Forest and Fruit Trees 1791, and 'Treatise on the Culture of Fruit Trees 1802; thanked by parliament for his tree-plaister.
  55. ^ William Forsyth (1818–1879), poet and journalist; sub-editor of the Inverness Courier under Carruthers; for thirty years editor of the Aberdeen Journal; assisted in preparation of Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature; published The Martyrdom of Kelavane 1861; and Idylls and Lyrics
  56. ^ William Forsyth (1812–1899), man of letter; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1834; major fellow and M.A., 1837; barrister, Inner Temple, 1839; bencher, 1857; treasurer, 1872; went Midland circuit; standing counsel for secretary of state for India, 1859-72; member of council of legal education from 1860; conservative M.P. for Marylebone, 1874-80; editor of Annual Register 1842-68; Q.C., 1857; commissary of Cambridge University. 1868; LL.D. Edinburgh, 1871. His works include Hortensius 1849,History of Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena 1853, Life of Cicero 1863, Novels and Novelists of Eighteenth Century 1871, and Essays Critical and Narrative 1874.
  57. ^ Fortescue of Credan, first Baron (1670–1746). See John Fortescue Aland.
  58. ^ Sir Adrian Fortescue (1476?–1539), knight of St. John; served against the French, 1513 and 1522; knighted, 1528; knight of St. John, 1532; attainted and executed on a charge of treason, probably on account of his relationship to Queen Anne Boleyn.
  59. ^ Sir Anthony Fortescue (ft. 1535?), conspirator; youngest son of Sir Adrian Fortescue; comptroller of the household to Cardinal Pole; arrested on accession of Elizabeth; imprisoned for life for a plot in conjunction with the Poles to proclaim Mary Queen of Scots ami restore Romanism by the aid of the Due de Guise, 1561; allowed to escape from the Tower.
  60. ^ Chichester Samuel Fortescue, afterwards Parkinson-Fortescue, Baron Carlingford (1823-1898), statesman; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1847; student, 1843-56: honorary ptudeut, 1867; assumed name of Parkinson; 1862; liberal M.P. for Louth, 1847-74; junior lord of treasury, 1854-5; under-secretary for colonies, 1857-8, and 1859-65; privy councillor, 1864; chief secretory for Ireland, 1866-6 and 1868-70; shared with Gladstone burden and credit of Irish church disestablishment and Irish Land Act of 1870: president of board of trade, 1871-4; raised to peerage, 1874; privy seal, 1881-5; assisted in framing, and conducted through House of Lords, Gladstone's second Irish Land Act; president of council, 1883-5; liberal unionist, 1886.
  61. ^ Sir Edmund Fortescue (1610–1647), royalist commander; when high sheriff of Devonshire defeated and captured at Modbury by Colonel Ruthven, 1642, and imprisoned in Windsor Castle and Winchester House; released, 1643; held Salcombe (Fort Charles) for the king, 1644-6; created baronet, 1644; died at Delft,
  62. ^ Sir Faithful Fortescue (1581?–1666), royalist commander; obtained grant of property in Antrim and seat in Irish parliament; frequently at issue with Strafford when lord deputy; named governor of Drogheda, 1641, but was in England during the siege; deserted at Edgehill, 1642, when commanding a troop of horse under Wharton, which was diverted from Ireland to serve the parliament; commanded royalist infantry regiment; went abroad after Worcester, 1651; gentleman of the privy chamber, 1660.
  63. ^ George Fortescue (1578?–1659), essayist and poet; grandson of Sir Anthony Fortescue; expelled the kingdom when secretary to the resident of the Duke of Lorraine in London, 1647; proposed by Bolton as member of projected royal academy; corresponded with Galilei, Strada, and Thomas Faruaby His works include Feriae Academicae (Latin essays), 1630, and The Sovles Pilgrimage 1650.
  64. ^ Sir Henry Fortescue (fl. 1426), lord chief-justice of the common pleas in Ireland, 1426-7; brother to Sir John Fortescue (1394?-1476 ?); M. P., Devonshire, 1421; twice deputed by the Irish parliament to make representations in England concerning their grievances,
  65. ^ James Fortescue (1716–1777), poetical writer ; fellow of Exeter College, Oxford: M. A., 1739; D.D., 1751: chaplain of Merton; senior proctor, 1748; rector of Wootton, Northamptonshire, 1764-77; chief work, Essays, Moral and Miscellaneous (1752 and 1754).
  66. ^ Sir John Fortescue (1394?–1476?), lord chiefjustice of the king's bench (1442) and author;gubernator of Lincoln's Inn, 1425, 1426, 1429: serjeant-at-law, 1430; member of commissions concerning disturbances at Norwich and in Yorkshire, 1443; trier of parliamentary petitions, 1445-55; though a member of the court party declined to be influenced by the crown or the peers in Kerver's and Thorpe's cases; attainted by Edward IV as Lancastrian, 1461; followed the deposed family to Scotland and Flanders and returned with Margaret, 1471; captured at Tewkesbury, 1471; pardoned, and made a member of the council on recognising Edward IV, 1471; wrote several treatises in defence of the title of the house of Lancaster, and a disavowal of them in 1471, besides the De Laudibus Legum Anglian (first printed, 1637), written for Edward, prince of Wales, and On the Governance of the Kingdom of England De Dommio Regali et Politico), first published, 1714.
  67. ^ Sir John Fortescue (1531?–1607), chancellor of the exchequer; eldest eon of Sir Adrian Fortescue; superintended the studies of the Princess Elizabeth, on whose accession he became keeper of the great wardrobe: M.P., Wallingford, 1672, and afterwards for the county and borough of Buckingham and Middlesex; chancellor of the exchequer and privy councillor, 1589; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 1601; deprived of the exchequer by James I, but continued in his other offices; intimate with Burghley, Bacon, Ralegh, and Essex. His disputed election for Buckinghamshire (1604) raised the important constitutional question whether the house or the law courts had jurisdiction over election petitions. He presented books and manuscripts to his friend Sir Thomas Bodley's library.
  68. ^ Sir Nicholas Fortescue , the elder (1575?–163H), chamberlain of the exchequer; harboured David Baker , the Benedictine, for several years at Cookhill, his residence; suspected of complicity in the Gunpowder plot, but cleared himself; commissioner of James I's household and of the navy, 1610; knighted, 1618; chamberlain of the exchequer, 1618-25.
  69. ^ Sir Nicholas Fortescue , the younger (1605?1644), knight of St. John, 1638; fourth son of Sir Nicholas Fortescue the elder; attempted to revive the order in England, as Queen Henrietta Maria desired, 1637; killed fighting for the king, probably at Marston Moor.
  70. ^ Richard Fortescue (d. 1655), governor of Jamaica; lieutenant-colonel in parliamentarian army, 1644; colonel in new model, 1645-7; commanded regiment in expedition to Vr-t Indies, 1654; coramander-in-chief in Jamaica. 1655.
  71. ^ Thomas Fortescue (1784–1872), Indian civilian : secretary to Henry Wellesley ( Lord Cowlrv) when liriitenant-governor of Oude; civil commissioner at Delhi, 1803.
  72. ^ William Fortescue (1687–1749), master of the rolls, 1741; introduced by his friend Gay to Pope; barrister, Inner Temple, 1715; private secretary to Walpole; M.P. for Newport (Isle of Wight), 1727-36; K.C., 1730; attorney-general to Frederick, prince of Wales, 1730; baron I of the exchequer, 1736; justice of common pleas, 1738; legal adviser to Pope, who addressed to him his first satire, i
  73. ^ Earl of Forth (1573?–1651). See Patrick Ruthven.
  74. ^ Charles Drury Edward Fortnum (1820-1899), art collector; conducted cattle ranch in South Australia, 1840-5; collected works of art in Europe; F.S.A., 1858; made liberal benefactions, 1892, to Oxford University for erection of suitable buildings for accommodating Ashmolean collections, to which he added his own collections, 1888; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1889; j published a treatise onMaiolica 1896, and other writings.
  75. ^ Samuel Fortrey (1622–1681), author of 'England's Interest and Improvement, consisting in the increase of the Store and Trade of this Kingdom 1663.
  76. ^ Robert Fortune (1813–1880), traveller and botanist; visited China for the Horticultural Society, j 1842, and the East India Company, 1848; sent home the double yellow rose, the Japanese anemone, and the i Chamatrops ortunei (fan-pulm), named after him; visited Formosa and Japan, 1853; published Report upon the Tea Plantations of the N.W. Provinces of India 1851,Two Visits to the Tea Countries of China and the British Plantations in the Himalayas 1853, and Yeddo j and Peking 1863.
  77. ^ Thomas Dudley Fosbroke (1770–1842), antiquary; educated at St. Paul's School and Pembroke College, Oxford: M.A., 1792; vicar of Walford, Herefordshire, 1830-42; F.S.A., 1799; publishedBritish Monachism 1802,Encyclopaedia of Antiquities 1825, and History of the City of Gloucester 1819, &c.
  78. ^ Edward Foss (1787–1870), biographer; member of the Inner Temple, 1822; one of the founders of the Incorporated Law Society, and president, 1842-3; undersheriff of London, 1827-8; F.S.A., 1822; published The Judges of England 1848-64, and an abridgment of Blackstone, 1820.
  79. ^ Sir Augustus John Foster (1780–1848), diplomatist; plenipotentiary to the United States, 1811-12; to Denmark, 1814-24; and to Turin, 1824-40; privy councillor, 1822; M.P., Cockermouth, 1812-14; G.C.H., 1825: created baronet, 1831; committed suicide, 1848.
  80. ^ Henry Foster (1796–1831), navigator; surveyed mouth of Columbia and north shore of La Plata, 1819; assisted Basil Hall, 1820; elected F.R.S. 1824, on return from Sabine's voyage to Greenland: astronomer to Parry's polar expeditions, 1824-5 and 1827; Copley medallist, 1826; given command of government sloop Chanticleer to determine specific ellipticitv of the earth, 1828; made pendulum experimente in the South Seas, 1828-9; measured the difference of longitude across the isthmus of Panama by rockets, 1830-1; drowned in the river Chagres.
  81. ^ James Foster (1697–1753), nonconformist divine: ministered successively at Exeter, Milborne Port, Colesford, Trowbridge, the Barbican chapel (1724), and PinnersHall (1744): a famous preacher; had controversies with Tindal and Henry Stebbing (1687-1763) ; visited Lord Kilmarnock in the Tower, 1746; D.D. Aberdeen, 1748; published Discourses on all the Principal Branches of Natural Religion and Social Virtue 1749, and other work*; refused the SaltersHall subscription,
  82. ^ John Foster (1731–1774), upper master of Eton 1765-73; fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Cniv.-n scholar, 1750; M.A., 1756; D.D., 1766: canon of Vii 1772; died hi Germany; published an essay in def-i: the prevailing accentuation of Greek against V~-iu- an l Gaily, 1762.
  83. ^ John Foster, Baron Oriel (1740–1828), last speaker of the Irish House of Commons, 1785-1800; student, Middle Temple: called t tin- Ir-h I ar. 1766: M.P., Dunleer, 1761; co. Louth, 1769-1821: chairman of committees and Irish privy councillor; chancellor of tin-Irish exchequer, 1784, when his corn law was passed, and after the union, 1804-6 and 1807-11: English privy councillor, 1786; opposed Roman Catholic Relief Bill, 173: and made able speeches against the union, 1799-1800; entered the imperial parliament; created peer of the United Kingdom, 1821.
  84. ^ John Foster (1770–1843), essayist and baptist minister; a republican and severe critic of the system of ecclesiastical institutions; published Essays 1804, contributions to the Eclectic Review and other works.
  85. ^ John Foster (1787?–1846), architect; studied under Wyatt; discovered sculptures of pediment of temple of Athene at Egina; designed Liverpool custom house.
  86. ^ John Leslie Foster (d. 1842), Irish judge; LL.D. Trinity College, Dublin, 1810; B.A., 1800; called to Irish bar, 1803; tory M.P. for Dublin university, 1807-12, Yarmouth (Isle of Wight), 1816-18, Armagh, 1818-20, Louth county, 1824-30; F.R.S., 1819; baron of the exchequer, 1830; judge of common pleas, 1842; publishedEssay on the Principles of Commercial Exchanges, particularly between England and Ireland 1804.
  87. ^ Sir Michael Foster (1689–1763), judge; entered Exeter College, Oxford, 1705; barrister, Middle Temple, 1713; recorder of Bristol, 1735; serjeantat-law, 1736; judge of king's bench, 1745; established right of the city of Bristol to try capital offences committed within its jurisdiction in case of Samuel Goodere; at trial of ! Broadfoot pronounced impressment to be legal; eulogised 1 in the Rosciad; published legal works.
  88. ^ Myles Birket Foster (1825–1899), painter; engaged independently as illustrator, 1846-58; executed : illustrations for editions of poets and prose-writers; devoted himself to painting from 1858; exhibited at Royal Academy from 1859; R.A., 1862. His pictures, chiefly in water-colour, were principally studies of roadside and woodland scenery.
  89. ^ Peter Le Neve Foster (1809–1879), secretary to the Society of Arts (1853-79); educated at Norwich grammar school and Trinity Hall, Cambridge; B.A., 1830: tellow, 1830; barrister, 1836; helped to organise exhibitions of 1851 and 1862; secretary to mechanical science section of British Association; a chief founder of the Photographic Society.
  90. ^ Sir Robert Foster (1589–1663), lord chief-justice, 1660-3; barrister, Inner Temple, 1610; serjeant-at-law, 1636; justice of common plea?, 1640-3; D.C.L. Oxford, 1643: removed after trial of Captain Turpin, 1644: during Commonwealth practised as chamber counsel; restored, 1660, and made chief-justice for zeal in trial of regicides; procured execution of Sir Harry Vane.
  91. ^ Samuel Foster (rf. 1652), mathematician ; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1623; Gresham professor of astronomy, 1636, and 1641-52; one of the company which preceded the Royal Society; published The Use of the Quadrant 1624, and The Art of Dialling 1638; other works by him published posthumously.
  92. ^ Thomas Foster (1798–1826), painter; intimate with Lawrence andNollekens; executed a portrait of H. R. Bishop q. v.; and exhibited at the Academy Mazeppa 1823, and Paul and Virginia before their Separation 1825; committed suicide.
  93. ^ Thomas Campbell Foster (1813–1882), legal writer: barrister, Middle Temple, 1846; Q.C. and bencher, 1875; recorder of Warwick, 1874; leading counsel for the crown at the trial of Charles Peace; published Letters on the Condition of the People of Ireland 1846: various legal works, and (with N. F. Finlason) law reports.
  94. ^ Vere Henry Lewis Foster (1819–1900), philanthropist; son of Sir Augustus John Foster: euucated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; attache at Rio do Janeiro, 1842-3, and at Monte Video, 1846-7; did much to promote emigration to United States ami British colonies: greatly benefited cause of education in Ireland; published series of drawing copy-books.
  95. ^ Walter Foster (fl. 1652), mathematician : rldrr brother of Samuel Foster q. v.; fellow of Emmanuel College. Cambridge; M.A., 1621; B.D., 1628; rector of Allerton, Somerset; communicated to Twysden his brother's papers.
  96. ^ William Foster (1591–1643), divine; of Merchant Taylors' and St. John's College, Oxford; B.A.; chaplain to the Earl of Carnarvon and rector of Hedgerley. Buckinghamshire; published a treatise against the use of 'weapon-salve 1629 and 1641.
  97. ^ Martin Fotherby (1549?–1619), bishop of Salisbury: fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; archdeacon of Canterbury, 1596: dean, 1615; his Atheomastix published, 1622.
  98. ^ Anthony Fothergill (1685?–176l), author of Wicked Christians Practical Atheists 1754, and similar works.
  99. ^ Anthony Fothergill (1732?–1813), physician : M.D. Edinburgh, 1763; studied also at Leyden and Paris: practised at Northampton, London, and Bath: F.R.S., 1778; lived at Philadelphia, 1803-12; received gold medal of Royal Humane Society, 1794, for his essay on the revival of persons apparently dead from drowning.
  100. ^ George Fothergill (1705–1760), principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 1751-60: fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; M.A., 1730; D.D., 1749; vicar of Bramley; author of sermons.
  101. ^ Jessie Fothergill (1851–1891), novelist; published, from 1876, novels, chiefly depicting Lancashire and Yorkshire factory life.
  102. ^ John Fothergill (1712–1780), physician ; M.D. Edinburgh. 1736; began to practise in London, 1740: L.R.C.P., 1744; F.R.S., 1763; fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine at Paris, 1776; kept up at Upton, Essex, one of the finest botanical gardens in Europe, his collection of shells and insects passing to Dr. W. Hunter, and his natural history drawings being bought by the empress of Russia; assisted Benjamin Franklin in drawing up scheme of reconciliation with American colonies, 1774; a chief founder of the quaker school at Ackworth. His works (edited by J. C. Letteom, 1783-4) included Account of the Sore Throat 1748 (the first recognition of diphtheria in England); and a pamphlet advocating the repeal of the Stamp Act. His portrait by Hogarth is at the College of Physicians,
  103. ^ John Milner Fothergill (1841–1888), medical writer; M.D. Edinburgh, 1866; practised in Leeds and London; wrote valuable essays upon the Action of Digitalis; and The Antagonism of Therapeutic Agents 1878.
  104. ^ Samuel Fothergill (1715–1772), quaker; brother of John Fothergill: undertook missions to Wales, 1739, Ireland, 1744 and 1762, the United States, 1754-6, and Scotland, 1764.
  105. ^ Andrew Foulis , the elder (1712–1775), brother and partner of Robert Foulis; undertook the strictly business side of the printing-house.
  106. ^ Andrew Foulis , the younger (. 1829), printer ; son of Robert Foulis; printed editions of Virgil and a Cicero de Offlciis
  107. ^ Sir David Foulis , first baronet (rf. 1642), politician ; great-grandson of Sir James Foulis (d. 1549); came to England with James I; naturalised, 1606; created an English baronet, 1620; the recipient of the letter of advice to.lame? 1 from Sir Robert Dudley: titular Duke of Northumberland, 1614; dismissed from the council, and imprisoned for charges against Wentworth as president of the north, 1633-40; testified against Wentworth, 1641
  108. ^ Henry Foulis (1638–1669), author; grandson of Sir David Foulis: M.A. Queen's College, Oxford, 1659: B.A. Cambridge, 1G58: fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, 1660; friend of Anthony a Wood; published works against presbyterians and Romanists.
  109. ^ Sir James Foulis (. 1549), Scottish judge: acquired Colinton estates, 1519; lord of session, 1526; pri vansecretary to James V, 1629: knighted, 1539; clerk-register of the College of Senators, 1532-46; member of the secret council, 1542.
  110. ^ Sir James Foulis, Lord Colinton (d. 1688), lord justice clerk; M.P. Edinburgh, 1645-8 and 1651 -.member of committee of estates, 1646-7: imprisoned as royalist: lord of session, 1661; lord of the articles; lord commissioner of justiciary and a peer. 1672; privy councillor, 1674; lord justice clerk, 1684.
  111. ^ James Foulis, Lord Reidfurd (1645?-1711), Scotj fish judge: eldest son of Sir James Foulis, lord Oolinton ; lord of session, 1674; nonjuror: privy councillor, 1703; opposed the union.
  112. ^ Sir James Foulis (1714–1791), fifth baronet of Colinton: contributed to Transactions of the Antiquarian Society of Scotland a dissertation on the origin{Vf the Scots, 1781.
  113. ^ Sir James Foulis , seventh baronet of Colinton (1770-1842); painter and sculptor: executed portrait of founder of Gillespie's Hospital, Edinburgh.
  114. ^ Robert Foulis (1707–1776), printer (originally named Faulls); whilst a barber's apprentice at Glasgow attended the lectures of Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746 : with his brother Andrew visited Oxford and France, collecting rare books, 1738-40: bookseller and printer at Glasgow, 1741: printed for the university their first Greek book Demetrius Phalereus de Elocutione), i 1743, and theimmaculateHorace, 1744; issuedCatai logue of Books lately imported from France the fine iIliad 1747, and the Olivet Ciceroni 749: founded art i academy, 1753; gained silver medal of the Edinburgh Select Society for his small folio Callimachus, 1755, for the Ih'ad, 1756, and Odyssey, 1758, with Flaxman's designs; issued quarto edition of Gray, 1768, and Paradise Lost 1770. The Foulis books were sold in 1777. Most of them are now in the Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
  115. ^ Peter Foulkes (1676–1747), scholar and divine : educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1701: canon of Exeter, 1704; sub-dean, 1725-33; published (with John Freind) an edition of Eschines and Demosthenes de Corona (with Latin translation), 1696.
  116. ^ Robert Foulkes (d. 1679), murderer; servitor of Christ Church, Oxford; vicar of Stanton Lacy, Shropshire; executed at Tyburn for the murder of his illegitimate child.
  117. ^ Sir Andrew Fountaine (1676–1753), virtuoso; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1700: knighted, 1699: vicechamberlain to Queen Caroline and tutor to Prince William; warden of the mint, 1727-53: formed, while travelling in France and Italy, collections of china, pictures, j and antiquities (much of the former sold at Christie's, 1884); the Annius of Pope's Dunciad
  118. ^ John Fountaine (1600–1671), commissioner of the great seal, 1659-60: barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1629; imprisoned for refusing to pay the parliament's war tax, 1642; assisted in forming royalist association of western counties, 1645: pardoned, 1662, and placed upon parliamentary commissions; serjeant-at-law, 1658.
  119. ^ Lord Fountainhall (1646–1722). See John Lauder.
  120. ^ John Fountains (d. 1225). See John de Fontibus.
