Wikipedia:WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/DNB Epitome 13

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This listing page belongs to Wikipedia:WikiProject Dictionary of National Biography, spun out of the “missing article” project, and is concerned with checking whether Wikipedia has articles for all those listed in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), a 63-volume British biographical dictionary published 1885-1900 and now in the public domain. This page relates to volume 13 running from name Craik to name Damer.

Scope of the subproject:

It is envisaged that the following work will be done:

  • Checks made that links on this page point to a wikipedia article about the same person;
  • Addition of new articles for all red-links based on DNB text;
  • Checking whether blue-linked articles would benefit from additional text from DNB.

Listings are posted as bulleted lists, with footnotes taken from the DNB summaries published in 1904. The listings and notes are taken from scanned text that is often corrupt and in need of correction. Not all the entries on the list correspond to actual DNB articles; some are “redirects” and there are a few articles devoted to families rather than individuals.

If you are engaged in this work you will probably find quite a number of unreferenced articles among the blue links. You are also encouraged to mention the DNB as a reference on such articles whenever they correspond to the summary, as part of the broader campaign for good sourcing. A suggested template is {{DNB}}.

Locating the full text:

DNB text is now available on Wikisource for all first edition articles, on the page s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Vol 13 Craik - Damer. Names here are not inverted, as they are in the original: Joe Bloggs would be found at Wikisource s:Bloggs, Joe (DNB00). The text for the first supplement is available too: NB that this Epitome listing includes those supplement articles also.

List maintenance and protocols:

List maintenance tasks are to check and manipulate links in the list with piping or descriptive parenthetical disambiguators, and to mark list entries with templates to denote their status; whilst as far as possible retaining the original DNB names:

  • piping: [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester|Charles Abbot]]
  • descriptive parenthetical disambiguators [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)]]
  • both combined [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)|Charles Abbot]]

The work involves:

  • Checking that bluelinks link to the correct person; if so, {{tick}} them. If not, try to find the correct article and pipe or disambiguate the link.
  • Check whether redlinks can be linked to an article by piping or disambiguation.
  • Create articles based on the DNB text for redlinks for which no wikipedia article can be found
  • Check whether existing blue-linked articles could benefit from an input of DNB text (e.g. the article is a stub), and if so, update the article from DNB

A number of templates are provided to mark-up entries:

  • {{mnl}} the link runs to a wrong person; - produces the text: [link currently leads to a wrong person]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{dn}} the link runs to a dab page - produces the text [disambiguation needed]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{tick}} the link has been checked and runs to the correct person - ☑Y
  • {{tick}} {{tick}} the text of the linked article has been checked against DNB text and would not benefit from additional DNB text - ☑Y ☑Y
  • {{tick}} {{cross}} the text of the linked article looks short enough to suggest it would benefit from additional DNB text - ☑Y ☒N

Note that before creating new articles based on DNB text you should undertake searches to check that the article's subject does not already have an article. It is easily possible that the disambiguation used in this page is not the disambiguation used in an existing wikipedia article. Equally, feel free to improve upon the disambiguation used in redlinks on this page by amending them.

Supplement articles:

Because of the provenance of the listing, a number of the original articles will not in fact be in the announced volume, but in one of the three supplement volumes published in 1901. Since the DNB did not include articles about living people, this will be the case whenever the date of death is after the publication date of the attributed volume. In due course there will be a separate listing.

General thoughts:

This project is intended as a new generation in “merging encyclopedias”, as well as being one of the most ambitious attempted. For general ideas of where we are, and some justification of the approach being taken, see the essay Wikipedia:Merging encyclopedias.

Helpful access templates:

helpful templates

There are two templates to help link to the correct page: {{Cite DNBIE}} and {{DNBIE}}. The page number automatically link to the correct url for the page at the Internet Archive site.

{{Cite DNBIE|title=Dove, John|page=358}}
 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358.


{{DNBIE|title=Dove, John|page=358}}
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainLee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358.

if a wstitle= parameter is used in place of title= then the templates also link the DNB article on Wikisource:

{{cite DNBIE|wstitle=Dove, John (d.1665?)|page=358}}
 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1903). "Dove, John (d.1665?)". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. p. 358.


