  121. ^ John Fountayne (1714–1802), dean of York, 1747-1802: great-grandson of John Fountaine: M.A. St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge, 1739; D.D., 1751; canon of Salisbury, 1739, of Windsor, 1741.
  122. ^ Henry Fourdrinier (1766–1854), inventor ; with his brother, Sealy Fourdrinier, patented in 1807 a continuous paper-making machine at a cost of £60,000; received a parliamentary grant, 1840.
  123. ^ Paul Fourdrinier (d. 1758), engraver.
  124. ^ Peter Fourdrinier (fl. 1720–1750), engraver of portraits, book illustrations and architectural works.
  125. ^ Sealy Fourdrinier (d. 1847), inventor ; brother of Henry Fourdrinier; shared with him in parliamentary compensation for losses sustained.
  126. ^ Daniel Fournier (d. 1766?), engraver and draughtsman; publishedTreatise of the Theory and Practice of Perspective 1761.
  127. ^ Francis Fowke (1823–1865), captain of royal engineers and architect; secretary to the British commission at Paris Exhibition, 1854; with Kedgrave designed the Sheepshanks Gallery; as architect of the Science and Art Department designed the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, the enlarged Dublin National Gallery, the buildings for the Exhibition of 1862, and began the South Kensington Museum; invented a military fireengine and patented a photographic camera.
  128. ^ John Fowke (d. 1662), lord mayor, 1652-3 ; imprisoned for refusing to pay tonnage and poundage, 1627-9; sheriff of London and leader of city parliamentarians, 1643; fined and imprisoned for conduct as commissioner of customs, 1645; presented a petition for peace to parliament, 1648; M.P. for the city, 1661; benefactor of Bethlehem and Christ's hospitals.
  129. ^ Phineas Fowke (1638–1710), London physician; fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, 1658; B.A., 1658; M.D., 1668; F.R.C.P., 1680.
  130. ^ Abraham Fowler (fl. 1577), verse-writer; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford.
  131. ^ Christopher Fowler (1610?–1678), ejected minister; B.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1632; M.A. St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 1634; took covenant and held sequestrated living of St. Mary's, Reading, 1643-62; preached in London; fellow of Eton; wrote against the quakers, 1656, and the astrologer John Pordage.
  132. ^ Edward Fowler (1632–1714), bishop of Gloucester; B.A. Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1663; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1666: rector of Norhill, Bedfordshire, 1656, All Hallows, Bread Street, 1673; D.D.; canon of Gloucester, 1676; vicar of St. Giles, Cripplegate, 1681-5; suspended for whiggism, 1685; influenced London clergy against reading Declaration of Indulgence, 1687; member of commission for revising prayer-book, 1689; bishop of Gloucester, 1691-1714; published a defence of the latitudinarians, 1670, The Design of Christianity 1671, which latter occasioned a controversy with Bunyan, several anti-Romanist works, and Twenty-eight Propositions in explanation of the doctrine of the Trinity, 1693.
  133. ^ Henry Fowler (1779–1838), hymn-writer; minister of Gower Street Chapel, London, 1820; published an autobiography and Original Hymns... with prose reflections 1818-24.
  134. ^ John Fowler (1537–1579), Roman catholic printer and scholar; educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford: fellow, 1553-9; M.A., 1560; printed at Louvain, Antwerp, and Douay many catholic works; died at Namur; edited More's Dialogue of Comfort 1573, and issued a Psalter for Catholics 1578.
  135. ^ John Fowler (1826–1864), inventor of the steam plough; with Albert Fry conducted experiments at Bristol, from which resulted the drain plough, 1850; received in 1858 prize of Royal Agricultural Society for his steam cultivator, improved in 1860 by the invention of the double engine tackle; took out thirty-two patents for himself and partners, 1850-64.
  136. ^ Sir John Fowler, first baronet (1817–1898), civil engineer; engaged, under John Urpeth Rastrick , on London and Brighton railway; engineer and general manager of Stockton and Hartlepool line; consulting engineer in London, 1844; designed Pinjlico rail way bridge, 1860, and Metropolitan railway from 1853; K.O.M.G., 1886; took into partnership Mr. (now sir; Benjamin Baker, 1875, the partners being mainly responsible for construction of Forth bridge, 1882-90; created baronet, 1890: member of council of institution of Civil Engineers, 1849; president, 1866-7: published professional Reports.
  137. ^ Richard Fowler (1765–1863), physician; M.D. Edinburgh, 1793; member of Speculative Society; physician to Salisbury Infirmary, 1796-1847; L.R.C.P., 1796; F.R.S., 1802; published book on galvanic experiments, 1793, works upon the psychology of defective senses, and On Literary and Scientific Pursuits as conducive to Longevity 1855.
  138. ^ Robert Fowler (1726?–1801), archbishop of Dublin, 1779: educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1751; D.D., 1764; chaplain to George II, 1756; canon of Westminster, 1765; bishop of Killaloe, 1771-9; translated to Dublin, 1779.
  139. ^ Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, first baronet (1828-1891), lord mayor of London; educated at University College, London; M.A. London, 1860; entered banking firm of Drewett & Fowler, in which his father was partner; conservative M.P. for Penryn and Falmouth, 1868-74; engaged in reorganising conservative party in city of London; alderman for Cornhill ward, 1878; M.P. for city of London, 1880-91; lord mayor of London, 1883-4, and April 1885 (on death of Alderman Nottage); created baronet, 1885; publishedVisit to China, Japan, and India 1877.
  140. ^ William Fowler (fl. 1603), Scottish poet; driven by the Jesuits from France; with Robert Lekprewick published an anti-catholic tract dedicated to Bothwell, 1581; secretary to Queen Anne, whom he accompanied to England; left in manuscript (now in Edinburgh University library The Tarantula of Love (seventy-two sonnets) and translations from Petrarch; uncle of William Drummond of Hawthornden.
  141. ^ William Fowler (1761–1832), artist; published coloured engravings of Roman pavements; painted glass subjects and miscellanea between 1799 and 1829; said to have introduced lead-lines in representing coloured glass.
  142. ^ George Fownes (1815–1849), chemist; Ph.D. Gieseen; chemistry professor to the Pharmaceutical Society, 1842, and at University College, 1846: secretary of the Chemical Society; published text-book of chemistry, 1844; gained the Agricultural Society's prize for his Food of Plants the Actonian prize for an Essay on Chemistry and a Royal Society medal for researches in organic chemistry.
  143. ^ Richard Fowns (1560?-1625), divine; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1585; D.D., 1605: chaplain to Prince Henry and rector of Severn Stoke: published Trisagion, or the Three Holy Offices of Iesvs Christ," 1619.
  144. ^ Caroline Fox (1819–1871), diarist: from 1835 kept a journal, and recorded her intimacy with John Stuart Mill, John Sterling, and Carlyle (extracts edited by H. N. Pym, 1882); translated into Italian English religious works.
  145. ^ Charles Fox (1749–1809), Persian scholar; made tour on foot through Sweden, Norway, and Russia, drawing views on the way: friend of Southey; assisted Claudius James Rich and Dr. Adam Clarke in oriental studies; published at Bristol Poems... of Achmed Ardebeili, a Persian Exile, with notes historical and explanatory 1797.
  146. ^ Charles Fox (1794–1849), line-engraver; studied under William Camden Edwards: assisted John Buruet in his Wilkie plates; engraved portrait of Sir G. Murray after Pickersgill, Wilkie'sVillage Politicians andQueen Victoria's First Council
  147. ^ Sir Charles Fox (1810–1874), engineer: constructing engineer of London and Birmingham railway; designed Watford tunnel and extended line from Camden Town to Euston; as head of firm of Fox, Henderson k Co. invented system of four- feet plates for tanks,anl introduced the switch into railway practice; knighted after designing exhibition buildings in Hyde Park, 1861; made first narrow-gauge line in India; built the Berlin waterworks; employed in railway construction in Ireland, Denmark, east France, Queensland, Canada, the Cape.
  148. ^ Charles Fox (1797–1878), scientific writer; brother of Caroline Fox: manager of the Perran Foundry Company, 1824-47: a founder of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 1833; president of the Cornwall Geological Society, 1864-7, and Miners Association, 1861-3, to which he contributed papers on boring I machines; edited Spiritual Diary of John Rutty, M.D. 1840.
  149. ^ Charles James Fox (1749–1806), statesman : third son of Henry Fox, first baron Holland; while at Eton was taken by his father to Paris and Spa, and encouraged to indulge in dissipation; studied (1764-6) at Hertford College, Oxford, and afterwards travelled; M.P., Midhurst, 1768; made his mark by anti-Wilkesite speeches, j 1769; became a lord of the admiralty under North, 1770; made himself unpopular by speeches against the j liberty of the press; resigned, 1772; opposed Royal Marriage Bill; rejoined the ministry as a lord of the treasury within ten mouths, but acted independently, and was dismissed by the king, 1774; resided in Paris, 1774, and gambled heavily in London; joined Johnson'sclub i obtained some financial relief by death of his father and elder brother in the same year (1774); took leading part in opposing North's American policy, 1774; supported the repeal of the tea duty, 1774; moved for a committee on the war, 1776; continued to attend during the secession of the Rockingham whigs; attacked Lord George Germain (1716-1785), 1777; rejected ministerial overtures and definitely attached himself to the Rocking- j ham party, 1778; attacked the admiralty warmly; advocated the cause of Keppel, 1779; wounded in a duel with William Adam (1751-1839); spoke in favour of triennial parliaments, 1780; took a leading part in debates on economical reform, and made three hoursspeech in supportof Roman catholic relief; in spite of great pecuniary distress refused to be bribed by the emoluments of office; returned with Rodney for Westminster, 1780; attacked the financial policy of North, 1781, and on the news of the surrender of Yorktown moved an amendment to the address; resumed his attacks on the navy, 1782, and much reduced the ministerial majority; appointed foreign secretary, Rockingham being premier, 1782; brought in the measures which created Grattan's parliament; thwarted in his foreign policy by Shelburne, the other secretary of state; resigned when Shelburne became premier, May 1782; sought reconciliation with Shelburne whigs; formed i coalition with North (April 1783), becoming joint-secretary of state with him under the Duke of Portland; obtained ! parliamentary grant for his friend the Prince of Wales, and introduced measure to reform government of India by j the creation of a supreme council of seven and a commercial board of assistantnlirectors nominated by parliament for four years; defeated on the matter in the House of Lords by the personal influence of the king; dismissed with his colleague (December 1783); enabled by his possession of a majority in the Commons to defeat Pitt's East India Bill, and for three months to defer a dissolution by delaying grants of supply; elected for Kirkwall, 1784; at same time re-elected for Westminster, 1784, although the return of the writ was delayed for two sessions; formed connection with Mrs. Annitstead, whom he married in 1796; opposed Pitt's commercial treaties with ! Ireland, and (1787) with France, but supported his reform I proposals; attacked Warren Hastings, 1786-7, and moved I an impeachment on the Benares charge; as one of the managers of the proceedings opened the Benares charge in a speech of nearly five hours, 1788; spoke against the abatement of the impeachment by dissolution of parliament, 1789; supported motions for the removal of dissentersdis- j abilities, 1788-9; moved repeal of corporation and test i acts, 1790; claimed for the Prince of Wales an inherent j right to the regency, 1788-9, during George Ill's first illness (in spite of the deception which led him to deny j in parliament, 1787, the Prince of Wales's marriage with I Mrs. Fitzherbert); opposed Pitt's policy on the Eastern question, the French revolution, and the treason and sedition bills of 1795-6; carried a measure giving juries full powers in libel actions, 1792; seldom attended parliaim-nt for the next five years, but spent some time on his 'History of the Revolution of 1688(published after his death), and in literary correspondence with Gilbert Wake-; field; his name erased from the privy council for i giving the toast Our sovereign, the people 179R; toured in tin- Netherlands and France, and interviewed Buonaparte, 1802; made three hoursspeech in favour of peace, 1803; on Addingtou's resignation was proposed as member of a coalition ministry with Pitt and the Grenvilles, but was excluded by the king, 1 804; spoke in favour of catholic emancipation, 1805; opposed motion for public honours to Pitt, 1806; as foreign secretary under Lord Greuville revealed plot to assassinate Napoleon, and opened negotiations with France: moved the abolition of the slave trade a few days before his death.
  150. ^ Charles Richard Fox (1796–1878), numismatist; son of Henry Richard Vassall Fox, third baron Holland; served in navy, 1809-13; equerry to Queen Adelaide, 1830; M.P., Calne, Tavistock, and (1835) Stroud; surveyor-general of the ordnance, and aide-decamp to William IV, 1832; general, 1863; died receivergeneral of the duchy of Lancaster; his numismatic collection (described in his Engravings of Unedited or Rare Greek Coins (1856, pt. ii., 1862) purchased by the Berlin Royal Museum, 1873.
  151. ^ Ebenezer Fox (d. 1886), journalist ; private secretary to Sir Julius Vogel, 1869; secretary to the treasury (New Zealand), 1870-86; wrote in New Zealand Times on the denudation of forests.
  152. ^ Edward Fox (1496?–1538), bishop of Hereford, 1535-8; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; secretary to Wolsey, 1527: accompanied Gardiner to Rome to obtain from Clement VII the dispensation with regard to Catherine of Arragon, 1528; D.D.; elected provost of King's on his return, 1528; brought Cranmer into favour by reporting his views on the legality of the royal marriage; intervened between Latimer and the Romanists at Cambridge; commissioned to obtain from the English universities and that of Paris a pronouncement on the divorce question, as well as to negotiate treaties with France, 1532-3; archdeacon of Leicester, 1531; dean of Salisbury, 1533; sent to confer with the German protestant divines on the divorce question, 1535; while on a similar mission to France supported Alane(Alesius) the reformer; author of De vera Differentia Regiae Potestatis et Ecclesiae 1534.
  153. ^ Elizabeth Vassall Fox, Lady Holland (1770-1845), born in Jamaica; divorced from Sir Godfrey Webster and married to Henry Richard Vassall Fox , third baron Holland, 1797; presided over the whig circle at Holland House; a skilful and vivacious, but somewhat overbearing, hostess; attacked by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers for her supposed inspiration of a hostile review; accused by Brougham of spite against himself; sent Napoleon message at Elba and books at St. Helena, and received from him the bequest of the gold snuff-box given him by Pius VI.
  154. ^ Francis Fox (1676–1738), divine; M.A. St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 1704; rector successively of Boscombe and Potterne; prebendary of Salisbury, 1713; vicar of St. Mary's, Reading, 1726-38; publishedThe New Testament, with references and notes 1722, and Introduction to Spelling and Reading
  155. ^ George Fox (d. 1661), quaker; 'the younger in the truth'; adherent of George Fox (1624-1691); his works collected, 1662.
  156. ^ George Fox (1624–1691), founder of the Society of Friends; son of a Leicestershire weaver; when agent to a grazier and wool-dealer, left home and went south, 1643; returned and wandered about, seeking religious advice from the clergy, 1644-6; first preached at Dukinfleld, at Manchester, and in Leicestershire, 1647-8, when he had a trance; imprisoned at Nottingham for brawling in church, 1649; his society of theFriends of Truth (nicknamed quakers by Gervase Bennet, 1650) a protest against the presbyterian system, rapidly recruited from the lower middle classes, the yearly meeting being first held, 1669; made missionary journeys to Scotland, 1657, Ireland, 1669, North America and West Indies, 1671-2, and Holland, 1677-84; imprisoned at Lancaster and Scarborough, 1663-6, and Worcester, 1673-4; died in London, being buried in Whitecross Street, Bunhill Row. His 4 Journal revised by a committee under Penn's superintendence, appeared in 1694. His principal writings are contained inA Collection of... Epistles 1698, and 'Gospel Truth 1706.
  157. ^ George Fox (1802?–1871), author of a 'History of Pontefract' 1827.
  158. ^ Henry Fox, first Baron Holland (1705–1774), statesman; son of Sir Stephen Fox: tit Eton with Pitt and Fielding; ruined himself by gambling and went abroad; M.P. lor Hindon, 1738: attached himself to Walpole; surveyor-general of works, 1737-42; M.I, Windsor, 1741-61: a lord of the treasury, 1743; secretary at war 1746-54; assailed Lord Hardwicke's marriage bill but continued to hold his office under Newcastle till admitted to the cabinet as secretary of state, 1756: resigned, 1766, but became paymaster-general, 1757; having held office for eight years, made a large fortune; as Bute's leader in the House of Commons carried the peace of 1763 by profiue bribery; created a peer, 1763; the most unpopular of contemporary statesmen; a great social sensatiou created by his secret marriage to Lady Georgiana Lennox 1744; said to have written The Spendthrift a short-lived periodical, 1766. His portraits, by Hogarth and Reynolds, are at Holland House, which he bought in 1707.
  159. ^ Henry Edward Fox (1755–1811), general; youngest son of Henry Fox, first baron Holland; served with the 38th foot in the American war; major-general, 1793; as commander of a brigade under the Duke of York repulsed the whole French army at Pont-aChin, 1794; lieutenant-general, 1799; general in the Mediterranean, 1801-3; commander-in-chief in Ireland, 1803; lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar, 1804; commander in Sicily and ambassador to the court of Naples, 1806; governor of Portsmouth, 1808.
  160. ^ Henry Richard Vassall Fox, third Baron Holland (1773–1840), nephew of Charles James Fox ; educated at Eton and Christ Church; M.A., 1792; travelled in Denmark, Prussia, Spain, and Italy, 1791-4; from 1798 took prominent part in debates of House of Lords as a whig; met Napoleon at Paris, 1802; lived in Spain, 1802-5 and 1808-9; with Lord Auckland concluded the unratified treaty with American commissioners, 1806; lord privy seal, 1806-7; introduced bill for abolition of death penalty for stealing, 1809; led opposition to regency proposals, 1811: urged rescission of order in council prohibiting trade with France, 1812; ""attacked treaty with Sweden, 1813; visited Murat at Naples, 1814; opposed detention of Napoleon as prisoner of war, 1816, and Sidmouth's measures and the foreign enlistment bill, 1817-19; proposed intervention in Portugal, 1828-30; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in the first reform ministry and under Melbourne; published satires on Irish affairs, 1798-9, and translations from Spanish and Italian, and edited Waldegrave's * Memoirs and Horace Walpole's George II; left posthumous Memoirs of the Whig Party (edited 1852).
  161. ^ Henry Stephen Fox (1791–1846), diplomatist ; son of Henry Edward Fox; educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; envoy extraordinary at Buenos Ayres, 1830, Rio de Janeiro, 1832, and Washington, 1835-43.
  162. ^ Henry Watson Fox (1817–1848), missionary in Masulipatam; educated at Durham school, Rugby and Wadham College, Oxford; B.A., 1839; author of Chapters on Missions in South India 1848.
  163. ^ John Fox (1516–1587). See Foxe.
  164. ^ John Fox (fl. 1676), nonconformist divine; B.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1624: ejected from Pucklechurch rectory, 1662; published Time, and the End of Time 1670, The Door of Heaven opened and shut 1676.
  165. ^ John Fox (1693–1763), biographer; educated under Joseph Hallet the elder; his Memoirsand nine Characters printed by the Monthly Repository 1821; the transcript of his papers made by James Northcote (with additions) preserved in the public library, Plymouth,
  166. ^ Luke Fox (1586–1636), navigator; sailed from London, 1631, in the Charles pinnace in search of a northwest passage; made observations in the channel called after himself on west shore of Baffin Laud; returned with his crew intact after a six mouthsvoyage, described in hi.s North-west Fox, or Fox from the North-went Passage 1635; died neglected.
  167. ^ Richard Fox (1448?–1528). See Foxe.
  168. ^ Robert Fox (1798?–1843), Huntingdon antiquary; admitted into Society of Antiquaries; published History of Godmanchester 1831.
  169. ^ Robert Were Fox (1789–1877), scientific writer: 'ather of Caroline and Charles Fox (1797-1878); F.R.S., 1848; made experiments on elasticity of highpressure steam, and researches into internal temperature of the earth, proving that heat increased with depth, but n a diminishing ratio; constructed the new dippingleedle used by Sir James Clark Koss and Captain Nares.
  170. ^ Samuel Fox (1560–1630). See Foxe.
  171. ^ Simeon Fox (1568–1642).
  172. ^ Sir Stephen Fox (1627–1716), statesman; aided Charles II to escape after Worcester, 1651, and managed the prince's household while in Holland; employed on secret missions to England, 1658-60; paymaster-general, 1661; M.P. for Salisbury, 1661; knighted, 1665; opposed his patron Clarendon's impeachment, 1667; M.P., Westminster, and a commissioner of the treasury, 1679; first commissioner of horse, 1680, and sole commissioner, 1684; suggested and himself contributed towards the foundation of Chelsea Hospital, and built churches, schools, and almshoui-es; refused a peerage from James II and opposed the bill for a standing army; remained at the treasury under William III; led the Commons in procession at the coronation of Queen Anne, 1702, and was for a time commissioner of horse; M.P., Salisbury, 1714.
  173. ^ Timothy Fox (1628–1710), nonconformist divine; of Christ's College, Cambridge; ejected from Drayton rectory, 1662; twice imprisoned under the Schism Act.
  174. ^ William Fox (1736–1826), founder of the Sunday School Society; initiated the Sunday schools, 1785; treasurer of Baptist Home Missionary Society, 1797.
  175. ^ Sir William Fox (1812–1893), prime minister of New Zealand; M.A. Wadham College, Oxford, 1839; barrister, Inner Temple, 1842; resident agent for New Zealand Company at Nelson, New Zealand, 1843, and principal agent in the colony, 1848; attorney-general for south island of colony, 1848; premier of New Zealand, 1856, 1861-2, 1863-4, 1869-72, and 1873; published works relating to the colony of New Zealand.
  176. ^ William Johnson Fox (1786–1864), preacher, politician, and author; entered Dr. Bye Smith's independent college at Homerton, 1806; Unitarian minister at Chichester, 1812, and Parliament Court, London, 1817; South Place Chapel built for him, 1824, when he had attained celebrity; contributed to the first number of the Westminster Review; co-editor with Robert Aspland of theMonthly Repository which be purchased in 1831, and obtained contributions from Mill, Harriet Martineau, Crabb Robinson, and Browning; disowned by the Unitarians on account of his separation from his wife and the independence of his views; continued much in vogue as a preacher, and made friends with Bulwer, Macready, and John Forster; contributed to the Sunday Timesunder D. W. Harvey, theMorning Clirouicle and the Daily News; wrote the Anti-Corn Law League's address to the nation, 1840; M.P., Oldham, 1847-63; seconded Joseph Hume's motien to extend franchise, 1849; introduced a compulsory education bill, 1850; published popular lectures.
  177. ^ William Tilbury Fox (1836–1879), physician ; M.D. London, 1858; specialised hi obstetrics and dermatology; physician at Charing Cross and University College Hospitals; publishedSkin Diseases 1864,Atlas of Skin Diseases 1875-7, and revised Tanner'sClinical Medicine 1869 and 1876.
  178. ^ Wilson Fox (1831–1887), physician ; M.D. London, 1855; studied at Paris, Vienna, and under Virchow at Berlin; professor of pathological anatomy at University College, London, 1861; F.R.C.P., 1866; Hulme professor, 1867; F.R.S., 1820; physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria, 1870, afterwards becoming physician in ordinary: published papers on cystic tumours, on the artificial production of tubercle in animals, and on the development of striated muscular fibre; published his papers in Reynolds's System of Medicine at, Diseases of the Stomach (3rd edition, 1872).
  179. ^ John Foxe (1516–1687), martyrologist ; native of Boston: sent to Oxford at the expense of a citizen of i Mvriitry and of John Harding or Hawarden, afterwards principal of Brasenose; fellow of Magdalen College. ford, 1539; M.A., 1545; intimate with Alexander Nowell , Latimer, and Tindal; resigned fellowship, 1546, being unwilling to conform to the statutes in religious matters; tutor successively to Thomas Lucy of Charlecote and to the children of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey: published protestant pamphlets; ordained deacon by Ridley, 1550; preached at Reigate; retired to the continent, 1554: issued at Strasburg his Commentarii (earliest draft of hisActes and Monuments; joined the Geneva party at Frankfort; on the expulsion of Knox removed to Basle, 1555; employed as a reader of the press by Oporinus (Herbst), who published hisChristus Triumphans 1556, his appeal to the English nobility for religious toleration, 1557, and the first issue of Kerum in ecclesia gestarum... commeutarii 1569; on his return to England lived first with his pupil Thomas, duke of Norfolk, and afterwards at Waltham and in Grub Street; ordained priest by Grindal, 1560; joined John Day the printer , 1564, who, in 1563, had printed the English version of Foxe's Rerum in ecclesia gestarum... commentarii as Actes and Monuments popularly known as The Book of Martyrs *; canon of Salisbury and lessee of the vicarage of Shipton, 1563; objected to the surplice and to contributing to the repair of Salisbury Cathedral; preached at Paul's Cross A Sermon on Christ Crucified 1570, frequently reprinted; published Reformatio Legum 1671, and an Anglo-Saxon text of the gospels; attended his former pupil, the Duke of Norfolk, at his execution, 1572; buned in church of St. Giles Cripplegate. Four editions of theActes and Monuments(1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583) appeared in the author's lifetime; of the posthumous issues that of 1641 contains a memoir of Foxe, attributed to his son, but of doubtful authenticity. The accuracy of the work was impugned by Nicholas Harpsfield, by Robert Parsons, and by Jeremy Collier in theEcclesiastical History (1702-14), and by S. R. Maitland. Foxe's papers, used by Strype in his works,were bought by Edward Harley, earl of Oxford, and are now in the British Museum.
  180. ^ Richard Foxe or Fox (1448?–1528), bishop, statesman, and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; probably educated at Magdalen College, Oxford; employed at Paris by Henry, earl of Richmond, in negotiations with the French court; after Bosworth became secretary of state, lord privy seal, and (1487) bishop of Exeter; baptised Prince Henry, afterwards Henry VIII, 1491; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1492-4, of Durham, 1494-1501, of Winchester, 1501; chief English envoy in the treaty of Estaples and The Great Intercourse (1496); helped to repel invasion of Scots and to conclude peace, 1497; negotiated marriages of Margaret Tudor with James IV and of Prince Arthur with Catherine of Arragon; chancellor of Cambridge University, 1500, and master of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1607-19; negotiated alliance with the Archduke Charles (Charles V), 1508; one of the executors of Henry VII. Fox shared in the early years of Henry VIII's reign the chief political influence with the Earl of Surrey; concluded treaty with Louis XII, 1510; accompanied the army during the French war; a commissioner at the treaty of 1514: resigned the privy seal and retired from politics, 1516; opposed the subsidy of 1523 in convocation; founded for the secular clergy Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1515; built and endowed schools at Taunton and Grantham; benefactor of Magdalen College, Oxford, Pembroke College, Cambridge, and other foundations: edited the Sarum Processional (printed at Rouen, 1508), and translated the Rule of St. Benedict for women (printed by Pynson, 1517).
  181. ^ Samuel Foxe (1560–1630), diarist; eldest son of John Foxe; educated at Merchant Taylors School and Magdalen College, Oxford; fellow, 1680-1; deprived, 1581; visited Leipzig, Padua, and Basle, 1581-5: M.P., Oxford University, 1690; his diary appended to Strype's Annals.
  182. ^ Simeon Foxe (1568–1642), president of the College of Physicians; youngest son of John Foxe; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; fellow, 1586; M.A., 1591; M.D. Padua; fought in Ireland and the Netherlands; F.R.C.P., 1608; several times censor; treasurer, 1629, anatomy reader, 1630, president, 1634-40; buried in St. Paul's.
  183. ^ Thomas Foxe (1591–1652), physician; son of Samuel Foxe; fellow, Magdalen College, Oxford, 1613-30; M.A., 161 i; M.D. Oxford.
  184. ^ Nathaniel Foy (d. 1707), bishop of Waterford and Lismore; senior fellow, Trinity College, Dublin; M.A., 1671; D.D., 1684; imprisoned by James II for sermons at St. Bride's, Dublin; bishop, 1691; endowed free school at Grantstown.
  185. ^ Henry Joseph Fradelle (1778–1865), historical painter; born at Lille; exhibited at British Institution and Academy, 1817-54.
  186. ^ William Fraigneau (1717–1788), professor of Greek at Cambridge, 1743-50; educated at Westminster; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1743; fellow; took orders.
  187. ^ Sir Alexander Fraizer (1610?–1681), physician to Charles II; M.D. Montpellier, 1635; F.R.C.P., 1641; elect, 1666.
  188. ^ John Frampton (fl. 1577–1596), merchant; long resident in Spain; translated Marco Polo's Travels 1579.
  189. ^ Mary Frampton (1773–1846), author of a historically valuable Journal from the year 1779 until the year 1846 (ed., Mrs. Mundy, 1885).
  190. ^ Robert Frampton (1622–1708), bishop of Gloucester; graduate of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; headmaster of Gillingbam school; fought as a royalist at Hambledon Hill; chaplain to the English factory, Aleppo, 1656-70; famous as a preacher; dean of Gloucester, 1673; bishop of Gloucester, 1680-91; directed his clergy not to read Declaration of Indulgence, and signed bishopspetition: one of the seven bishops committed to the Tower, 1688; deprived as a nonjuror, 1691, but allowed to retain living of Standish; Queen Anne offered to translate him to Hereford.
  191. ^ Tregonwell Frampton (1641–1727), 'father of the turf'; devoted to hawking, 1670; played high at his house at Newmarket, and won many horseraces: Hawkesworth's story of his cruelty to his horse Dragon unfounded; his match with Sir William Strickland said to have originated the act forbidding recovery of betting debts; from 1695 trainer of the royal horses at Newmarket.
  192. ^ William Framyngham (1512–1537), author of Latin tractates; educated at Pembroke and Queens' Colleges, Cambridge; M.A., 1533; friend of John Caius ; wrote tracts.
  193. ^ Charles Elmé Francatelli (1805–1876), cook; pupil of Careme; manager of Crockford's; maitre d'h6tel to Queen Victoria; chef de cuisine at the Reform Club; manager of FreemasonsTavern; published the Modern Cook 1845, and other culinary handbooks.
  194. ^ Abraham France (fl. 1587–1633). See Fraunce.
  195. ^ François Louis Thomas Francia (1772-1839), water-colour painter; son of a referee; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1796-1821; one of Girtin's sketching society; secretary of Water-colour Society; instructed R. P. Bonington at Calais, where he died.
  196. ^ James Francillon (1802–1866), legal writer; barrister, Gray's Inn, 1833; Gloucestershire district county court judge, 1847; died at Lausanne; published Lectures in English Law 1860-1.
  197. ^ Alban Francis (d. 1715), Benedictine of St. Adrian's Abbey, Lausperg, Hanover; missioner in Cambridgeshire, when the vice-chancellor of Cambridge was removed for refusing to admit him to a degree without administering tests.
  198. ^ Mrs Anne Francis (1738–1800), poetess ; ** Gittins; published Poetical Translation of the Song of Solomon with introduction and notes, 1781, and other poems.
  199. ^ Enoch Francis (1688–1740), Welsh baptist: moderator of the association at Hengoed, 1730; published devotional works.
  200. ^ Francis Francis (1822–1886), writer on angling; son of Captain Morgan, R.N., but changed name on inheriting property; angling: editor of the Fidd: established Thames Rights Defence Association, and suggested plan of National Fish-Culture Association; naturalist; director of Brighton Aquarium: member of oyster commission, 1868-70; published The Practical Management of Fisheries 1883, books on angling, and novels; his Reminiscences published, 1887.
  201. ^ George Grant Francis (1814–1882), Swansea antiquary; mayor of Swansea, 1853-4; F.S.A., 1845; a founder of Royal Institution of South Wales; discovered original contract (1303) of Edward, prince of Wales, and Isabella of France, at Swansea Castle, 1848; edited Swansea charters, 1849; published works, including The Smelting of Copper in the Swansea District from the time of Elizabeth 1867 (republished, 1881), andOriginal Charters and Materials for a History of Neath and its Abbey 1845.
  202. ^ George William Francis (1800–1865), botanical writer; emigrated to Australia. 1849, and became director of the Adelaide garden; published, among other works,Catalogue of British Plants and Ferns 1835, Analysis of British Ferns 1837, and Chemical Experiments 1842.
  203. ^ James Goodall Francis (1819–1884), Australian statesman; settled in Tasmania, 1834; afterwards removed to Melbourne: director of Bank of New South Wales, 1855; president of chamber of commerce, 1857; in Victorian Legislative Assembly fifteen years; member of William Nicholson's cabinet, 1859-60, of Sir J. M-Culloch's second and third ministries, 1863-8 and 1870-1; as head of administration, 1872-4, passed free education act and large railway measures; re-entered Victoria Assembly, 1878, and held office under James Ser vice.
  204. ^ John Francis (1780–1861), sculptor: pupil of Chantrey; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1820-56. His works include busts of Miss Horatia Nelson, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the Duke of Wellington.
  205. ^ John Francis (1811–1882), publisher of the 'Athenaeum 1831-81; in charge of commercial affairs of Notes and Queries from 1872; took leading part in agitation for repeal of fiscal restrictions on the press.
  206. ^ Philip Francis (1708?–1773), miscellaneous writer; B.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1728: kept school at Esher, which Gibbon attended, 1752; as private chaplain to Lady Caroline Fox taught Charles James Fox to read, and accompanied him to Eton; wrote pamphlets against Pitt, 1761-4; rector of Barrow, Suffolk, 1762-73; chaplain at Chelsea Hospital, 1764-8: received a crown pension of 300., 1764; his version of Horace often republished,
  207. ^ Sir Philip Francis (1740–1818), reputed author of Letters of Junius; son of Philip Francis; educated at St. Paul's School with Woodfall, Junius's publisher; junior clerk in office of secretary of state, 1756; became intimate with John Calcraft the elder and Robert Wood, secretary of the treasury; by Wood's influence appointed secretary to General Edward Bligh, 1758, and to Lord Kinnoull in Portugal, 1760, and amanuensis to Pitt, 1761-2; copied part of correspondence between Egremont and Bedford in autumn of 1762, referred to by Junius; while first clerk at the war office, 1762-72, contributed to the press under pseudonyms; retired from the war office owing to some disagreement with Barrington, but on the latter's recommendation became one of the four newly appointed councillors of the governor-general of India, 1774; opposed Warren Hastings, charging him with corruption in the case of Nand Kumar (or Nuncomar); quarrelled with his ally, Clavering; wounded in a duel with Hastings, 1779; left India with large fortune, 1780; M.P. for Isle of Wight, 1784, Bletchingley, 1790, and Appleby, 1802: helped Burke to prepare charges against Hastings, and assisted managers of his impeachment, 1787; a founder of Society of Friends of the People 1793; made elaborate speech upon India, 1805; quarrelled with Fox for refusing to appoint him viceroy; intimate with Prince Regent; created K.C.B.; identified by John Taylor with Junius 1816; published many political pamphlets. The evidence for the identification of Francis with Junius (first letter, 1768, last, 1773) rests upon the acquaintance of Junius wwith war office affairs, his displeasure at the removal of Francis, and private letters to the publisher Woodfall, displaying anxiety to conceal authorship of public letters expressing it; correspondence between silences of Junius and absences from London of Francis; expert evidence of Chabot and Netherclift identifying handwriting; similarity of political attitude; Francis's conduct when challenged with authorship, and moral resemblance. Against the Franciscan theory is the denial of that authorship by Pitt and Woodfall, and the almost incredible malignity of Junius towards some of Francis's friends and benefactors.
  208. ^ Thomas Francis (. 1574), president of the College of Physicians, 1568; M.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 1565; regius professor of medicine, 1555-61; provost of Queen's, 1561-3; physician in ordinary to Queen Elizabeth.
  209. ^ Franciscus à Sancta Clara (1598–1680). See Christopher Davenport.
  210. ^ Richard Franck (1624?–1708), captain in parliamentary army; travelled in Scotland, c. 1656; went to America, 1690; published, 1694, the euphuistic Northern Memoirs... by Richard Franck, Philanthropus (edited by Scott), containing accounts of places he had visited between Carlisle and Cromarty, and much about salmon-fishing; also Rabbi Moses (1687), written in America.
  211. ^ Thomas Francklin (1721–1784), miscellaneous writer; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1746-58 M.A., 1746; D.D., 1770; professor of Greek, 1750-9; vicar of Ware, 1759-77: preacher at St. Paul's, Covent Garden; king's chaplain, 1767; chaplain to the Royal Academy through influence of Johnson and Reynolds, and (1774) professor of ancient history; satirised in the Rosciad; translated Sophocles, 1759, Lucian, 1780, and Cicero's 'De Natura Deorum 1741; produced three plays, including theEarl of Warwick(acted at Drury Lane 1766); edited The Centiuel 1757-8, and contributed to Smollett's Critical Review
  212. ^ William Francklin (1763–1839), orientalist; eldest son of Thomas Francklin; of Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; lieutenantcolonel, Bengal native infantry, 1814; died in India; published (1788) Observations made on a Tour from Bengal to Persia in... 1786-7, History of the Reign of Shah-Aulum 1798, and other works.
  213. ^ Mark Frank (1613–1664), theologian; fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1634; M.A., 1634; ejected by parliamentary visitors, 1644; D.D., 1661; master of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1662-4; archdeacon of St. Albans and canon of St. Paul's, to which he left books and money; his Course of Sermons (1642) republished in Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology.
  214. ^ Sir Edward Frankland (1825–1899), chemist; apprenticed as chemist in Lancaster, c. 1840; studied at Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1845; F.C.S., 1847; studied under Bunsen at Marburg, 1847; Ph.D. Marburg, 1849; professor of chemistry at Putney College for Civil Engineering, 1850, and at Owens College, Manchester, 185i; F.R.S., 1853; royal medallist, 1857; lecturer on chemistry, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, 1857; professor of chemistry at Royal Institution, 1863-8, and at Royal College of Chemistry, 1865: served on royal commission on rivers pollution from 1868; D.C.L. Oxford, 1870; LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884; president of Chemical Society, 1871-2 and 1872-3, and of Institute of Chemistry, 1877-80; K.C.B., 1897; made notable contributions to organic chemistry. His works include Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied, and Physical Chemistry 1877, and Inorganic Chemistry with F. R. Japp, 1884.
  215. ^ Jocosa Frankland or Joyce (1631–1587), nee Trappes; founder of Saxey fellowships and scholarships at Caius and Emmanuel Colleges, Cambridge: benefactor also of Lincoln and Braseuose Colleges, Oxford.
  216. ^ Richard Frankland (1630–1698), nonconformist tutor; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge: M.A., 1655; received presbyterian ordination, 1653: ejected from vicarage of Bishop Auckland, 1662; exhorted hark- 11 to reform; set up academy for divinity and medical students at Rathmull, from which northern ting ministers were chiefly recruited, 1670; removed to Natland, 1674, and afterwards to other places; excommunicated for instigation of first nonconformist ordination in Yorkshire, 1678; returned to Rathmell 1689; again excommunicated, but absolved by order of William III; presided at Wakefield conference of presbyteriuns and independents, 1691; had a friendly interview with Archbishop Sharp, 1692.
  217. ^ Thomas Frankland (1633–1690), impostor and annalist; fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, 1654; M.A., 1655; renounced holy orders to practise medicine; ejected from the College of Physicians as a pretended M.D., 1682; published anonymously Annals of James I and Charles I, 1681.
  218. ^ Sir Thomas Frankland (1717?–1784), admiral; commanded frigate on Bahama station, capturing many vessels and privateers, 1740-6; as commodore at Antigua, 1755, reported on conduct of Sir Thomas Pye; M.P. for Thirsk, 1749-84.
  219. ^ Mrs Eleanor Anne Franklin (1797?–1825), poetess; nee Porden: married Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Franklin, 1823; chief work Coeur de Lion an epic, 1822.
  220. ^ Lady Jane Franklin (1792–1876), nee Griffin; married Sir John Franklin, 1828; travelled in Syria and Asia Minor, and with her husband in Van Diemen's Land, Australia, and New Zealand, giving much attention to female convicts; fitted out five ships to search for Franklin, and received the founder's medal of the Geographical Society, 1860; sent out the Pandora to make the northwest passage, 1876.
  221. ^ Sir John Franklin (1786–1847), arctic explorer; midshipman in the Polyphemus at Copenhagen, 1801; assisted Matthew Flinders in his observations in the South Pacific; took part in Commodore Sir Nathaniel Dance's engagement with Linois, 1804; at Trafalgar in the Bellerophon; wounded in the Bedford near New Orleans, 1815; commanded the Trent in Buchan's arctic expedition, 1818; headed expedition of 1819-22, which traversed North America from Fort York, at the mouth of the Nelson river, to the mouth of the Coppermine, where it embarked on the Arctic Sea and sailed eastward, returning through the Barren Grounds to Fort Providence and York after terrible privations; elected F.R.S. and promoted to post rank on his return; conducted a second expedition, 1825-7, which, by way of New York. Lake Huron, the Great Bear Lake, and the Mackenzie river, reached Garry Island in the Arctic Sea, and, after wintering at Fort Franklin (Great Bear Lake), divided, the whole expedition ultimately reaching Montreal; knighted, 1829; hon. D.O.L. Oxford, 1829; commanded Rainbow frigate on coast of Greece, 1830-3; as lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land did much to humanise the convicts, 1837-43; started with the Erebus and Terror on his last expedition, May 1846, to make Behring's Strait from Cape Walker; last sighted at the entrance of Lancaster Sound on 26 July 1845. Supplies were sent out under Sir John Richardson (1787-1865), 1847, and many relief expeditions followed. Ommanney discovered traces of ships and provisions on Beechey Island, 1850, and further intelligence, with relics, was obtained from the Eskimos by Rae, 1854. Subsequently Sir Leopold McCliutock. in Lady Franklin's yacht, the Fox, came upon boats, skeletons, and a paper stating that the ships had been deserted, 22 April 1848, after nineteen months in the ice, that Franklin had died 11 June 1847, and that the rest, under Orozier, had reached 69 37N.,98 41W. Accounts of his first two expeditious were published by Franklin (1823 and 1828), who has since been recognised as the discoverer of the north-west passage.
  222. ^ Robert Franklin (1680–1684), nonconformist divine; tutor of Jesus College, Cambridge; vicar of Westhall, 1659-62; ejected, 1662; imprisoned for preaching; left manuscript autobiography.
  223. ^ William Franklyn (1480?–1556), dean of Windsor, 1530: educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; B.C.L., 1504; chancellor of Durham, 1514; archdeacon, 1515; active in war with Scots, assisted in treaty, 1534; prebendary of Lincoln, 1518, and rector of Hu-.ilitone-Sprintr. president of Queens' College, Cambridge, 1526-7; alienated deanery revenues,
  224. ^ Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks (1826-1897), antiquary; educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1852; assistant in department of antiquities in British Museum, 1851, and keeper of department of British and mediaeval antiquities and ethnography, 1866; presented to British Museum his collections of eastern ceramics and other objects of art; F.S.A., 1863, director, 1858-67 and 1873-80; edited Archceologica to which and to Proceedings he made important contributions; P.S.A., 1891-7; K.C.B., 1894: honorary Litt.D. Cambridge, 1889, and D.C.L. Oxford, 1895; F.K.s!, 1874; antiquary to Royal Academy, 1894; published works chiefly relating to ceramics.