  1. ^ Mrs Dinah Maria Craik (1836–1887). See Mulock.
  2. ^ George Lillie Craik (1798–1866), author; studied divinity at St. Andrews; tutor, 1816; editor of the Star a local newspaper; wrote for Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; professor of English literature and history at Belfast, 1849-G6; chief orks, 'Spenser and his Poetry 1845, and The Pictorial History of England 1837-1841.
  3. ^ Richard Crakanthorpe (1567–1624), divine; student at Queen's College, Oxford; fellow, 1598; appointed one of the chaplains to Lord Evers, ambassador extraordinary to the emperor Rudolf II, c. 1603; admitted to the rectory of Black Notley, Essex, 1605, of Puu'lesham, 1617; defended with vigour and learning church of England against Antonio de Dominis; chief works,: 'Defensio Ecclesiae Anglicanae (against De Dominis), 1625 (posthumously published), and Logicae libri quinque de Praedicabilibus 1622.
  4. ^ Augustine David Crake (1836–1890), devotional writer; B.A. London, 1864; second master and chaplain of All Saintsschool, Bloxham, 1865-78; vicar of St. Peter's, Havenstreet, Isle of Wight, 1879-86, of Cholsey, near Walliugford, 1885-90; published devotional works, and stories relating to church history, besides 'History of Church under Roman Empire," 1873.
  5. ^ William Crakelt (1741–1812), classical scholar ; master of Northfleet grammar school; vicar of Chalk, 1774; edited Entick's Latin dictionaries and translated Mauduit'sNew Treatise of Spherical Trigonometry 1768.
  6. ^ Franz Cramer, or François (1772–1848), violinist; son of Wilhelm Cramer; born at Schwetzingen: member of the Royal Society of Musicians, 1794; one of the first professors of the Royal Academy of Music.
  7. ^ Johann Baptist Cramer (1771–1858), pianist ; son of Wilhelm Cramer; born at Mannheim; studied in boyhood under Clementi and G. F. Abel, 1785, becoming the foremost performer of his tune; met Haydn, 1788, Berlioz and Beethoven later: resided both in England and on the continent. His Eighty-four Studiesis still a classic composition.
  8. ^ John Antony Cramer (1793–1848), dean of Carlisle, 1844; born at Mittoden, Switzerland; educated at Westminster; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1817; D.D., 1831; regius professor of modern history, 1842; principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1831-47; wrote on classical geography.
  9. ^ Wilhelm Cramer (1745?–1799), violinist ; born at Mannheim; originally a member of the elector's band; came to London in 1772; member of the Royal Society of Musicians, 1777; appeared in most of the musical performances of his time.
  10. ^ John Mockett Cramp (1791–1881), baptist minister; founded the baptist church at St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet; D.D.; president of the baptist college, Montreal, 1844, and of Accadia College, Nova Scotia, 1851-69; theological essayist and conductor of periodicals.
  11. ^ Sir John Fiennes Twisleton Crampton (1805-1886), diplomatist; son of Sir Philip Orampton ; became secretary of legation at Berne, 1844; transferred to Washington, 1845; recalled, 1856, from fear of complications with the U.S.A. government, which he had offended by recruiting soldiers in America for the Crimean war; K.O.B., 1856; minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary at Hanover, 1857.
  12. ^ Sir Philip Crampton (1777–1858), surgeon; studied medicine in Dublin; surgeon to the Meath Hospital, Dublin, 1798; graduated at Glasgow, 1800; surgeon in ordinary to the queen; created baronet, 1839; F.RA; interested in zoology.
  13. ^ Thomas Russell Crampton (1816–1888), railway engineer; assistant, 1839-44, to the elder Brunei, and later to (Sir) Daniel Gooch, and John and George Ronnie; began business independently, 1848; patented design for Crampton engine, 1843; received gold medal at Great Exhibition, 1861, for locomotive; laid transmarine cable between Dover and Calais, 1851; constructed lines in Kent, now merged in London, Chatham, and Dover Railway; M.I.C.E., 1864.
  14. ^ Lady Victoire Crampton (1887ringer; second daughter of Michael William Halfe; born iu Paris; appeared first at the Lyceum, 1857, as Ainina in Sonuambula; married Sir John Fiennes Twisleton Crampton; dial at Madrid,
  15. ^ Cranborne, first Viscount (1563?–1612). See robert Cecil.
  16. ^ John Cranch (1751–1821), painter; self-taught; contributed pictures to the Society of Artiste and, 1808, the British Institution, excelling in the poker style; wrote discussion on way to improve British art.
  17. ^ Edward Crane (1721–1749), presbyterian minister; assistant minister, Norwich, 1746; began to preach to the Dutch congregation there, 1749, though not approving the Heidelberg catechism.
  18. ^ Sir Francis Crane (d. 1636), director of the tapestry works established at Mortlake by James I; clerk of the parliament, 1606; secretary to Charles 1 when lYincr of Wales; M.P., Penryn, 1614 and 1621, Lauuceston, 1624; reported in 1619 to have received the valuable privilege of creating three baronets, in 1623 ten or twelve serjeants-at-law at £500. apiece; envied by courtiers for the numerous manors granted him by the king as security for advances; died at Paris.