  225. ^ Sir John Franks (1770–1852), judge; of Calcutta supreme court, 1825-34; of Trinity College, Dublin; called to Irish bar, 1792; K.C., 1823; intimate with Curran.
  226. ^ Sir Thomas Harte Franks (1808–1862), general; served with 10th foot at Sobraou, 1846, and; was wounded; distinguished himself at the siege of Multan, 1849, and at Gu jrdt, 1849; as brigadier in command of 4th infantry division defeated Muhammad Hussein Nazim, but failed before Dohrighat, 1858; created K.C.B. and thanked by parliament.
  227. ^ John Fransham (d. 1753), linen draper and rent agent to Horace Walpole; published The Criterion... of High and Low Church 1710, and A Dialogue between Jack High and Will Low 1710.
  228. ^ John Fransham (1730–1810), freethinker; after writing sermons, acting in a company of strolling players, enlisting, and working with a weaver, took pupils at Norwich, and taught in several Norfolk families, including that of James Stark; published anonymously 'Essay on the Oestrum or Enthusiasm of Orpheus 1760, and satirical pieces; left in manuscript Memorabilia Classica (containing The Code of Aristopia, or Scheme of a perfect Government; the Dr. Emanuel Last of Foote's Devil upon Two Sticks
  229. ^ Sir Alexander Fraser (d. 1332), great chamberlain of Scotland, 1319-26: fought with Bruce at Methveu, 1306, and aided him to crush the Comyns; present at Bannockburn; married Lady Mary Bruce; killed at battle of Dupplin.
  230. ^ Sir Alexander Fraser (1537?–1623), founder of Fraserburgh; inherited from his grandfather baronial burgh of Philorth, establishing (1597) a university there, which was short-lived; knighted by James I; M.P., Aberdeen county, 1596.
  231. ^ Alexander Sir (1610?-1681). See Fraizer.
  232. ^ Alexander Fraser (1786–1865), painter; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1810-48: for twenty years painted details and still-life in Wilkie's pictures: his Naaman Cured proclaimed by the British Institution best picture of 1842; associate of Royal Scottish Academy.
  233. ^ Alexander Fraser (1827–1899), landscape painter; studied at Trustees Academy, Edinburgh; member of Royal Scottish Academy, 1862.
  234. ^ Alexander George Fraser , sixteenth Baron Saltoun (1785–1853), general; ensign, 35th foot, 1802; served with the grenadiers in Sicily, 1806, at Coruna, 1808, in Walcheren, 1809, and in Spain and France, 18121814; at Quatre Bras commanded light companies of 2nd brigade of guards; at Waterloo held garden and orchard of Hougoumont, and led the charge against the Old Guard; K.O.B., 1818; K.T., 1852; major-general, 1837; commanded first brigade and afterwards the whole force in Chinese war of 1841-3; Scottish representative peer from 1807; a lord of the bedchamber, 1821; G.C.H., 1821; lieutenant-general, 1849.
  235. ^ Alexander Mackenzie Fraser (1756–1809), lieutenant-general; son of Colin Mackenzie; entered 73rd (71st) highlanders, 1778, and was aide-de-camp to Sir Charles Ross at siege of Gibraltar, 1780; joined Rossshire buffs, 1793; as lieutenant-colonel distinguished himself at Nimeguen, 1794, and Geldermalsen, 1795; went to the Cape, 179(i, with the 2nd battalion 78th, raised by himself; served against Mahrattas, 1798-9; maiorgL-uerul and M.P. for Cromarty, 1802; assumed name of Fraser, 1803; M.P., Ross county, 1806; commanded unsuccessful Ivyptian expedition, 1807; led division at Coruna, 1S08, and in Walcheren expedition, 1809.
  236. ^ Andrew Fraser (d. 1792). See Frazer.
  237. ^ Archibald Campbell Fraser (1736–1816), thirty-eighth Macshimi; son, by second wife, of Simon Fraser, twelfth baron Lovat; consul at Tripoli and Algiers, 1766-74: succeeded to Fraser estates on death of elder brother, 1782; M.P., Inverness-shire, 1782-96; set up monument in Kirkhill churchyard detailing his services; published Annals of the Patriots of the Family of Fraser, Frizell, Simson, or FitzSimon 1795.
  238. ^ Donald Fraser (1826–1892), presbyterian divine; educated at University and King's College, Aberdeen; M.A., 1842; honorary D.D., 1872; engaged in mercantile business in Canada; studied theology at John Knox College, Toronto; licensed preacher, 1851; pastor of Free church, Montreal, 1851-9, Free high church, Inverness, 1859-70, Marylebone presbyterian church, London, 18701892; published religious works.
  239. ^ James Fraser (1639–1699), covenanting divine; called Fraser of Brae; imprisoned on the Bass Bock for preaching, 1677-9, in Blackness Castle, 1681, and Newgate, 1683; member of the assemblies of 1690 and 1692; wrote autobiographical memoirs (published, 1738), and other works.
  240. ^ James Fraser (1713–1754), collector of oriental manuscripts; resided at Surat, 1730-40; factor in East India Company's service, 1743-9; made collection of Sanscrit manuscripts, which on his death were acquired by Radcliffe Library, Oxford, and were removed to Bodleian Library, 1872; published History of Nadir Shah 1742.
  241. ^ James Fraser (1700–1769), Scottish divine ; called Fraser of Pitcalzian; son of John Fraser (d. 1711) ; presbyterian minister of Alness, 1726; published The Scripture Doctrine of Sanctification 1774.
  242. ^ James Fraser (d. 1841), publisher in Regent Street, London; published Fraser's Magazine 1830-42, Gallery of Illustrious Literary Characters 1830-8, and Carlyle's Heroes.
  243. ^ James Fraser (1818–1885), bishop of Manchester; educated at Bridgnorth and Shrewsbury Schools and Lincoln College, Oxford; Ireland scholar, 1839; fellow and tutor of Oriel, 1840-60: M.A., 1842; vicar of Cholderton, 1847; chancellor of Salisbury and assistant education commissioner, 1858; rector of Ufton Nervet, 1860; commissioner to report on education in United States and Canada, 1865, and on employment of children in agriculture, 1867; bishop of Manchester, 1870-85; arbitrated in Manchester and Salford painting trade dispute, 1874 and 1876; interested himself in the co-operative movement; seconded in convocation the disuse of the Athanasian creed; supported in the House of Lords the abolition of university tests, 1871; benefactor of his diocese.
  244. ^ James Baillie Fraser (1783–1856), traveller and writer; with his brother William Fraser (1784 ?-1835) explored Nepal as far as the sources of the Gauges and Jumna, 1815; accompanied Dr. Jukes to Persia, and travelled through Kurdistan to Tabriz, 1821; rode from Semlin to Constantinople, and from Stamboul to Teheran. 1833-4; published Military Memoir of Lieutenant-colonel James Skinner, C.B 1851, and works descriptive of his travels, with some romances.
  245. ^ James Stuart Fraser (1783–1869), general in the Indian army; aide-de-camp to Sir George Barlow during mutiny of Madras officers; private secretary to government of Madras, 1810; deputy commissary to Mauritius expedition, 1810; commandant at Poudicherry, 1816; commissioner for restitution of French and Dutch possessions, 1816-17; resident of Mysore and commissioner of Coorg, 1834; resident of Travaucore and Cochin, 1836, of Hyderabad, 1839-52; general, 1862.
  246. ^ John Fraser dd. 1605), Scottish Recollect friar; abbot of Noyon or Compiegne;. died at Paris; B.D.; published controversial treatises and Latin commentaries on Aristotle.
  247. ^ John Fraser (d. 1711), dissenting minister; M.A. Aberdeen, 1678; imprisoned and deported to New Jersey, 1685; preached in Connecticut; returned to Scotland after the Revolution.
  248. ^ John Fraser (1750–1811), botanist; Introduced from America pines, oaks, azaleas, and other plants, 1784-95; brought from llussia the Tartarian cherries, 1796; went to America as collector for the Tsar Paul, 1799.
  249. ^ Sir John Fraser (1760–1843), general ; entered 73rd (71st) highlanders, 1778; lost his right leg during siege of Gibraltar, 1780-2; judge-advocate at Gibraltar, 1796-8; commander of royal African corps, gallantly defending Gorce, 1804; general, 1838; G.C.H., 1833.
  250. ^ John Fraser or Frazer (d. 1849), poet and cabinet-maker; of Birr, King's County; published under name J. de Dean.
  251. ^ Louis Fraser (fl. 1866), naturalist ; curator to the Zoological Society; naturalist to Niger expedition, 1841-2; collected birds in South America and set up shops in London; afterwards went to San Francisco and Vancouver's island; published Zoologia Typica 1849. (1819-1889),
  252. ^ Patrick Fraser, Lord Fraser, senator of the College of Justice; educated at St. Andrews; called to the bar, 1843; sheriff of Renfrewshire, 1864; dean of Faculty of Advocates, 1878; lord of session and lord ordinary in exchequer cases, 1880. His works include 'Treatise on the Law of Scotland as applicable to the Personal and Domestic Relations 1846, with other legal works.
  253. ^ Robert Fraser (1798–1839), Scottish poet ; editor of Fife Herald 1838-9.
  254. ^ Robert William Fraser (1810–1876), Scottish divine and author; minister at Burntisland, 1843, of St. John's, Edinburgh, 1847-76; publishedElemente of Physical Science 1855, The Kirk and the Manse 1857, The Seaside Naturalis t 1868, and devotional works.
  255. ^ Simon Fraser, twelfth Baron Lovat (1667?-1747), Jacobite intriguer; graduated at King's College, Aberdeen, 1683; accepted commission in regiment of Lord Murray (afterwards Duke of Atholl)on the assurance that treachery to the government of William III was intended; secured by violent means the eventual succession to estates of his cousin, Lord Lovat; being disappointed of a marriage with his cousin, Lord Lovat's daughter (who claimed the title), he imprisoned her uncle and suitor's father, and forcibly married her mother; outlawed for high treason, 1698; assumed title of Baron Lovat, 1699; obtained from William III pardon for offences against the state, but had previously visited the exiled James II at St. Germain, 1700; outlawed for his outrage on the Dowager Lady Lovat, 1701; fled to France, 1702; pretended conversion to Romanism, and promised Louis XIV to assist him in invading Scotland; returned to Scotland with a letter from Mary of Modena, and endeavoured to compromise Atholl and others in a Jacobite plot; suspected by the highlanders for his relations with Queensberry; returned to France, where he was imprisoned; escaped with Major Fraser, 1713; arrested in London, but when released rallied his clan to the government, 1715; received a full pardon and the life-rent of the Lovat estates, 1716, and after much litigation a recognition of his title, 1733; sheriff of Inverness and commander of one of the newly raised highland companies; for the promise of a dukedom joined association of 1737 to invite the Young Pretender to Scotland; deprived of regimental command and office of sheriff; though lukewarm in his support of Prince Charles Edward, 1745, was seized in his castle as hostage for the fidelity of the clan; escaped to Loch Muilly and afterwards to Loch Morar; arrested and brought to London; beheaded for high treason. Treating as invalid his union vith the Dowager Lady Lovat, he was twice marr.ed during her lifetime, and was succeeded by sons of each wife.
  256. ^ Simon Fraser (d. 1777), brigadier and lieutenantcolonel, 24th foot; served with the Scots brigade in the Dutch army; with the 78th (Fraser) highlanders at ! Louisburg, 1758, and Quebec; with the 24th in Germany, 1 at Gibraltar, and in Ireland; quartermaster-general in Ireland, 1770: as brigadier with Burpoyne won victory of Hubbardton, 1777; mortally wounded at Behmise Heights.
  257. ^ Simon Fraser (1726–1782), Master of Lovat, lieutenant-general; eldest son, by first wife, of Simon, twelfth baron Lovat; by his father's instructions headed the Erasers in support of Prince Charles Edward, 1745; attainted and imprisoned at Edinburgh, but pardoned, 1750; practised as an advocate, and was counsel for the widow of Colin Campbell of Qleuure against James Stewart of Aucharn, 1752; raised Eraser Highlanders (78th), 1757, and commanded them in America, 1767-61, being wounded during the siege of Quebec; brigadiergeneral in Portugal, 1762; major-general in the Portuguese army; major-general in the British army, 1771; his estates restored on payment of a fine; raised 71st hitfhlanders for the American war; M.P., Inverness county, 1761-82.
  258. ^ Simon Fraser (1765–1803), lieutenant-colonel; son of Archibald Campbell Fraser; entered Wadham College, Oxford, 1786, Lincoln's Inn, 1789, and the Inner Temple, 1793; commanded the Fraser Fencibles in Ireland as lieutenant, 1798; M.P. for Inverness-shire, 1796-1802; died at Lisbon.
  259. ^ Simon Fraser (1738–1813), lieutenant-general; served under Simon Fraser (1726-1782) in Canada; wounded at Sillery, 1760; raised a company and headed it in America, 1778-81, raised 133rd foot, 1793; majorgeneral in Portugal, 1797-1800; lieutenant-general, 1802.
  260. ^ William Fraser (d. 1297), chancellor of Scotland, 1276; bishop of St. Andrews, 1279-97; as one of the six regents after death of Alexander III went to Gascony to negotiate match between Margaret, Maid of Norway, and Prince Edward of England; invited Edward I to intervene in Scotland, but after accession of Baliol went to France to obtain aid for the latter from Philip IV; died at Arteville.
  261. ^ William Fraser, eleventh Baron Saltoun (1654-1715), succeeded his grandfather, 1693; seized and imprisoned in the island of Aigas by Simon Fraser, twelfth baron Lovat, on account of his attempt to obtain, by the marriage of his eldest son to Emilia Fraser, heiress of Hugh, baron Lovat, the Lovat barony, 1697; wrote a fragment of family history.
  262. ^ William Fraser (1784?–1835), Indian civilian; brother of James Baillie Fraser; secretary to Mountstuart Elphinstone at Oabul, 1811; resident of Delhi, 1830-5; murdered by a Muhammadan at instigation of the nawab of Firozpur.
  263. ^ William Fraser (1817–1879), educationalist ; as head-master in the Glasgow Normal Seminary assisted David Stow to carry out his new training system; free church minister at Paisley, 1849-79; made valuable suggestions in hisState of our Educational Enterprises 1857; LL.D. Glasgow, 1872.
  264. ^ Sir William Fraser (1816–1898), Scottish genealogist and antiquary; solicitor in Edinburgh, 1851; deputy-keeper of sasines, 1862-80; deputy-keeper of records, 1880-92; LL.D. Edinburgh, 1882; K.C.B., 1887; served on royal commission on historical manuscripts from 1869; endowed chair of ancient history and palaeography at Edinburgh; published elaborate compilations on Scottish family history.
  265. ^ Sir William Augustus Fraser , fourth baronet (1826 -1898), politician; succeeded to baronetcy, 1834; educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1852; gazetted cornet, 1st life guards, 1847; captain, 1852; conservative M.P. for Barastaple, 1867-9, Ludlow, 1863-6, and Kidderminster, 1874-80; F.S.A., 1862; published anecdotic miscellanies on contemporary history.
  266. ^ Abraham Fraunce (fl. 1587–1633), poet; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1680; M.A., 1683: barrister, Gray's Inn; the Corydon of Spenser's Colin Clout's come home again; intimately associated with Thomas Watson, with whom be translated Tasso's Amiuta(fact mentioned in Lodge'sPhillisand the Faerie Queene); published in English hexameters The Countesse of Pembrokes Yuychurch(Ivychurch), two parte, 1591, Amintas Dale (pt. iii. of Ivychurch, 1692), 'The Countess of Pembrokes Emanuel(1691),The Arcadian Rhetorike 1588, in which the unpublished Faerie Queene is quoted, and The Lawiers Logike 1588; contributed songs to Sidney's Astrophel and Stella 1591.
  267. ^ Simon Fraxinetus (fl. 1200). See Simon.
  268. ^ Andrew Frazer (d. 1792), lieutenant-colonel of engineers; employed to watch demolition of works at Dunkirk, 1767-78, lieutenant-colonel, 1788.
  269. ^ Sir Augustus Simon Frazer (1776–1835), colonel; son of Andrew Frazer; entered royal artillery, 1793; commanded artillery at Buenos Ayres, 1807, and horse artillery on Wellington's staff in the Peninsula and at Waterloo, 1813-15; K.C.B., 1814; F.R.S., 1816; colonel, 1825; director of Royal Laboratory, Woolwich, 1828.
  270. ^ William Frazer (d. 1297).
  271. ^ Edmund Freake (1516?-1591), bishop of Rochester (1672), Norwich (1575), and Worcester (1584); canon of St. Augustine in Waltham Abbey till the dissolution; D.D. Cambridge; dean of Rochester, 1570, and of Salisbury: had great dispute with John Becon; published translation of treatise by St. Augustine.
  272. ^ John Freake (1688–1756).
  273. ^ Charlotte Ulrica Catherina Frederica (1767-1820), eldest daughter of Frederick William II, king of Prussia; married Frederick Augustus, duke of York and Albany, 1791; separated from her husband.
  274. ^ Saint Frederick (d. 838). See Fridericus Cridiodunus.
  275. ^ Colonel Frederick, or Frederick de Neuhoff (1725?-1797), author of Description of Corsica: described himself as son of Theodore, baron de Neuhoff, king of Corsica; came to England, c. 1754; taught Italian to Garrick, Macklin, and Alexander Wedderburn, afterwards first baron Loughborough; agent in London of the Grand Duke of Wiirtemberg; endeavoured to raise loan on continent for English royal princes; when in financial straits shot himself in the porch of Westminster Abbey.
  276. ^ Augustus Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), second son of George III ; elected to bishopric of Osnaburg, 1764; created Duke of York, 1784; entered the army and studied his profession in Germany; fought a duel with Colonel Lennox, 1789, caused by a speech on the Regency Bill; married eldest daughter of Frederick William II of Prussia, 1791; commanded English army in Flanders, 1793-5; field-marshal, 1795, commander-in-chief, 1798-1809; unsuccessful in Helder expedition, 1799; gave up bishopric of Osnaburg, 1803; removed from head of the army in consequence of the conduct of his mistress, Mary Anne Clarke, 1809; reinstated, 1811, and thanked by parliament at conclusion of war: guardian of the king's person, 1818; spoke against catholic emancipation, 1825.
  277. ^ Louis Frederick , Prince of Wales (1707–1751), father of George III; born at Hanover; created Duke of Gloucester, 1717, of Edinburgh, 1727; created Prince of Wales, 1729; his projected marriage with the princess royal of Prussia frustrated by George II; wrote or inspired Histoire du Prince Titi 1736, a caricature of his father and mother; supported Bnononcini against Handel; married Princess Augusta of Saxe Gotha, 1736; ordered to quit St. James's on account of his inconsiderate conduct at recent lying-in of his wife, 1737; removed to Kew and Norfolk House, where he gathered together the heads of the opposition; solicited command of the army, 1745.
  278. ^ John Free (d. 1465). See Phreas.
  279. ^ Alfred Robert Freebairn (1794–1846), engraver; probably son of Robert Freebairn: executed vignettes and illustrations for theBook of Gems also many engravings by anaglyptograph process published in Art Union, 1846.
  280. ^ Robert Freebairn (1765–1808), landscape-painter; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1782-6; sent views of Roman scenery to the Academy, 1789 and 1790.
  281. ^ James Freeburn (1808–1876), inventor of metal and wood fuses for exploding live shells; served in royal artillery: in West Indies, 1837-40.
  282. ^ William Freeke (1662–1744). See Freke.
  283. ^ Sir Francis Freeling (1764–1836), postal reformer; helped Palmer in improving his mail coach system. 1785; for many years secretary to the general post office; created baronet, 1828.
  284. ^ Sir George Henry Freeling (1789–1841), commissioner of customs, 1836-41; son of Sir Francis Freeling
  285. ^ Edward Augustus Freeman (1823–1892), historian: B.A. and probationary fellow, Trinity College, Oxford, 1845: honorary fellow, 1880; published History of Architecture 1849: regular contributor to Saturday Review 1855-78; examiner in school of law and modern history at Oxford, 1857-8, 1863-4, and 1873; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1870, and LL.D. Cambridge, 1874; served "on royal commission to inquire into constitution and working of ecclesiastical courts, 1881-3; lectured in United States, 1881-2; regius professor of modern history at Oxford, 1884-92; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884. His works include, History and Conquests of the Saracens 1 856, History of Federal Government only vol. i. published, 1863,History of Norman Conquest 1867-79, 'Growth of the English Constitution 1872, Historical Geography of Europe 1881-2, Chief Periods of European History 1886, aud History of Sicily 1891-2.
  286. ^ John Freeman (fl. 1611), divine ; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1583; M.A., 1584; published The Comforter 1591.
  287. ^ John Freeman (fl. 1670–1720), historical painter : rival of Isaac Fuller; was latterly scene-painter to Covent Garden; probably not identical with the artist of the Trial of Lord Lovat
  288. ^ Philip Freeman (1818–1875), archdeacon of Exeter, 1865; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1839; Craven University scholar and Browne medallist, 1838; fellow of Peterhouse, 1839; M.A., 1842; principal of Chichester theological college, 1846-8; canon of Cumbrae College, Bute, 1853-8; vicar of Thorverton, 1858; published Short Account of the Collegiate Church of Cumbrae 1854, History... of Exeter Cathedral 1871, and other works.
  289. ^ Sir Ralph Freeman (fl. 1610–1655), civilian and dramatist; master of requests, 1618: auditor of imprests and master of the mint, 1629: published verse translations from Seneca and Imperiale a tragedy, 1655.
  290. ^ Samuel Freeman (1773–1857), engraver in stipple. His works include portraits of Johnson after Bartolozzi, Garrick after Reynolds, and L. E. L. after Wright.
  291. ^ Thomas Freeman (fl. 1614), epigrammatist; B.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1607; published Rvbbe and a Great Cast and Rvnne and a Great Cast 1614.
  292. ^ William Peere Williams Freeman (1742-1832). See Williams.
  293. ^ Martha Walker Freer (1822–1888). See Mrs Robinson.
  294. ^ Sir John Freind (d. 1696). See Friend.
  295. ^ John Freind (1676–1728), physician ; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; B.A., 1698; M.D., 1707; physician with Peterborough in Spain, 1705-7; published pamphlets in defenceof Peterborough; F.R.S., 1712; attended Ormonde in Flanders; F.R.C.P., 1716; Gulstonian lecturer, 1718, Harveian orator, 1720; M.P., Launceston, 1722; implicated in his friend Atterbury's plot; said to have owed his release from the Tower to Richard Mead; physician to Queen Caroline, 1727; published History of Physic... to beginning of the Sixteenth Century (2 vols. 1725-6).
  296. ^ Robert Freind (1667–1751), head-master of Westminster School; brother of John Freind; educated at Westmiuster and Christ Church, Oxford; B.A., 1690; D.D., 1709; head-master of Westminster, 1711-33; canon of Windsor, 1729, of Westminster, 1731, of Christ Church, 1737; made Westminster the leading school of the day; helped in the production of Boyle'g attack on Bentley.
  297. ^ William Freind (1669–1745), divine; brother of Robert and John Freind; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1694; rector of Tunrey, 1714, of Woodford, Northamptonshire, 1720: won a lottery prize of 20.00W., 1745; author of The Christian Minister
  298. ^ William Freind (1716–1766),deanof Canterbury, 1760-6; son of Robert Freind; of Westminster and Christ Church; M.A., 1738; D.D., 1748; rector of Witney, 1739, of Islip, 1747; canon of Westminster, 1744, of Christ Church, 1756; prolocutor of the lower house, 1761.
  299. ^ John Freke (1688–1756), surgeon; curator of St. Bartholomew's Hospital Museum, and surgeon, 1729-55; F.R.S., 1729; publishedTreatise on the Nature and Property of Fire 1752, and Essay on the Art of Healing 1748; twice mentioned in Tom Jones
  300. ^ William Freke (1662–1744), mystical writer; of Wadham College, Oxford; barristerof the Temple; fined and ordered to make a public recantation for an antitrinitarian tract distributed to members of parliament, 1694: proclaimed himselfthe great Elijah 1709; published v Lingua Tersancta 1703.
  301. ^ Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle (1766-1819), vice-admiral; served with Hood and Nelson in the Mediterranean, 1793-7; distinguished himself at Toulon, 1795, and at Leghorn and Elba, 1796: severely wounded in attack on Santa Cruz, 1797; took Nelson home in the Seahorse; at Copenhagen, 1801, in the Ganges; at Trafalgar in the Neptune, 1805; rear-admiral, 1810; commanded in Adriatic, 1812-14, capturing Fiume(1813) and Trieste (1814); K.O.B. and baron of Austria, 1815; G.C.B. and commander-in-chief in Mediterranean, 181 8.
  302. ^ Thomas Francis Fremantle , first Baron Cottesloe (1798–1890), son of Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle; B.A. Oriel College, Oxford, 1819; created baronet, 1821; conservative M.P. for Buckingham, 1826-46; one of secretaries of treasury, 1834 and 1841; secretary at war, 1844: chief secretary for Ireland, 1845-6; deputy-chairman, and subsequently chairman of board of customs, 1846-73; raised to peerage, 1874.
  303. ^ Sir William Henry Fremantle (1766-1850), politician; resident secretary for Ireland, 17891800; joint-secretary to the treasury under Lord Grenville, 1806; M.P. for Wick, 1808-12, for Buckingham, 1812-27; privy councillor and commissioner of the India board, 1822-6; treasurer of the household, 1826-37. 1881),
  304. ^ George Russell French (1803–1881), antiquary and author of genealogical works.
  305. ^ Gilbert James French (1804–1866), biographer of Samuel Crompton; published, among other works, Enquiry into Origin and Authorship of some of the Waverley Novels 1856, and Life and Times of Samuel Crompton 1859.
  306. ^ John French (1616?–1657), physician to the parliamentary army: M.A. New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1640; M.D., 1648; published works, including The Art of Distillation, 1651, and The Yorkshire Spaw 1652, and other works.
  307. ^ Nicholas French (1604–1678), bishop of Ferns ; president of the Irish College at Louvain; prominent among the confederated catholics daring the Irish rebellion; bishop of Ferns before 1646: went on mission to Rome, 1647, to Brussels, 1651, and to Paris, 1652; coadjutor to archbishop of Santiago de Compostella, 16521666, afterwards to archbishop of Paris, and to bishop of Ghent, where he died and was buried; published Narrative of the Earl of Clarendon's Settlement and Sale of Ireland 1668, and other rare tracts.
  308. ^ Peter French (d. 1693), Dominican missionary; laboured for thirty years among Mexican Indians.
  309. ^ Thomas Valpy French (1825–1891), Indian bishop; M.A. University College, Oxford, 1849; fellow, 1848; ordained priest, 1849; principal of St. John's College, Agra, 1850; first bishop of Lahore, 1877-87; D.D. Oxford, 1877.
  310. ^ William French (1786–1849), master of Jesus College, Cambridge; educated at Ipswich and Cains College, Cambridge; second wrangler and Smith's prizeman, 1811; fellow and tutor of Pembroke College, Cambridge; M.A., 1814; master of Jesus College, 1820-49; D.D., 1821; canon of Ely, 1832; published, with George Skinner, translation of the Psalms, with notes, 1830, and of the Proverbs, 1831.
  311. ^ William Frend (1757–1841), reformer and scientific writer; educated at Canterbury, St. Omer, and Christ's College, Cambridge: second wrangler and Smith's prizeman, 1780; B.A., 1780; fellow and tutor of Jesus College, 1781; vicar of Madingley, 1783-7, when he became a Unitarian; translated for Priestley the historical books of the Old Testament; expelled the university for his Peace and Union recommended 1793; his expulsion invalidated on technical grounds; actuary of the Rock Life Assurance Company, 1806-26; tutor of Copley (Lyndhurst) and Malthus; published Principles of Algebra (1796 and 1799), and treatises advocating graduated income-tax and a sinking fund.
  312. ^ Frendraught, first Viscount (d. 1650). See James Crichton.
  313. ^ Bartholomew Frere (1778–1851), diplomatist; son of John Frere; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1806; acting minister in Spain, 1809-10; at Constantinople as secretary and interim minister, 1812, 18151817, 1820-1.
  314. ^ Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere , commonly called Sir Bartle Frere, first baronet (1815-1884), statesman; nephew of John Hookbam Frere; educated at Bath and Haileybury; entered Bombay civil service, 1834; assisted Henry Edward Goldsmid in investigating and reforming land-assessment; resident at Sattara, 1846, and commissioner upon its annexation, 1847, to which he was opposed; as chief commissioner of Sind, 1850-9, conciliated dispossessed amirs and opened up the country by means of public works; during the mutiny sent almo-t the whole of his armed force to the relief of the Punjab; thanked by parliament; K.C.B.; first nonBengal civilian appointed to the viceroy's council, 1859; Lord Canning's confidential adviser; as governor of Bombay, 1862-7, instituted the municipality and checked speculation, but was criticised for his conduct with regard to the Bombay Bank; returned to England as member of the council of India, 1867; G.C.S.I.; D.C.L. Oxford; LL.D. Cambridge; president of the Geographical Society, 1873, of the Asiatic Society, 1872; P.O.; sent to Zanzibar to negotiate suppression of slave trade, 1872; privy councillor; accompanied the Prince of Wales to India, 1875; created G.C.B. and a baronet, 1876; governor of the Cape, and first high commissioner of South Africa, 1877; dismissed the cabinet and tried to conciliate the Kaffirs, but was obliged to make war on them, peace being made, 1878; Hiade demands on Cetewayo which resulted in the Zulu war, 1879, when he was held to have exceeded his instructions, censured by the government, and superseded in the high-commisHionership; supported Shepstone on the Transvaal question, but after a conference with the Boers promised to urge the redress of some of their grievances, 1879; recalled, 1880, in spite of great popularity in South Africa; defended himself by the publication of correspondence relating to his recall and inAfghanistan and South Africa 1881; replied to charges of Mr. Gladstone in Midlothian; wrote also memoir of his uncle Hookham Frere prefixed to the Works of J. H. Frere
  315. ^ James Hatley Frere (1779–1866), writer on prophecy; sixth son of John Frere; invented phonetic system for teaching blind to read, and cheap method of stereotyping. His works include Combined View of the Prophecies of Daniel, Esdra., and St. John 1816, andOn the General Structure of the Apocalypse 1826.
  316. ^ John Frere (1740–1807), antiquary; wcond wrangler and fellow of Oaius College, Cambridge, 1763; M.A., 1766: high sheriff of Norfolk, 1766; F.R.S., 1771; M.P., Norwich, 1799; wrote paperOn the Flint Weapons of Hoxne in Suffolk Archaeologia for 1800).
  317. ^ John Hookham Frere (1769–1846), diplomatist and author; eldest son of John Frere; friend of Canning; educated at Eton and Caius College, Cambridge; fellow,1793?-1816; M.A.,1795; a founder of the'Microcosm 1786-7; M.P., Wot Looe, 1799-1802; contributed to the Anti- Jacobin (1797-8) most of theLoves of the Triangles and parts ofThe Friend of Humanity and the Knifegrinder and The Rovers; under-secretary for foreign affairs, 1799; envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary at Lisbon, 1800-2, at Madrid, 1802-4; privy councillor, 1805; as British minister with the.Junta, 1808-9; advised Moore to retreat through Galicia; twice refused a peerage; retired to Malta, 1818, where he died; contributed to Ellis's Specimens of Early English Poets 1801, and to Southey's Chronicle of the Cid 1808; one of the founders of theQuarterly Review; published metrical versions of Aristophanes's Frogs 1839, and Acharnians, Knights, and Birds 1840; published Theognis Restitutus 1842.
  318. ^ Philip Howard Frere (1813–1868), agriculturist; eldest son of William Frere: fellow (1837) and bursar (1839) of Downing College, Cambridge; editor ofJournal of Royal Agricultural Society 1862.
  319. ^ William Frere (1775–1836), master of Downing College, Cambridge, 181 2; fourth son of John Frere; educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge; B.A., 1798; Craven scholar and chancellor's medallist; barrister, 1802; serjeant-at-law, 1809; master of Downing College, Cambridge, 1812; LL.D. Cambridge, 1825; D.O.L. Oxford, 1834; edited Baron Glenbervie's Reports of Cases 1813, and voL v. of the Paston Letters
  320. ^ Simon du Fresne (fl. 1200). See Simon.
  321. ^ Anthony Freston (1767–1819), divine ; B.A. of Christ Church, Oxford. 1780; B.A. and M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1783; rector of Edgworth, 1801; published theological and poetical works.
  322. ^ George Freville (d. 1579), baron of the exchc1 qner, 1559-79; recorder of Cambridge, 1553.
  323. ^ Accepted Frewen (1588–1664), archbishop of York; eldest son of John Frewen; fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1612; M.A., 1612; chaplain to Lord Digby (Bristol) in Spain; chaplain to the king and canon of Canterbury, 1625; president of Magdalen, 1626-43; dean of Gloucester, 1631; mainly instrumental in presentation of university plate to Charles I, 1642; bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1643; his estate declared forfeited by parliament, 1652; proscribed by Oliver Cromwell; archbishop of York, 1660-4; benefactor of Magdalen College, Oxford.
  324. ^ John Frewen (1558–1628), puritan divine ; rector of Northiam from 1583; indicted by parishioners for nonconformity, 1611; his eight sermons preached in vindication of himself, re-preached from the same pulpit 250 years later by Octavius Lord.; published devotional manuals; edited John Bishop'sCourteous Conference with the English Catholickes Romane 1598.
  325. ^ Thomas Frewen (1704–1791), physician; M.D. before 1765; one of the first to inoculate for smallpox; publishedPractice and Theory of Inoculation 1749.
  326. ^ Richard Frewin (1681?–1761), physician; of Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford: M.A., 1704; M.D., 1711; Camden professor of ancient history, 1727; left his books to the Radcliffe library and his house (now Frewin Hall) for the regius professor of medicine.
  327. ^ Fridegode (fl. 950). See Frithegode.
  328. ^ Frideswide, Fritheswith, or Fredeswitha (d. 735?), said to have founded monastery at Oxford, when miraculously delivered from the persecution of a king, her lover; buried in St. Mary's Church, Oxford; her relics translated, 1180 and 1289; her shrine destroyed, 1638. The monastery (at Oxford) refounded by Roger, bishop of Salisbury, was suppressed, 1524, and handed over to Wolsey.
  329. ^ Sir John Friend (d. 1696), conspirator; knighted by James II, 1685: executed for being privy to a conspiracy against William III.
  330. ^ George Arthur Fripp (1813–1896), water-colour artist; studied under Samuel Jackson (1794-18(59); member of Old Water-colour Society, 1845, and secretary, 1848-54; painted by royal command series of pictuiv- of Balmoral neighbourhood, 1860.
  331. ^ Fraser Frisell (1774–1846), friend of Chateaubriand; studied at Glasgow; prisoner in France, 1793-4 and 1803; intimate with Madame de Guitaut; corresponded with Joubert; wrote Etude sur la Constitution de 1'Angleterre, avec de remarques sur 1'ancienne Constitution de la France (1820).
  332. ^ James Hain Friswell (1826–1878), miscellaneous writer; published more than thirty works, including essays,A Quotation Handbook(1866),The Gentle Life 1864, some novels, and Modern Men of Letters honestly criticised 1870.
  333. ^ John Frith (1503–1533), protestant martyr; of Eton and King's College, Cambridge; B.A., 1525; junior canon at Wolsey's College, Oxford, 1525; imprisoned for assisting Tyudal to translate the New Testament; on release, 1528, went to Marburg for six years, where he translated Patrick Hamilton's Places 1529 ?; in spite of poverty and overtures from Henry VIII wroteDisputacion of Purgatorye combating More and Fisher, 1531 ?; imprisoned in the Tower for heresy, 1532, formulated first protestant views on the sacrament: replied to More's answer; burnt at Smith field for heretical views on purgatory and transubstantiatiou; his works published by Foxe, 1573.
  334. ^ Mary Frith (1684?–1659), 'Moll Outpurse ' : notorious as a pickpocket, fortune-teller, and forger; did penance at Paul's Cross, 1612; heroine of Middleton and Dekker's Roaring Girle IKK. 280
  335. ^ Frithegode or Fridegode (.ft. 950), hagiographer; monk of Canterbury; wrote metrical Life of Willnth
  336. ^ Sir Martin Frobisher (1536?–1594), navigator ; made his first voyage to Guinea, 1554; examined on suspicion of piracy, 1566; employed on state service off coast of Ireland; made his first voyage in search of northwest passage under auspices of Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick, 1576, reaching Frobisher Bay; as admiral of the Company of Cathay, sailed to the same region in search of gold, 1577, explored south of Meta Incognita and Jackmau's Sound, and brought home two hundred tons of gold from Kodlun-arn (Countess of Warwick's island); during third voyage with fifteen ships, 1678, landed bi southern Greenland and discovered new strait and upper part of Frobisher's Bay; vice-admiral in Drake's West Indian expedition, 1586; commanded the Triumph against Spanish Armada, and led one of the newly formed squadrons; knighted and made commander of squadron in Narrow Seas, 1588-9; vice-admiral in Hawkins's expedition, 1590; captured a Biscayan with valuable cargo, 1592; died from wound received in expedition for relief of Brest and Crozon.
  337. ^ Bridge Frodsham (1734–1768), actor ; twice ran away from Westminster School; the York Garrick; his Hamlet considered by Tate Wilkinson only second to that of Garrick and Barry.
  338. ^ Charles Frost (1781?–1862), antiquary; solicitor to Hull Dock Company; F.S.A., 1822; published work on the early history of Hull, 1827.
  339. ^ George Frost (1754–1821), Ipswich landscape painter; friend of Constable and imitator of Gainsborough.
  340. ^ John Frost (1626?–1656), nonconformist divine; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; B.D., 1656; published Select Sermons 1667.
  341. ^ John Frost (1803–1840), founder of the MedicoBotanical Society, 1821; secretary to Royal Humane Society, 1824; expelled the Medico-Botanical Society for his arrogant behaviour, 1830: having incurred liabilities in respect of Millbank hospital-ship, fled to Paris, 1832; afterwards practised as a physician in Berlin,
  342. ^ John Frost (1750–1842), secretary of the Corresponding Society; prominent member of Thatched House parliamentary reform society, 1782; founded Corresponding Society, 1792; as representative of the Society for Constitutional Information present at trial of Louis XVI, 17W-3; denounced by Burke asambassador to the murderers; indicted for sedition, and, though defended by Erskine, sentenced to six monthsimprisonment and tob; struck off the roll of attorneys, 1793; pardoned by thf prince regent, 1813, but not replaced on the rolls.
  343. ^ John Frost (d. 1877), chartist; imprisoned for libel, 1822: mayor of Newport, Monmouthshire, 1836; after chartist convention of 1839 removed from commission of the peace for seditious language; brought about dissolution of convention and led an armed mob into Newport, 1839; transported to Van Diemen's Land, IMO; conditionally pardoned, 1854; returned to England, 1856, with free pardon; wrote and lectured on convict life and against transportation.
  344. ^ Percival Frost (1817–1898), mathematician; second wrangler, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1839; M.A., 1842; fellow, 1839; ordained deacon, 1841; mathematical lecturer in Jesus College, 1847-59, and in King's College, 1869-89; F.R.S., 1883; fellow of King's College, 1883-98; D.Sc., 1883; published mathematical works.
  345. ^ William Edward Frost (1810–1877), painter ; Royal Academy gold medallist for Prometheus Bound 1839; exhibitedSabrina 1845,Diana surprised by Actaeon 1846, Una (purchased by Queen Victoria), 1847, 'Euphrosyne 1848, Disarming of Cupid 1850 (at Osborue), and Narcissus 1857; R.A., 1870-6.
  346. ^ Walter Froucester (d. 1412), abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, 1382, the cloisters of which he completed.
  347. ^ James Anthony Froude (1818–1894), historian and man of letters; brother of Richard Hnrrell Froude and of William Froude; educated at Westminster and Oriel College, Ox ford; B. A., 1842; chancellor's English essayist; Devon fellow of Exeter College, 1842; M.A., 1843; wrote life of St. Neot for Newman's Lives of the English Saints 1844; marked his breach with orthodoxy, 1849, by publication of Nemesis of Faith a copy of which was publicly burned by William Sewell ; resigned his fellowship from annoyance; made ! acquaintance of Carlyle, 1849, and subsequently became his chief disciple; publishedHistory of England from Fall of Wolsey to Defeat of Spanish Armada 12 vols., 1856-70; editor of Eraser's Magazine 1860-74; rector of St. Andrews, 1868; published The English in Ireland in Eighteenth Century 1872-4; lectured in United States, 1872; travelled in South Africa, 1874-6, with object of ascertaining what were the obstacles to confederation of South African States; conducted an unsuccessful political campaign in Cape Colony and Orange Free State in favour of federation, 1875; member of Scottish universities commission, 1876; sole literary executor of Carlyle, 1881; published Carlyle'sReminiscences 1881,Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle 1883, History of first Forty Years of Carlyle's Life 1882, and History of Carlyie's Life in London 1884; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884; visited Australia, 1884-5; published Oceana, or England and her Colonies 1886; visited West Indii-s, 1886-7, and published English in West Indies 1888; regius professor of modern history at Oxford, 1892-4. His lectures were published as Life and Letters of Erasmus 1894,English Seamen in Sixteenth Century 1895, and 'Council of Trent 1896. As a writer of English prose Froude had few equals in the nineteenth century, though the value of his historical scholarship is matter of controversy.
  348. ^ Richard Hurrell Froude (1803–1836), divine ; brother of James Anthony Froude and of William Froude; educated at Ottery, Eton, and Oriel College, Oxford; fellow, 1826; M.A., 1827; intimate with Newman and greatly influenced the Traccarians: with Newman wroteLyra Apostolicaat Rome, 1832-3; contributed three of the Tracts for the Times; his Remains edited by James Bowling Mozley, 1837 and 1839.
  349. ^ William Froude (1810–1879), engineer and naval architect, brother of Richard Hurrell Froude and James Anthony Froude; of Westminster and Oriel College, Oxford; M.A., 1837; while employed under Brunei on Bristol and Exeter railway propounded curve of adjustment*; constructed bilge- keels to prevent rolling of ships; conducted for the admiralty at Torquay experiments on resistance and propulsion of slrpa; F.R.S., 1870; royal medallist, 1876; constructed dynamometer to determine power of marine engines; died sit Simon's Town.
  350. ^ Philip Frowde (d. 1738), poet; pupil of Addison at Magdalen College, Oxford; his Cursus Glacialis, Anglicè Scating, published by Curll as Addison's, 1720: published two tragedies, The Fall of Saguntuin 1727,:r, u 1 Philotas 1731, in both of which Quin acted,
  351. ^ Sir Thomas Frowyk (. 1506), judge ; serjeant-at-law, 1494: judge of assize in the west, 1501; helped to define jurisdiction of university and town of Cambridge, 1602; chief-justice of common pleas, 1502.
  352. ^ Caroline Fry (1787–1846). See Wilson.
  353. ^ Edmund Fry (1754–1835), type-founder; son of Joseph Fry; M.D. Edinburgh; issued specimens of metal-cast ornaments 1793; published Pantographia (containing more than two hundred alphabets). 1799, and Specimen of Printing Types 1810; sold business to Thorowgood, 1S29; awarded gold medal for raised type for the blind.
  354. ^ Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845), prison reformer; sister of Joseph Jolm Guruey; a quaker minister at twenty-nine; highly impressive as a preacher; married Joseph Fry, 1820; formed association for improvement of female prisoners in Newgate, 1817; interested herself in other prisons, and induced government to make regulation for voyage of convicts to New South Wales; received by Louis- Philippe and the king of Prussia; instituted order of nursing sisters: alleviated condition of vagrants in London and Brighton.
  355. ^ Francis Fry (1803–1886), bibliographer; partner in firm of J. S. Fry & Co. of Bristol; one of the quaker deputation to mouarchs of Europe for abolition of slavery, 1850; printed facsimile of Tyndale's New Testament (1525 or 1526), 1862, and in the same year Souldier's Pocket Bible; published Description of the Great Bible of 1539 ... Oranmer's Bible... and editions in large folio of the Authorised Version 1865; an account of Coverdale's Bible (1536), 1867, and a bibliographical description of Tyndale's version (1534), 1878.
  356. ^ John Fry (1609–1657), theological writer; entered parliament after Pride's Purge; member of the commission for trial of the king, but took part only in the earlier proceedings; carried on theological controversy with Francis Cheynell and others concerning the Trinity; disabled from sitting in parliament on account of his writings.
  357. ^ John Fry (1792–1822), Bristol bookseller and author of Metrical Trifles 1810; and Bibliographical Memoranda 1816; printed fragments of media?val (English) poetry.
  358. ^ Joseph Fry (1728–1787), type-founder; practised medicine in Bristol, and afterwards made cocoa and chocolate; with William Pine began type-founding, 1764; removed to London; brought out bible in 5 vols., 1774-6; andSpecimen of Printing Types made by Joseph Fry & Sons 1785 (which he declared to be indistinguishable from the founts of William Caslon).
  359. ^ William Thomas Fry (1789–1843), engraver in stipple.
  360. ^ Thomas Frye (1710–1762), painter, mezzotint engraver and china manufacturer; friend of Reynolds: painted and engraved full lengths of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1741, and Jeremy Bentham; engraved and published eighteen life-size heads in mezzotint, including George III, Queen Charlotte, Garrick, and the Gunnings; patentee, 1744 and 1749, for making porcelain from a new material brought from America.
  361. ^ Edward Fryer (1761–1826), physician; M.D. Leyden, 1785: L.R.C.P., 1790: attended the Duke of Sussex; published life of Barry, the painter, 1825.
  362. ^ John Fryer (d. 1563), physician ; of Eton and King's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1525; expelled from Wolsey's College at Oxford as a Lutheran, and imprisoned in the Savoy and the Fleet; by assistance of Edward Fox a, v. graduated M.D. at Padua, 1535: president of liege of Physicians, 1649-50; attended Fox at Diet of Smalcalde, 1535; imprisoned in the Tower for Bomanlmn, 1561-3; died of the plague.
  363. ^ John Fryer (fl. 1571), physician; M.A., Jesus College, Cambridge, 1548; M.D., 1556; settled at Padua in Queen Elizabeth*! reign; published theAphorisms of Hippocrates versified, 15G7; and Latin occasional verses.
  364. ^ John Fryer (d. 1672), physician ; grandson of John Fryer (d. 1563); M.D. Padua, 1610; excluded from College of Physicians as a Romanist; honorary fellow, 1664.
  365. ^ John Fryer (d. 1733), traveller : M.D. Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1683; F.R.S., 1697; travelled in the East; publishedA New Account of East India Hint Persia, in eight letters 1698.
  366. ^ Leonard Fryer (d. 1605?), serjeant-painter to Queen Elizabeth.
  367. ^ John de Fryton (. 1304). See John de Barton.
  368. ^ William Fulbeck (1560–1603?), legal writer; studied at St. Alban Hall, Christ Church, and Gloucester Hall, Oxford; M.A., 1684; entered Gray's Inn; chief works: A Direction or Preparation to the Study of the Law 1600, A Parallele, or Conference of the Civil Law, the Canon Law, and the Common Law 1601, 1618, The Pandectes of the Law of Nations 1602, and The Misfortunes of Arthur a masque (1588).
  369. ^ George Williams Fulcher (1795–1855), poet, bookseller, and printer of Sudbury; published, among other works, Fulcher's Poetical Miscellany 1841, selected from the Sudbury Pocket Book to which James Montgomery, Bernard Barton, and the Howitts contributed, The Village Paupers 1845, and The Farmer's Daybook
  370. ^ Francis Fulford (1803–1868), first bishop of Montreal, 1850-60: fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 1824-30; M.A., 1838; hou. D.D., 1850; rector of Trowbridge, 1832-42; minister of Ourzon Chapel, Mayfair, 1846; editor of Colonial Church Chronicles 1848; metropolitan of Canada, 1860; attended the Pan-Anglican synod at Lambeth, 1867.
  371. ^ William Fulke (1538–1589), puritan divine; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1563; friend of Thomas Cartwright (1535-1603); deprived of his fellowship at St. John's by Cecil for preaching against the surplice; readmitted and elected senior fellow, 1567; chaplain to Leicester, through whose influence he became incumbent of Warley and Dennington; D.D., 1572: and master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1578; conferred with the deprived bishops, Watson and Feckenham, at Wifbech, 1580, and disputed with Edmund Campion in the Tower, 1581; one of the twenty-five theologians to dispute with Romanists, 1582; published astronomical and theological works, including treatises against Cardinal Allen, Thomas Stapleton, and other Romanists, and A Defence of the English Version of the Bible
  372. ^ John Fullarton (1780?–1849), traveller and writer on currency; travelled widely in India and the East; entrusted with important mission to China, 1834; published a work On the Regulation of Currencies in support of Tooke's views, 1844.
  373. ^ William Fullarton (1764–1808), commissioner of Trinidad; raised and commanded 98th foot, 1780. serving against Haidar Ali in Mysore, 1780-2; took part in suppression of the Kollars; as commander of troops south of Ooleroon, 1783, took Dharapuram, Palghat, and Coimbatore; published View of English Interests in India 1787; raised 23rd dragoons, 1794, and 101st foot, 1800; M.P. for Plymptou, 1779, Haddington, 1787-90, Horsham, 1793-6, Ayrshire, 1796-1803; as commissioner of Trinidad caused Picton to be superseded and tried for torturing a Spanish girl.
  374. ^ Andrew Fuller (1754–1816), baptist theologian ; D.D. Princeton College and Yale; secretary of Baptist Missionary Society. His works includeThe Gospel worthy of all Acceptation The Calvinistic and Sociniau Systems examined and compared as to their Moral Tendency 1794, and An Apology for the late Christian Missions to India
  375. ^ Francis Fuller, the elder (1637?–1701), nonconformist divine; M.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1660; expelled from curacy of Warkworth for nonconformity; preached in the west of England; afterwards assisted Timothy Cruso and his successor in Poor Jewry Lane; published treatises and sermons, 1685-1700.
  376. ^ Francis Fuller , the younger (1670–1706), medical writer; second son of Francis Fuller the elder; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1704; published Medicina Gymnastica (1704).
  377. ^ Isaac Fuller (1606–1672), painter and etcher; studied under Perrier; painted altar-pieces for Magdalen and Wadham Colleges, Oxford; much employed in tavern painting; executed portraits of himself, Samuel Butler the poet, Sir Kenelm Digby, and others.
  378. ^ John Fuller (d. 1558), master of Jesus College, Cambridge; fellow of All Souls Oxford, 1536; D.O.L., 1546; rector of Han well, 1547-51; chancellor to Bishop Thirlby of Norwich, 1550; removed with him to Ely, 1654; master of Jesus, 1557-8.
  379. ^ John Fuller (d. 1825), author of'History of Berwick (1799); M.D. St. Andrews, 1789.
  380. ^ Sir Joseph Fuller (d. 1841), general; ensign, Ooldstream guards, 1792; captain, 1794; served in Flanders, 1793, Ireland, 1798, and North Holland, 1799; served in Peninsula, 1808-9, commanding 1st battalion at Talavera, 1809; major-general, 1813; K.B., 1826; general, 1838; president of consolidated board of general officers.
  381. ^ Nicholas Fuller (1557?–1626), hebraist and philologist; secretary to Bishops Home and Watson of Winchester; graduated at Hart Hall, Oxford, 1586; incumbent of Allington, Wiltshire; canon of Salisbury, 1612; his Miscellaueorum Theologicorum... libri tree incorrectly printed at Heidelberg, 1612, and reissued, with a fourth book, at Oxford, 1616.
  382. ^ Samuel Fuller or Fulwar (1635–1700), dean of Lincoln; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1657; M.A., 1658; D.D., 1679; ordained by his uncle, Thomas Fuller or Fulwar, chancellor of Lincoln, 1670; chaplain to the king; dean of Lincoln, 1695-1700; his face painted by Verriofor Bacchus astride of a barrel; his defence of Anglican orders (1690) severely censured by Baxter.
  383. ^ Thomas Fuller (1608–1661), divine; M.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1628; perpetual curate of St. Benet's, Cambridge, 1630; prebendary of Salisbury, 1631; rector of Broadwindsor, Dorset, 1634; as curate of the Savoy preached sermons from 1642 in favour of peace between king and parliament; retired to Oxford, 1643; followed the war as chaplain to Sir Ralph Hopton 16431644; at Exeter as chaplain to the infant Princess Henrietta, 1644-6; returned to London after surrender of Exeter; chaplain to Lord Carlisle; preached in London on sufferance; rector of Cranford and chaplain to Earl Berkeley, 1658; accompanied Berkeley to meet Charles II at the Hague, 1660; after Restoration resumed bis canonry and Savoy lectureship and became chaplain i extraordinaryto the king; publishedHistory of the Holy Warre viz. the crusades, 1643,The Holy State and the Profane State 1642, A Pisgah-sight of Palestine 1650, Church History of Britain History of Cambridge University 1655, and Worthies of England 1662.
  384. ^ Thomas Fuller or Fulwar (1593–1667), archbishop of Cashel, related to Thomas Fuller (1608-1661); disinherited for a prodigal: went to Ireland; bishop of Ardfert, 1641; D.D. Oxford, 1645; archbishop of Cashel, 1661-7.
  385. ^ Thomas Fuller (1654–1734), physician; M.D. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1681; practised at Sevenoaks, where he effected reform of Senoke charity; published Exanthemologia (on eruptive fevers), 1730, and other medical works, besides three collections of maxims.
  386. ^ William Fuller (1580?–1659),dean of Durham ; fellow of St. Catharine Hall, Cambridge; D.D., 1625; chaplain to James I and Charles I; vicar of St. Giles-without-Cripplegate, 1628; dean of Ely, 1636; attended the king at Oxford, 1645; dean of Durham, 1646; twice summoned as a delinquent.
  387. ^ William Fuller (1608–1675), bishop of Lincoln; educated at WMi,,ii,t,. r:md Magdalen Hall, Oxford: B.C.L. St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, c. l632; chaplain to Lord-keeper Lyttelton, 1645; dean of St. Patrick, ItiGo: D.C.L. Oxford, and D.D. Cambridge, 1660;, Limerick, 1663: repaired St. Patrick's; restore! nion-jment of St. Hugh at Lincoln; bishop of Lincoln. i;u7 1675; benefactor of Lincoln and Christ Church; intimate with Evelyn and Pepys.
  388. ^ William Fuller (1670–1717?), impostor; described himself as a grandson of Dr. Thomas Fuller: accompanied James II's queen, Mary of Modena, to France; employed by her in Ireland and England; made disclosures to the Earl of Shrewsbury and showed Jacobite letters to William III: lodged with Titus Gates in Westminster, but was prosecuted by him for non-payment of rent; offered to reveal Jacobite plot in which Lord Halifax was implicated; unable to produce witnesses, 1692; imprisoned as an impostor, 1692-5; renewed acquaintance with Gates and published pretended revelations of the warming-pan plot, 1696; issued (1701) autobiography and another version of the warming-pan story, containing letters of Mary of Modena and alleged depositions; convicted of misdemeanor, fined, pilloried, and ?ent to Bridewell, 1702; while in prison published a second autobiography (1703), representing himself as the tool of Gates and Tutchin, also a confession (1704), and a dieavowal of this (1716) stating that he had answered the Confession in The Truth at Last (n.d.)
  389. ^ Lady Georgiana Charlotte Fullerton (1812-1885), novelist and philanthropist; youngest daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, first earl Granville ; brought sisters of St. Vincent de Paul to England and foundedPoor Servants of the Mother of God Incarnate publishedEllen Middleton 1844,Grantley Manor 1847,Too Strange not to be True 1864, and other novels and biographical works.
  390. ^ William Fullwood (tf. 1562), author; published the Emmie of Idlenesse: Teaching the maner and stile how to eudite, compose, and write all sorts of Epistles 1568.
  391. ^ William Fulman (1632–1688), antiquary; educated at Magdalen College School and Corpus Christi College, Oxford; fellow of Corpus, and M.A., 1660; rector of Meysey Hampton, 1669; published Academiae Oxoniensis Notitia 1665, vol. i. of Rerum Anglicarum Scriptorum Veterum tom. i. 1684, and Works of Henry Hammond 1684; real editor of Perrinchief's Works of Charles I, 1662; absurdly supposed to have written The Whole Duty of Man
  392. ^ Ulpian Fulwell (fl. 1586), poet; rector of Naunton, 1570; publishedLike wil to like an interlude, 1568,The Flower of Fame 1575 (a chronicle of Henry VIII, with appendices in verse), andArs adulandi, the Art of Flattery 1676, humorous dialogues; joined St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 1578.
  393. ^ Christopher Fulwood (1590?–1643), royalist treasurer of Gray's Inn, 1637; tried William Bagsbaw at Bakewell sessions; raised forces for Charles I in Derbyshire, 1642; captured by parliamentarians, mortally wounded.
  394. ^ Thomas Furlong (1794–1827), poet; published The Plagues of Ireland 1824, and English metrical versions of Irish poets; his Doom of Derenzie published posthumously, 1829.
  395. ^ Benjamin Furly (1636–1714), quaker and friend of Locke; assisted John Stubbs inThe BattleDoor 1659-60; entertained George Fox at Rotterdam, and interpreted for him abroad; visited by Algernon Sydney, the third Lord Shaftesbury, and Locke, corresponding with them many years; died at Rotterdam; published translations from the Dutch.
  396. ^ Philip Furneaux (1726–1783), independent minister; friend of Benjamin Kennicott; independent pastor at Clapham, 1753, and Sunday-evening lecturer at BaitersHall, e. 1752; D.D. Aberdeen, 1767: active in proceedings arising out of fining by the city of nonconformists who refused to qualify for the office of sheriff, 1754-67; entered into controversy with Blackstone for making nonconformity a crime, 1769-70: obtained for dissenting clergy partial relief from doctrinal subscription, issuing an Essay on Toleration 1773.
  397. ^ Tobias Furneaux (1735–1781 ),circumniiviLra'm: second lieutenant of the Dolphin in Captain Suniinl Wallis's voyage, 1766-8; commanded the Adventure in Cook's second voyage; separately explored the coast of Tasmania, and prepared the first chart of it, giving names now on the map; returned alone, bringing with him first South Sea islander seen in England, 1774; captain of the Syren in Parker's attack on New Orleans, 1777.
  398. ^ Jocelin of Furness (fl. 1200). See Jocelin.
  399. ^ Richard Furness (1791–1857), Derbyshire poet.
  400. ^ Saint Fursa (d. 650), of Peronne; Irishman of noble birth; built monastery in north-west Clare at Rathmat (Killursa); began to wander about Ireland describing his trances, 627; founded in East Anglia monastery of Cnoberesburg (Burghcastle); finally settled in Neustria, where he erected monastery at Lagny, on the Marne, 644; died at Macerias (Mazeroeles), and was buried at Peronne.
  401. ^ John Fursdon , in religion Cuthbert (d. 1638), Benedictine monk of St. Gregory, Douay, 1620; as Breton converted Hugh Paulinus Cressy and Lady Falkland's daughters; publishedLife and Miracles of St. Benedict 1638, and The Rule of St. Bennet 1638.
  402. ^ Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Fuessli) (1741-1825), painter and author; native of Zurich; took holy orders with his friend Lavater, with whom he went to Berlin, 1763; brought by Sir Andrew Mitchell to England, 1763; published translation of Winckelmann's The Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks 1765; encouraged by Reynolds to become an artist, 1767; studied Michelangelo and other masters at Rome, 1770-8, and sent several paintings to the Royal Academy: exhibited three pictures at the Academy, 1780, and The Nightmare 1782; painted several works for Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, including Titania and Bottom; R.A., 1790; opened his Milton Gallery, 1799; professor of painting at the Academy, 1799-1825; keeper, 1804-25; buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. Eight hundred sketches (Fuseli's best work) were bought by Lawrence; among his pupils were Haydon, Etty, and Mulready. He edited Pilkington's Dictionary of Painters translated Lavater's Aphorisms wrote preface? for Blake's illustrations of Blair's 'Graveand many other works,Aphorisms of Artappearing posthumously.
  403. ^ Sir Herbert Jenner Fust - (1778–1852), dean of the arches, 1834; son of Robert Jenuer; educated at Reading and Trinity Hall, Cambridge; LL.D., 1803; barrister, Gray's Inn, 1800; king's advocate-general, 1828; vicar-general to the archbishop of Canterbury, 1832; presided at Gorham case (1847-50); master of Trinity Hall (non-resident), 1843-52; assumed the name of Fust, 1842.
  404. ^ Thomas Fych or Fyche (d. 1517). See Fich.
  405. ^ Andrew Fyfe, the elder (1754–1824), anatomist ; dissector under the second and third Mouro at Edinburgh; published text-books.
  406. ^ Andrew Fyfe, the younger (1792–1861), chemist ; eldest son of Andrew Fyfe the elder; M.D. Edinburgh, 1814; president of College of Surgeons (Edinburgh), 1842-3; professor of chemistry at Aberdeen, 1844-61; published Elements of Chemistry 1827.
  407. ^ William Baxter Collier Fyfe (1836?–1882), painter; first exhibited at Scottish Academy, 1861; exhibited at the English Academy from 18G6.
  408. ^ Charles Alan Fyffe (1845–1892), historian: educated at Christ's Hospital and Balliol College, Oxford; M.A., 1870; fellow of University College, 1871; barrister, Inner Temple, 1877; published History of Modern Europe 3 vols. 1880-90.
  409. ^ Martin Fynch or Finch (1628?–1698), ejected minister; after leaving vicarage of Tetney, 1662, became an independent minister at Norwich, where the Old Meeting was built for him, 1693; published theological works.
  410. ^ John Fyneux or Fineux (1441?–1527), chief-justice of king's bench; barrister, Gray's Inn; serjeant-at-law, 1485; justice of assize and king's serjeant, 1489; judge of common pleas, 1494; an executor of Henry VII's will, 1509; chief-justice of king's bench, 1495; in conference at Baynard Castle upheld jurisdiction of temporal courts over clerks, this being referred to by Lord-chancellor Ellesmere in 1608 as a precedent for extra-judicial opinions of judges.
  411. ^ Henry Dison Gabell (1764–1831), head-master of Winchester; fellow of New College, Oxford, 1782-90: B.A., 1786; M.A. Cambridge, 1807; head-master of Winchester, 1810-23; published pamphlets.
  412. ^ Mary Ann Virginia Gabriel afterwards March (1825–1877), musical composer ; published songs, operettas, and cantatas, including Evangeline 1873.
  413. ^ William Gage (fl. 1580), translator ; B.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1573; Englished N. Hemminge's Commentary on the Epistle of St. James 1677, selected sermons of Martin Luther. 1578, and Luther's treatise to Duke Frederick of Saxony when sick, 1580.
  414. ^ John Gadbury (1627–1704), astrologer; educated at Oxford; defended Lilly and other astrologers in PhilHBtrogu Knavery Epitomized 1652; published also Gcnethlialogia, or the Doctrine of Nativities 1658, and nativities of Charles I, the king of Sweden, and Sir Matthew Hales; produced De Cometis... with an Account of the three late Comets in 1664 and 1665 1665, Vox Solis; or a Discourse of the Sun's Eclipse, 22 June 1666 Obeequium Rationabile 1675, describing Lilly as an impostor, andA Ballad upon the Popish Plot 1679; he received compensation (1681) forwrongous imprisonment* at the time of thePopish Plot falsely accused of complicity in a plot against William III, 1690.
  415. ^ James Gadderar (1855–1733), restorer of Scottish i-piacopacy; M.A. Glasgow, 1675; minister of Kilmalcolm, 1682; rabbled out, 1688; consecrated Scottish bishop, i 1712, but lived in London; with Bishop Archibald Campbell (i. 1744) came to Scotland as hisvicar 1721; obtained sanction ofthe usages at Holy Commanion; confirmed bishop of Aberdeen, 1724; elected to see of Moray, 1725.
  416. ^ John of Gaddesden (1280?-1361), physician: member of Merton College, Oxford; practised in London, and treated a son of Edward I for smallpox; his treatise,  ! Rosa Medicinae or Rosa Anglica first printed at Pa via, 1492; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1342; theGatesden'of Chaucer's prologue.
  417. ^ William Gadsby (1773–1844), particular baptist 1 minister; pastor of Back Lane chapel, Manchester, from 1805; wrote hymns; his pamphlets and sermons published by his son, 1851 and 1854.
  418. ^ Francis Gage (1621–1682), president of Douay I College, 1676; half-brother of Sir Henry Gage: studied at Douay and Tournay College, Paris, under William Clifford; D.D. of the Sorbonne, 1654; agctt to the English chapter at Rome, 1659-61; left in manuscript a journal of hi? life.
  419. ^ George Gage (fl. 1614–1840), Roman catholic agent; half-brother of Francis Gage: friend of Sir Toby Matthew; sent by James I to Pome, 1621, to obtain dispensation for marriage of the Spanish Infanta with Prince Charles; failed after three years negotiations.
  420. ^ Sir Henry Gage (1597–1645), royalist; greatgrandson of Sir John Gage; educated in Flanders and in Italy under Piccolomini; in Spanish service at Antwerp; commanded company in Argyll's regiment at Bergen-op-Zoom, 1622, and Breda, 1621; defended St. Omer, 1638; intercepted parliament's supplies from Flanders; during the Rebellion was prominent in defence of Oxford, captured Borstall House, and reliev* i House, 1641; knighted, 1641; governor of Oxford; mortally wounded at Abingdon.
  421. ^ Sir John Gage (1479–1656), statesman and military commander; governor of Guisnes and comptroller of Calais. 1522; vice-chamberlain to the king, 1528-40; K.G., 1532; commissioner for surrender of religious houses; constable of the Tower, comptroller of the household, 1540, and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster on fall of Cromwell; commanded the expedition against Scotland, 1642; with Suffolk conducted siege of Boulogne; expelled from privy council by Somerset; joined Southampton; created lord chamberlain by Queen Mary and restored to the constableship of the Tower, where he received Elizabeth, 1555, having afterwards charge of her at her own house.
  422. ^ John Gage (1786–1842. See John Gage Rokewode.
  423. ^ Joseph Gage, or Joseph Edward, Count Gage or De Gages (1678?–1753?), grandee of Spain; uncle of Thomas Gage (1721-1787); went to Spain after losing a great fortune in Mississippi stock; commanded Spanish troops in Italy, 1743-6, and was promoted grandee of the first class, receiving also from the king of Naples the order of St. Jauuarius and a pension.
  424. ^ Thomas Gage (d. 1656), traveller ; brother of Sir Henry Gage; when a Spanish Dominican lived for some time among the Indians of Central America; crossed Nicaragua, reached Panama, and, traversing the isthmus, sailed from Portobello; reached Europe, 1637; after a visit to Loreto renounced Catholicism and came to England, 1641; preached recantation sermon at St. Paul's (published, 1642); joined parliamentarians and became rector of Acrise, 1642, and Deal, c. 1651; died in Jamaica, as chaplain to Venables. His great work, The EnglishAmerican his Travail by Sea and Land 1648, was translated into French by order of Colbert, 1676, also into Dutch and German: portions concerning Laud and rules for learning Central American languages appeared separately,
  425. ^ Thomas Gage (1721–1787), general ; aide-de-camp to Lord Albemarle in Flanders, 1747-8; as lieutenantcolonel of the 44th served in America under Braddock, 1751-6; raised 80th foot and commanded light infantry at Ticonderoga, 1758; as brigadier-general commanded rear-guard of Amberst; governor of Montreal, 1759-60; major-general, 1761; Commander-in-chief in America, 1763-72; lieutenant-general, 1770; governor of Massachusetts, 1774-5; superseded by Howe, October 1775.
  426. ^ Sir William Hall Gage (1777–1864), admiral of the fleet; youngest son of Thomas Gage (1721-1787) ; entered navy, 1789; engaged off Toulon, 1795, against the Sabina, 1796, and at St. Vincent, 1797; commanded the Terpsichore at blockade of Malta, and was in the action with the Danish Freja; commanded the Thetis, 1805-8, and the Indus, 1813-14; rear-admiral, 1821; commander in East Indies, 1825-30, at Plymouth, 1848-51; member of board of admiralty, 1842-6; admiral, 1846; G.C.B., 1860; admiral of the fleet, 1862.
  427. ^ William Gager (fl. 1580-1619), Latin dramatist; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1580; D.C.L., 1589; chancellor of Ely, 1606, and vicar-general to Bishop Andrewes, 1613, 1616, and 1618; defended performance of plays at Oxford against John Rainolds; wrote five Latin plays acted at Oxford; ranked among comic dramatists in Meres's Palladis Tainia 1598.
  428. ^ John Gagnier (1670?–1740), orientalist ; born at Paris; studied Hebrew and Arabic at the College de Navarre; M.A. Cambridge, 1703; settled at Oxford under patronage of Bishop William Lloyd, taught Hebrew, and became professor of Arabic, 1724; published editions of Ben Gorion'a History of the Jews 1706, and of Abu AlFida's Life of Mahomet 1723, also a translation of the Arabic treatise of Rhazea 011 the smallpox.
  429. ^ Usher Gahagan (d. 1749), classical scholar; edited Latin authors for Brindlcy's classics; in Latin verse Pope'sEssay on Criticism 1747, and Messiah and Temple of Fame 1749; banged for coining,
  430. ^ William Gahan (1730–1804), Irian ecclesiastic and author; graduated at Louvain; received back into the Roman church John Butler, twelfth lord Dunboyne ; imprisoned, 1802, for refusing to reveal to the court of assize details of his relations with John Butler; published Sermons and Moral Discourses and popular devotional works.
  431. ^ Geoffrey Gaimar (fl. 1140?), author of Lestorie des Engles, probably a Norman resident at Scampton, Lincolnshire.
  432. ^ Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788), painter : youngest son of a Sudbury wool manufacturer; studied under Gravelot and Francis Hayman in London; married and lived at Ipswich, 1746-60, where he became acquainted with John Joihua Kirby and Philip Thicknesse; painted Gainsborough's Forest (National Gallery) and portraits of Admiral Vernou and others; resided at Bath, 1760-74; during those years contributed eighteen pictures to the Society of Artists; elected an original member of the Royal Academy, 1768, and exhibited there, 1769-72, as well as, after a misunderstanding with Reynolds, at the Free Society; settled in London, 1774; resumed exhibiting at Academy, 1779-83, but in consequence of a dispute about banging three portraits, withdrew all his works, 1784, and henceforth showed his pictures in bis own house. To the Bath period are assigned his two portraits of Garrick, those of Quin, Foote, Orpin (National Gallery), Lord Camden, Richardson, Sterne, ami Cbattertou, and The Harvest Waggon; to the London period belong two portraits of the Duchess of Devonshire (including that stolen in 1876), the full-length known as 'The Blue Boy Mr. Bate, Mrs. Siddons (both in the National Gallery), and Colonel St. Leger( Hampton Court). The View in the Mall of St. James's Park Girl with Pigs (bought by Reynolds), and many fine landscapes. Among his intimate friends were Burke and Sheridan, and he wu. 1 reconciled to Reynolds on bis deathbed.
  433. ^ William Gainsborough (d. 1307), ecclesiastic ; when divinity lecturer of the Franciscans at Oxford one of the embassy sent by Edward I to Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII; reader in theology to the pope, 1300; appointed to the see of Worcester by provision 1302, but compelled to renounce the grant; one of the embassy to Clement V, 1305; sent, 1307, to arrange for i the marriage of Prince Edward with Isabella of France; died at Beauvais.
  434. ^ Thomas Gainsford (d. 1624?). author; served in Ireland against the Spaniards (1601) and Tyrone: published Vision and Discourse of Henry the seventh concerning the unitie of Great Britaiue 1610, The Historic of Trebizond 1616, and other works.
  435. ^ John Gairdner (1790–1876), medical reformer ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1811; studied anatomy under Bell; president of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons, 1830-2; obtained leave for medical students to attend extra-academical lectures, and was active in obtaining by the act of 1859 legal status for every licensed practitioner in Great Britain; published lectures on Edinburgh medical history; his Burns and the Ayrshire Moderates published posthumously.
  436. ^ William Gairdner (1793–1867), physician; brother of John Gairdner; M.D. Edinburgh, 1813; L.R.C.P., 1823; died at Avignon; published treatise on Gout 1849.
  437. ^ Thomas Gaisford (1779–1855), dean of Christ Church, Oxford; student of Christ Church, 1800; M.A., 1804; appointed regius professor of Greek, 1812; canon of Llandaff and St. Paul's, 1823, Worcester, 1825, Durham, i 1831; dean of Christ Church, Oxford, 1831-55; edited the Tusculau Disputations 1805, and De Oratoreof Cicero, 1809; the works of Euripides, Sophocles, and Herodotus, 1824, Hephaestion de Metris 1810, Poetae Graeci Minores 1814-20, Suidze Lexicon 1834, Etymologicon Magnum 1848, several works of Eusebius and Theodoret, and an edition of the Septuagint, 1848. The Gaisford prizes at Oxford for Greek prose and verse were founded, 1850.
  438. ^ Robert Galbraith (d. 1543), Scottish judge; advocate to Queen Margaret Tudor; one of the original lords of the College of Senators, 1537; murdered by John Oarkettle of Edinburgh.
  439. ^ Galdric, Gualdric, or Waldric (d. 1112), bishop of Laon; chancellor of Henry I; captured Duke Robert of Normandy at Tenchebrai, 1106; bishop of Laon, 1106; expelled from his diocese after the murder by his brother of Gerard, castellan of Laon, but restored by Louis VI, 1109; having attempted to abolish the commune* granted in his absence, was murdered in the cellars of his cathedral.
  440. ^ Dunstan Gale (fl. 1596), poet; author of 'Pyramus and Thisbe 1597.
  441. ^ George Gale (1797?–1850), aeronaut; played Mazeppa in New York, 1831; joined a tribe of Indians, with six of whom he was exhibited at the Victoria Theatre, London; made his first ascent from Peckham, 1848; perished at the 114th ascent made in the Royal Cremorne, near Bordeaux.
  442. ^ John Gale (1680–1721), general baptist minister ; M.A. and Ph.D. Leyden, 1699; chairman of Winston's 4 society for promoting primitive Christianity 1715-16; took liberal side at Salters Hall dispute, 1719; introduced by Shute to whig bishops; published Reflections on Mr. Wall's History of Infant Baptism 1711.
  443. ^ Miles Gale (1647–1721), antiquary; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1670; rector of Keighley, 1680-1721; published Memoirs of the Family of Gale 1703, and Description of the Parish of Keighley
  444. ^ Roger Gale (1672–1744), antiquary; eldest son of Thomas Gale (1635 ?-1702); educated at St. Paul's School and Trinity College, Cambridge; fellow, 1697; M.A., 1698; M.P., Northallerton, 1705-10: commissioner of excise, 1715-35; friend of Stukeley, Willis, and Hearue; first vice-president of Society of Antiquaries, and treasurer of Royal Society; left manuscripts to Trinity College and coins to the university library; his topographical papers collected in Bibliotheca Topographica Britanuica 1781.
  445. ^ Samuel Gale (1682–1754), antiquary ; brother of Roger Gale; educated at St. Paul's School; first treasurer of revived Society of Antiquaries, 1718; travelled about in England incognito with Dr. Ducarel ; published (1715) History of Winchester Cathedral begun by Henry, earl of Clarendon.
  446. ^ Theophilus Gale (1628–1678), nonconformist tutor; fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1650-60; M.A., 1652; tutor to Thomas (afterwards Marquis) Wharton and his brother, 1662-5; tutor and independent minister at Newington Green; left his library to Harvard College; published The Court of the Gentiles 1669-77, A True Idea of Jansenisme 1669, and other theological works.
  447. ^ Thomas Gale (1507–1587), surgeon ; served with the army of Henry VIII in France, 1644, and with that of Philip H at St. Quentin, 1557; master of the BarberSurgeonsCompany, 1561; published a volume on surgery, 1563, containing the prescription for his styptic powder.
  448. ^ Thomas Gale (1635?–1702), dean of York ; educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1662; fellow, 1669; Cambridge professor of Greek, 16661672; high master of St. Paul's, 1672-97; active member of the Royal Society from 1677; dean of York, 1697-1702; edited Opuscnla Mythologica, ethica et physica 1671, 'Historiae Poeticae Scriptores Antiqui 1676,Rhetores Selecti 1676, vol. ii. of Historic Anglican Scriptores 1687,Histories Britannic, Saxonicse, Anglo- Danicre Scriptorea 1691, and Autonini Iter Britanniarum 1709.
  449. ^ John Galensis (fl. 1215). See Wallensis.
  450. ^ William Galeon (d. 1507), Augustinian ; provincial in England; various theological works ascribed to him.
  451. ^ Sir Henry le Galeys (d. 1302?). See Waleys.
  452. ^ Galfridtjs
  453. ^ Galgacus or Calgacus (fl. c. 84), Caledonian chieftain; commander of the tribes defeated at Grampius by Agricola.
  454. ^ John Anthony Galignani (1796–1873), publisher in Paris; bor* in London; issued, with his brother William Galignani till 1852, in Paris, reprint of English books; carried on The Messengerfounded by his father, 1815; erected at Neuilly a hospital (now orphanage) for indigent British.
  455. ^ William Galignani (1798–1882), publisher in Paris; brother of John Anthony Galiguani, in all whose undertakings he took part.
  456. ^ Saint Gall (550?–645?), originally named Cellach or Caillech, abbot and apostle of the Suevi and Alemanni; reputed son of a noble Irishman and a queen of Hungary; educated by St. Columban at Bangor; followed St. Columban to Gaul, c. 585, and at Arbon and Bregenj: preached to the people in their own tongue; built cell on the Steinach river, which became the nucleus of the monastery of St. Gall; died at Arbon; commemorated 16 Oct. and 20 Feb.
  457. ^ Richard Gall (1776–1801), Scottish poet ; friend of Burns and Campbell; his Poems and Songs published, 1819.
  458. ^ James Gallagher (d. 1751), Roman catholic bishop of Raphoe, 1725, and Kildare, 1737: published Irish Sermons, in an easy and familiar style 1735.
  459. ^ Saint Gallan (fl. 500). See Gallan.
  460. ^ Antonio Carlo Napoleone Gallenga (1810-1895), author and journalist; born and educated at Parma; took part in political agitation in Italy, 1830, and was compelled to live in exile, assuming name of Luigi Mariotti; successful lecturer, teacher, and writer for magazines in New York, 1836; came to England, 1839; teacher and translator; professor of modern languages at King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, c. 1841-3; returned to England, 1843; naturalised, 1846; professor of Italian language and literature, University College, London, 1848-59; charge d'affaires at Frankfort, 1848; resided hi Italy, 1854-7; deputy in Piedmontese parliament, and correspondent ofDaily News;Timescorrespondent in Italy, 1859-64; deputy of Italian chamber, 1859-64; Times war correspondent in United States, 1863, and Denmark, 1864; leader-writer forTimes 1866-73, and correspondent in Spain, 1874 and 1879, and at Constantinople, 1875-7. His publications includeItaly: General views of its History and Literature 1841 (reprinted asItaly, Past and Present," 1846), and an Italian grammar, 1858.
  461. ^ Gallen-Ridgeway, first Baron (1565?–1631). See Thomas Ridgeway.
  462. ^ John Ernest Galliard (1687?–1749), musical composer; sou of a hairdresser at Zell; said to have been chamber-musician to Prince George of Denmark; set Hughes'sCalypso and Telemachus 1712: provided music for pantomimes and farces at Covent Garden and Lincoln's Inn Fields, 1717-36; composed six cantatas to Congreve's, Prior's, and Hughes's words, sonatas for flute, bassoon, and violin, and a setting of the morning hymns fromParadise Lost translated Tosi'sOpinion! di Oantori Antichi e Modern! 1742.
  463. ^ Giovanni Andrea Battista Gallini , called Sir John (1728–1805), dancing-master ; came to England, c. 1753: director of dances and stage-manager at Haymarket opera-house: had great vogue as a dancing-master; married Lady Elizabeth Peregrine Bertie, eldest daughter of third Earl of Abingdon: created knight of the Golden Spur by the pope; built Hanover Square concert-rooms: published treatises on calisthenics.
  464. ^ Sir Archibald Galloway (1780?–1860), majorgeneral; entered Bengal native infantry, 1800: colonel of the 58th, 1836; major-general, 1841; K.C.B., 1848; chairman of the East India Company, 1849: published works, including Notes on Siege of Delhi 1804, and On Sieges of India
  465. ^ Joseph Galloway (1730-1S03). lawyer; born in Maryland; as speaker of Pennsylvania supported the popular atralnst the proprietary interest, and was challenged (1764) by John Dickinson: when member of the first congress proposed un.l pnMi-i.nl (1775) plan f..r union lrt WITH iire:iT Britain and tttt OOkmtM i (OfaMd British, 1776; gave evidence before parliament, 177S; published pamphlets, including attacks on the Howe- Inr their conduct of the war. xx. 385J
  466. ^ Patrick Galloway (1561?–1626?), Scottish divine; preached against Lennox at Perth, and was suspected of being privy to the raid of Huthven, 1682; fled to England, 1584: minister of the royal household of Scotland and moderator of the general assembly, 1590; rebuked James VI for recalling Arran, 1692, and refused to take the hand of 1590; again moderator, 1602; pre-; M-nt at Hampton Court conference, 1604; minister of St. (; iles's, Edinburgh, 1607; member of the high commission j court; signed protestation for liberties of the kirk, 1617, but supported five articles of Perth; edited works by James VI.
  467. ^ Thomas Galloway (1796–1861), mathematician ; M.A. Edinburgh; teacher of mathematics at Sandhurst, lsi'3; registrar of Amicable Life Assurance Company, 1833; F.R.S. and F.R.A.S., 1829; contributed to seventh edition ofEncyclopaedia BritannicaandEdinburgh Review
  468. ^ Henry Gally (1696–1769), divine and scholar; M.A. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1721; D.D., 1728; chaplain to Lord King, 1725; prebendary of Gloucester, 1728, of Norwich, 1731; rector of St. Giles-iu-theFields, 1732; chaplain to George II, 1735; edited Theophrastus, with an essay on Characteristic Writings 1726; published pamphlets on tenure of corporate estates (1731) and on clandestine marriages (1750) and essays against pronouncing Greek according to accent.
  469. ^ Galmoy, third Viscount (1652–1740). See Pierce Butler.
  470. ^ John Galpine (d. 1806), author of 'Synoptical Compeud of the British Flora 1806.
  471. ^ Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt (1817–1893), finance minister of Canada; son of John Gait; settled in Sherbrooke, Lower Canada, 1835; commissioner in British- American Land Company, 1844; active promoter of railways; liberal M.P. for county of Sherbrooke, 1849 and 1863-72; inspector-general, 1868-62 and 1864-5; delegate to Charlottetown and Quebec conferences, 1864; first minister of finance on inauguration of dominion of Canada, 1867-72; nominee of Canada on Halifax commission, 1877; high commissioner for the dominion in England, 1880-3; G.C.M.G., 1878; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1878; published pamphlets on political questions.
  472. ^ John Galt (1779–1839), novelist; employed in Greeuock custom-house and in a mercantile house; came to London, c. 1803, and published a poem on the Battle of Largs; entered at Lincoln's Inn; while on a commercial mission to the continent (1809) travelled with Byron fijom Gibraltar to Malta, visited Constantinople and Greece; published (181 2) an account of his travels and a life of Wolsey; edited theNew British Theatre 1814-16, containing his play The Witness; compiled Life... Rev. T. Clark; produced novels, The Ayrshire Legatees (1820), Annals of the Parish (1821), Sir Andrew Wylie (1822), andThe Entail(1824); visited Canada, 1824 and 1826, as secretary to a company formed for the purchase of crown laud; founded town of Guelph; imprisoned for debt after his return, 1829; published Lawrie Todd and Life of Byron 1830, and Lives of the Players; met Carlyle; issued hisAutobiography 1833, and Literary Life 1834, for which William IV sent him 200*.; paralysed, 1834, but continued literary work.
  473. ^ Sir Douglas Strutt Galton (1822–1899), man of science and captain, royal engineers; educated at Rugby and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; lieutenant, royal engineers, 1843; first captain, 1855; served in Meditenranean; joined ordnance survey, 1846; secretary to railway commission, 1847, and to royal commission on application of iron to railway structures; secretary to railway department of board of trade, 1854; chairman of; committee to investigate question of electric submarine telegraph cables, 1859-61; assistant permanent under secretary for war, 1862-9; C.B., 1865; director of public works and buildings, 1869-76; president of British Association, 1895; president of senate of University olle-e. L,, IU IOB j K. (.!,. 1KH7: honorary M.I.C.E., 1894; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1875; F.R.S., 1859; published works on sanitary and educational questions. Suppl. ii. 8661
  474. ^ Mary Anne Galton (1778-1866). See Schimmelpenninck.
  475. ^ Earl of Galway (1648–1720). See Henri de Massue de Ruvigny.
  476. ^ David Gam (d. 1415), Welsh warrior ; real name Davydd ab Llewelyn; rewarded for fidelity to Henry IV during revolt of Glendower by confiscated lands in South Wales, 1401; captured by Glendower; followed Henry V to France and fell at Agincourt.
  477. ^ Sir Edward John Gambier (1794–1879), chief justice of Madras; nephew of James, baron Gambier ; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1820; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1822; municipal corporation commissioner, 1833; recorder of Prince of Wales island, 1834; chief- justice at Madras, 1842-9; published Treatise on Parochial Settlement 1828.
  478. ^ James Gambier (1723–1789), vice-admiral uncle of James, baron Gambier; present at capture of Louisbonrg, 1758, Guadaloupe, 1759, and the battle of Quiberon Bay, 1759; commander-in-chief on north American station, 1770-3; second in command under Howe at New York; vice-admiral, 1780; commander at Jamaica, 1783-4.
  479. ^ James Gambier, first Baron Gambier (1756–1833), admiral of the fleet; captured by jd'Estaing in the Thunder bomb; took part in relief of Jersey, 1779, and capture of Charlestown, 1780; in the Defence first to break enemy's line in Howe's victory of 1 June 1794; a lord of the admiralty, 1795-1801 and 1804-6: rear-admiral and vice-admiral, 1799; governor of Newfoundland, 1802-4; admiral, 1805; led the fleet at bombardment of Copenhagen, the Danish fleet being surrendered, 1807; created Baron Gambier; commanded Channel fleet, 1808-11; blockaded French fleet in Basque roads and destroyed it by fireships; a commissioner for treaty with United States, 1814; G.C.B.,1815; admiral of the fleet, 1830.
  480. ^ John Gamble (d. 1687), musician in Chapel Royal and composer; published Ayres and Dialogues to be sung to the theorbo, lute,or base violl 1656, and Ayres and Dialogues, for one, two, and three voyces 1659.
  481. ^ John Gamble (d. 1811), writer on telegraphy ; fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge; M.A., 1787; chaplain to the Duke of York, and chaplain-general of the forces; published Observations on Telegraphic Experiments 1795, andEssay on the different Modes of Communication by Signals 1797.
  482. ^ John Gambold (1711–1771), bishop of the Unitas Fratrum; while at Christ Church, Oxford, was a member of the WesleysHoly Club; vicar of Stanton-Harcourt, 1735-42: formed Anglican branch of Moravians, 1749, and was consecrated a bishop, 1753; prominent at synod of Marienboru, 1764; founded community atCootehill, co. Cavan, 1765; translated Count Zinzendorf s Maxims into English in 1751; published alsoCollection of Hymns 1754, and posthumousPoems 1816; edited Bacon, 1765.
  483. ^ Gameline (d. 1271), lord-chancellor of Scotland, 1250-63; chaplain of Innocent IV, 1254; bishop of St Andrews, 1255; banished from Scotland for prohibiting Alexander III from seizing church property; died in Scotland.
  484. ^ Joseph Sampson Gamgee (1828–1886), surgeon ; born and educated in Italy; Listen prizeman, University College, 1853; surgeon to British-Italian legion, 1855, to Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, 1857-81; published 'On the Advantages of the Starched Apparatus in the Treatment of Fractures 1863,On the Treatment of Wounds and Fractures 1883, On Absorbent and Antiseptic Surgical Dressings 1880, and other works.
  485. ^ Robert George Gammage (1815–1888), chartist; deputy from Northampton to national convention of 1838; opposed Fcargus O'Connor: published History of the Chartist Movement 1854.
  486. ^ James Gammon (fl. 1660–1670), engraver of portraits valued for their rarity.
  487. ^ Hannibal Gamon or Gammon {fl. 1642), puritan divine; M.A. Broadgates Hall (Pembroke College), Oxford, 1607; rector of Mawgan-iu-Pyder, Cornwall, 1619, which county he represented in the Westminster assembly, 1642.
  488. ^ Robert Gandell (1818–1887), professor of Arabic at Oxford; B.A. Queen's College, Oxford, 1843; Michel fellow of Queen's College, 1846-50; professor of Arabic, 1861; canon of Wells, 1880; edited Lightfoot's Horae Hebraicae 1859, and contributed toSpeaker's Commentary
  489. ^ Peter Gandolphy (1779–1821), Jesuit ; educated at Liege and Stonyhurst; celebrated as a preacher at the Spanish Chapel, Manchester Square; suspended and censured by Bishop Poynter for his Liturgy 1812, and Defence of the Ancient Faith 1813-15.
  490. ^ James Gandon (1743–1823), architect; articled to Sir William Chambers; with J. Woolfe published continuation of Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus 1767-71; won first gold medal for architecture at Royal Academy, 1768, and exhibited drawings, 1774-80; designed at Dublin many public works, including portico and screen wall to Parliament House, 1785, Four Courts, 1786, and King's Inns,1795-9; original member of Royal Irish Academy.
  491. ^ Henry Gandy (1649–1734), nonjuring bishop; educated at Merchant Taylors School and Oriel College, Oxford; M.A., 1674; fellow, 1670; proctor, 1683; deprived of fellowship for refusing oath of allegiance, 1690; consecrated bishop, 1716, by Jeremy Collier, Nathaniel Spinckes, and Samuel Hawes (d. 1722); published theological works.
  492. ^ James Gandy (1619–1689), portrait-painter; pupil of Vandyck, many of whose portraits he copied for the Duke of Ormonde.
  493. ^ John Peter Gandy (1787–1850). See Deering.
  494. ^ Joseph Michael Gandy (1771–1843), architect; I 1 of Wyatt; received the Pope's medal for architec- i , 1795; exhibited at the Academy, 1789-1838; A.R.A., 1803; executed many drawings for Sir John Soane; designed Phosuix and Pelican Insurance offices, Charing Cross; contributed illustrations to Britton's Architec-; tural Antiquities
  495. ^ Michael Gandy (1778–1862), architect; brother of Joseph Michael Gandy; employed in Indian naval service and by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville; exhibited at Academy Burning of Ourust and Kupers Inland, Batavia 1812.
  496. ^ William Gandy (d. 1729), portrait-painter ; son of James Gandy. His pictures, most of which are to be found in the west of England, were much admired by Reynolds and Northcote.
  497. ^ Samuel Gabbet (d. 1751?), author of History of Wem (published 1818), second master at Wem School, ! 1712-42; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1707; translated, Phaedrus, Books i. and ii., 1715.
  498. ^ Edward Garbett (1817–1887), divine; M.A. ! Braseuose College, Oxford, 1847; editor of the Record j 1854-67; incumbent of Christ Church, Surbiton, 1863, of Barcombe, 1877; Bampton lecturer, 1867; published ! Boyle Lectures (1860 and 1863), Bampton Lectures (1867), ! and other works.
  499. ^ James Garbett (1802–1879). professor of poetry at Oxford; brother of Edward Garbett; fellow of Saeen's College, Oxford, 1824-5, of Brasenose, 1825-36; .A., 1825; incumbent of Clayton-cum-Keymer, 1835-79: Bampton lecturer, 1842; professor of poetry, 1842-52; archdeacon of Chichester, 1851; published anti-tractarian Bampton lectures and De Rei Poeticse Idea 1843.
  500. ^ Herks Garbrand (. 1566), Dutch protestant refugee; bookseller, and also, after 1646, wine-seller at Oxford.
  501. ^ John Garbrand or Herks (1542–1589), divine; son of Herks Garbrand: educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford; fellow, 1562; M.A., 1567; M.A. Cambridge, 1568; D.D. Oxford, 1582; prebendary of Salisbury, 1506, and of Wells; rector of North Cra vloy and Fartbiugscotie; edited three works of his patron, Bishop Jewel.
  502. ^ John Garbrand (fl. 1695), writer of pamphlets to clear the duke of York from being a papist; son of Tobias Garbrand (d. 1689); B.A. New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1667; barrister, Inner Temple.
  503. ^ Tobias Garbrand (1579–1638), probably grandfather of John Garbrand (?. 1695); vice-president of Magdalen College, Oxford (1618), and vicar of Findeu, Sussex (1618-38).
  504. ^ Tobias Garbrand (d. 1689), principal of Gloucester Hall, Oxford, 1648-60; M.D. Oxford
  505. ^ Theodore Gardelle (1721–1761), miniature painter and murderer; born at Geneva; executed for the murder of Anne King; his portrait by Hogarth engraved in Ireland's Graphic Illustrations
  506. ^ Alexander Garden , the elder (1730?–1791), botanist; born at Charleston; M.D. Edinburgh; pupil of Alston; corresponded with Peter Colliusou, Grouovius, and Liunteus, in whose Systema Naturae his name is appended to new species of fish and reptiles; settled in England, 1 783, and became vice-president of the Royal Society; introduced many plants; the Cape Jessamine named Gardenia after him.
  507. ^ Alexander Garden, the younger (1757–1829), author; sou of Alexander Garden the elder; published Anecdotes of the Revolutionary War 1822.
  508. ^ Francis Garden, Lord Gardenstone (1721-1793), Scottish judge; educated at Edinburgh University; admitted advocate, 1744; sheriff-depute of Kincardineshire, 1748; joint solicitor-general, 1760; employed in the Douglas cause; lord of session, 1764-93; lord of justiciary, 1776-87; founded Lawrence Kirk, Kincardiueshire; published notes of travel.
  509. ^ Francis Garden (1810–1884), theologian; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1836; intimate with Richard Cheuevix Trench, Frederick Deuison Maurice, and John Sterling; sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, 1859-84; editor of 'The Christian Remembrancer 1841; published Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms 1878, and other works.
  510. ^ George Garden (1649–1733), Scottish divine; professor at King's College, Aberdeen, 1673; minister of Old Machar, Aberdeen, 1679, of St. Nicholas, 1683:laid aside 1692, as a noujuror; deposed, 1701, in connection with his Apology for Madame Bourignon but continued to officiate; imprisoned after rebellion of 1715; edited the works of John Forbes (1593-1648); and wrote pamphlets on behalf of the Scots episcopal clergy.
  511. ^ James Garden (1647–1726), professor of divinity, Aberdeen; brother of George Garden; deprived of professorship, 1696, for refusing to sign Westminster Confession; published Comparative Theology
  512. ^ Lord Gardenstone (1721–1793). See Francis Garden, Lord Gardenstone.
  513. ^ Allen Francis Gardiner (1794–1851). missionary to Patagonia; served in navy; lieutenant, 1844; tried to establish Christian churches in Zululand, 1834-8; laboured among Chili Indians, 1838-43; attempted to establish mission in Patagonia, 1844-5; visited Bolivia, 1845-6; surveyed Tierra del Fuego, 1848; died of starvation there; published Outlines of a Plan for Exploring the Interior of Australia 1833, and books describing his missionary travels.
  514. ^ Arthur Gardiner (1716?–1758), captain in the navy; served with Byng in the Mediterranean and (1756) gave unwilling testimony against him at his trial; captured the Foudroyant off the Spanish coast, but fell in the action.
  515. ^ Bernard Gardiner (1668–1726), warden of All Souls College, Oxford; ejected from demyship of Mapdalen by James II; B.A., 1688; D.O.L., 1698; fellow of All Souls 1689; warden, 1702 26; vice-chancellor, 1712-1716; checked Jucobitism and suppressed theteme filius (elected undergraduate).
  516. ^ George Gardiner (1535?–1589), dean of Norwich; B.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1564; fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, 1558-61; M.A., 1668; minister of St. Andrew's, Norwich, 1662; prebendary of Norwich, 1565; one of those who broke down the cathedral organ, 1570; rector of St. Martin Outwich, London, 1671; dean of Norwich, 1573-89.
  517. ^ James Gardiner , the elder (1637–1705), bishop of Lincoln; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1666; D.D., 1669; chaplain to Monmouth and incumbent of Epworth, 1660; bishop of Lincoln, 1695-1706; assisted Simou Patrick to decipher Peterborough charters and muuimeuta.
  518. ^ James Gardiner , the younger (d. 1732), sub-dean of Lincoln; son of James Gardiner the elder; B.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1699; fellow of Jesus College, 1700; master of St. John's Hospital, Peterborough, 1707; published sermons.
  519. ^ James Gardiner (1688–1746), colonel of dragoons; wounded at Blenheim, 1704; headed storming party at battle of Preston; lieutenant-colonel, Inniskilling dragoons, 1730; colonel in command of light dragoons (now 13th hussars), 1743-5; deserted by most of his men at Prestonpans, and mortally wounded; converted after a dissolute life; commemorated in Life by Doddridge, and song by Sir Gilbert Elliot (1722-1777)
  520. ^ Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington (1789–1849). See Blessington.
  521. ^ Richard Gardiner 1591–1670), divine; deputy orator at Oxford before 1620; canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 1629; M.A., 1614; D.D., 1630: deprived, 1647, reinstated, 1660; chaplain to Charles 1, 1630; a brilliant, quaint preacher; published Specimen Oratorium 1653.
  522. ^ Richard Gardiner (1723–1781), author; educated at Eton and St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge; published History of Pndica... with an account of her five Lovers(1764), in which Dick Merryfellow is himself, and Account of the Expedition... against Marti nico, Guadeloupe, and other the Leeward Islands 1759; commanded the marines in the Leeward Islands.
  523. ^ Sir Robert William Gardiner (1781–1864), general; entered royal artillery, 1797; brevet-lieutenant-colonel, 1814; major-general, 1841; general and colonel-commandant, 1863-4; aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore in Sicily, 1806-7, and brigade-major at Corufla, 1809; served in the Peninsula and (1809) Walcheren expedition; prominent at Barossa and Badajoz; commanded fieldbattery at Salamanca, 1812; commanded E troop royal horse artillery at Vittoria, 1813, and succeeding battles, and at Waterloo; K.O.B., 1814; governor of Gibraltar, 1848-65; published life of Admiral Sir Graham Moore and valuable professional papers.
  524. ^ Samuel Gardiner (fl. 1606), chaplain to Archbishop Abbot and author of A Booke of Angling or Fishing. Wherein is shewed... the agreement betweene the Fishermen... of both natures, Temporall and Spirituall 1606; D.D.
  525. ^ Stephen Gardiner (1483?–1565), bishop of Winchester; educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; fellow; doctor of civil law, 1520, of canon law, 1521; Rede lecturer, 1624; tutor to Duke of Norfolk's son; master of Trinity Hall, 1525-49, re-elected, 1553; private secretary to Wolsey; obtained Clement VII's consent to a second commission in the royal divorce question, 1527; attempted to obtain from Cambridge opinions favourable to the divorce, 1530; though taking up a 'middle course compiled reply to Catherine's counsel at Borne; after Wolsey's fall acted as secretary to Henry VIII till 1534: bishop of Winchester, 1531; ambassador in France, 1631-2; prepared reply of the ordinaries to the House of Commonsaddress to the king, stoutly defending his order; member of the court which invalidated Queen Catherine's marriage, 1633; signed renunciation of obedience to Roman jurisdiction, and pnblished oration, De vera Obedientii repudiating it, aud maintaining supremacy of secular princes over the church, 1535; chancellor of Cambridge University. i:,jn,i: opposed Cromwell and Cranmer; fell temporarily out of favour; after the fall of Cromwell bad supix-im- ioliiii-al influence, inpiring the six articles, 1539; -on.-tanil.-in ployed in negotiations with the emperor; Impi the Tower during the greater part of the reipn m IIward VI on auc-oimt of his opposition to doctrinal changes, and (1561) deprived of his see: reinstated and made lord chancellor on Mary's accession; procured (1654) re-enactment of De Haeretico Comburendo and took part against Bradford and Rogers, but tried to save Cranmer and Northumberland, and protected Thomas Smith and Peter Martyr; opposed the Spanish marriage, but advocated great severity towards Elizabeth, whom he caused to be declared illegitimate by act of parliament; published controversial works against Martin Bucer and Latin letters to John Cheke on the pronunciation of Greek, 1656.
  526. ^ Thomas Gardiner (fl. 1516), monk of Westminster; compiledThe Flowers of England a chronicle.
  527. ^ Sir Thomas Gardiner (1591–1662), recorder of London, 1636; barrister, Inner Temple, 1618; bencher, I 1636, treasurer, 1639; M.P. for Callington in Short parliaI ment, 1640; unsuccessful royalist candidate for the city of London; leading counsel to Sir Edward Herbert, when impeached, 1642; himself impeached soon after for bis support of ship-money; solicitor-general to the king at Oxford, 1643; commissioner at Uxbridge and royalist attorney-general, 1645.; pardoned by parliament on payment of fine, 1647.
  528. ^ William Gardiner or William Neville (1748-1806), diplomatist; lieutenant-general; served in America, 1775-6; wounded at Freehold, New Jersey, 1778; lieutenant-colonel, 45th foot (Sherwood Foresters), 1778; special envoy at Brussels, 1789-92; plenipotentiary at Warsaw, 1792-5; major-general, 1793; lieutenant-general, 1799; M.P., Thomastown, in Irish parliament; commander of north inland district of Ireland, 1803-6; commanderin-chief of Nova Scotia, 1806.
  529. ^ William Gardiner (1770–1853), musical composer; member of the Adelphi Philosophical Society, 1790-2; composed songs and compiled Sacred Melodies from Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven... adapted to the best English Poets 1812-15, andJudah(1821), an oratorio culled from the same masters; edited Berry's version of Bombet's Life of Haydn and Brewin's version of Schlichtergroll's Life of Mozart 1817; published popular works on music.
  530. ^ William Nelson Gardiner (1766–1814), engraver and bookseller; employed in London by Sylvester, Harding, and Bartolozzi; B.A. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1797; the Mustapha of Dibdiu's Bibliomania; committed suicide.
  531. ^ Mrs Gardner (fl. 1763–1782), actress ; as Miss Cheney played Miss Prue in Love for Love at Drury Lane, and Rose in the Recruiting Officer 1763-4; made her reputation in Foote's pieces at the Haymarket, 17681774; her comedy, Advertisement, or a Bold Stroke for a Husband played there for her benefit, 1777.
  532. ^ Alan Gardner, first Baron Gardner (1742-1809), admiral; present at Quiberon Bay in the Dorsetshire; carried to Howe first news of the French approach, and captured on North American coast large French merchantship, 1778; commanded the Sultan at Grenada, 1779; with Rodney in the Duke in the victoryof 1782; commander in Jamaica, 1786-9; lord of the admiralty, 1790-5; created a baronet for his services in Howe's victory, 1794; interviewed mutineers at Spithead, 1797; admiral of the blue, 1799; M.P., Plymouth, 1790-6, and Westminster, 1796-1806: created Baron Gardner in Irish peerage, 1800; peer of the United Kingdom, 1806.
  533. ^ Daniel Gardner (1750?–1805), portrait-painter; celebrated for small pictures in oil and crayons.
  534. ^ George Gardner (1812–1849), botanist ; collected in Brail many thousand specimens of plants, 1836-40: F.L.S., 1P42: died in Ceylon, superintendent of botanical garden; published Travels in the Interior of Brazil 1846.
  535. ^ John Gardner (1804–1880), medical writer; L.R.C.P. Edinburgh, 1860; M.D. Giessen, 1847: tr;inUn-i Liebig's Familiar Letters on Chemistry 1843; first secretary to Royal College of Chemistry and professor of chemistry to General ApothecariesCompany: publisluil The Great Physician 1843, Household Medicine and Longevity
  536. ^ Thomas Gardner (1690?–1769), Southwold antiquary; published Historical Account of Dunwich... Blithburgh... Southwold 1754.
  537. ^ William Gardner (1844–1887), inventor of the Gardner machine-gun, 1876, and of a quick-firing cannon; a native of Ohio.
  538. ^ William Linnaeus Gardner (1771–1835), Indian officer; nephew of Alan, first baron Gardner; ensign in India, 1789; captain, 30th foot, 1794; employed by the Mahratta Jeswunt Rao Holkar; married a princess of Oambay; escaped to General Lake disguised as a grass-cutter, 1804; commanded irregular horse in Kamaun and Rajpootana; lieutenant-colonel in Indian army, 1819, commanding Gardner's horse.
  539. ^ John Gardnor (1729–1808), painter; vicar of Battersea, 1778-1808; exhibited landscapes at Royal Academy, 1782-96; published views of the Rhine country, engraved in aquatint by himself and others,
  540. ^ Richard Gardnor (fl. 1766–1793), painter; nephew and assistant of John Gardner; exhibited with Free Society and at the Academy, 1786-93.
  541. ^ Alexander Gardyne (1585?–1634?), Scots poet; publishedGarden of Grave and Godlie Flowers 1609, and Theatre of Scotish Kings
  542. ^ Theophilus Garencières (1610–1680), physician; M.D. Caen, 1636; incorporated M.D. Oxford, 1657; published Anglise Flagellum seu Tabes Anglica 1647, and a book of prescriptions for the plague, 1665; translated Nostradamus, 1672.
  543. ^ George Gargrave (1710–1785), mathematician ; contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine papers on the transit of Venus (1761 and 1769) and (1781) memoirs of Abraham Sharp the mathematician.
  544. ^ Sir Thomas Gargrave (1495–1579), speaker and (1560) vice-president of the council of the North; M.P. for York, 1547-55, Yorkshire, 1555; speaker, 1559; active in suppressing rising of 1569.
  545. ^ Augustine Garland (fl. 1660), regicide; of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and Lincoln's Inn; M.P. Queenborough, 1648; presided over the committee to consider method of the king's trial, and signed death-warrant; condemned to death, 1660, but suffered only confiscation and imprisonment.
  546. ^ John Garland (fl. 1230), grammarian and alchemist; often confused with Gerlandus, a French writer of twelfth century, and others; studied at Oxford and Paris; professor at Toulouse University, 1229-31; wrote Dictionarius Scolasticus and many other grammatical treatises,Compendium Alchymiaa cum Dictionario Liber de Mineralibus and similar works; author of treatises on counterpoint, plain-song, and other musical subjects; some verses by him, including the autobiographical De Triumphis Ecclesiae and De Oontemptu Mundi wrongly ascribed to St. Bernard.
  547. ^ Francois Xavier Garneau (1809–1866), historian of Canada; native of Canada; greffier of Quebec, 1844-64; president of Canadian Institute, 1856; member of council of education, 1857; published Histoire du Canada 1845-6, and Voyage en Angleterre et en France 1855.
  548. ^ Thomas Garner (1789–1868), engraver ; pupil of Samuel Lines; a founder of Birmingham Society of Artists.