  19. ^ John Crane (1572–1652), apothecary ; sheriff of Cambridgeshire, 1641.
  20. ^ Lucy Crane (1842–1882), art critic : daughter of the miniaturist Thomas Crane; musician and redactor of nursery tales; delivered lectures on Art and the Formation of Taste which her brothers Thomas and Walter issued, 1882.
  21. ^ Nicholas Crane (1522?–1588?), presbyterian; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge; imprisoned for performing service out of the Geneva prayer- book, 1568-9; subsequently inhibited; died in Newgate.
  22. ^ Ralph Crane (fl. 1625), poet; educated for the law; a transcriber of popular works; published The Workes of Mercy, both Corporeall and Spirituall 1621.
  23. ^ Thomas Crane (1631–1714), divine and theological writer; ejected from the living of Rampisham at the Restoration.
  24. ^ Thomas Crane (1808–1859), artist ; gold medallist, Royal Academy, 1825; miniature-painter; produced lithographic views of North Wales; treasurer of the Liverpool Academy, 1841.
  25. ^ William Crane (fl. 1530), master of the children of the Chapel Royal; water-bailiff for the town and harbour of Dartmouth, 1509-10; controller of the tonnage and poundage of customs in the port of London, 1514; licensed to export merchandise not belonging to the staple of Calais, 1514; appointed master of the Chapel Royal choristers, 1526, and water-bailiff of the port of Lynn, 1536.
  26. ^ Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex (1675–1645), originally apprenticed to llichard Shephard, a merchant adventurer; member of the Company of Mercers: appearing in its behalf before the privy council, attracted the notice of James I, the Earl of Northampton, and subsequently of the Duke of Buckingham; appointed receiver of customs for Dorset and Somerset, 1606; surveyorgeneral of customs, 1613, master of the great wardrobe, 1618, and master of the court of wards, and chief commissioner of the navy, 1619; checked waste in all these departments; privy councillor, 1620; attacked Bacon, disliking his views on patents and monopolies, 1621; created Baron Cranfield of Cranfield, 1622, and Earl of Middlesex, 1622; charged by Coke with corrupt practices as master of court of wards, and condemned, 1624; released from the Tower, 1624; pardoned, 1625.
  27. ^ James Cranford (1592?–1657), presbyterian divine; M.A. Balliol College, Oxford, 1624; rector of St. Christopher, London, 1643; wrote a Confutation of the Anabaptists Haereseomachia 1646, and various prefaces,
  28. ^ James Cranke (1746?–1826), portrait-painter, of the school of Reynolds; a successful copyist of great pictures.
  29. ^ Thomas Cranley (1337?–1417), archbishop of Dublin; D.D. Oxford, and fellow of Merton, 1366; first warden of Winchester College, 1382: principal of Hart Hall, 13K4; warden, New College, Oxford, 1389-96; chancellor of the university, 1390; archbishop of Dublin, 13971417; chancellor of Ireland under Henry IV.
  30. ^ Thomas Cranley (fl. 1635), poet and friend of George Wither q. v.J; published Amanda 1635.
  31. ^ George Cranmer (1563–1600), secretary to Davison. secretary of state, subsequently to Sir Henry Killitfrew; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool and Corpus Ohristi College, Oxford; wrote a letter to Hooker 'Concerning the new Church Discipline 1598; killed in skirmish with Irish rebels at Carlingford.
  32. ^ Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556), archbishop of Canterbury; studied philosophy, logic, and classics at Cambridge; M.A., 1515; forfeited fellowship at Jesus College by marriage; re-elected; D.D.; public examiner in theology; expressed privately an opinion that the establishment of the invalidity of Henry VIII's marriage with Catherine of Arragon would justify a divorce, 1529; propounded these views in a treatise; attended the Earl of Wiltshire, ambassador to Charles V, 1530; returned to England, 1533, being appointed archbishop of Canterbury; gave formal sentence of the invalidity of the king's marriage with Catherine of Arragou, 1533; pronounced King Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn to be lawful; granted bulls and dispensations; maintained the king's claim to be the supreme head of the church of England; pronounced his marriage with Anne Boleyn null and void, 1536; promulgated ten articles of doctrine, 1536; in conjunction with Cromwell had the supposed relics of St. Thomas of Canterbury investigated, 1638, but did not take part in the suppression of the monasteries; unsuccessfully opposed the Act of the Six Articles for Abolishing Diversity of Opinions 1539; became an instrument for the divorce of Anne of Cleves; did not oppose the bill of attainder against Thomas Cromwell, 1540; conveyed to the king information of the infidelity of his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, 1541; defended theGreat Bible against the criticisms of Bishop Gardiner, 1642; vindicated by Henry VIII against charges of heresy; appointed one of the council to govern during the minority of Edward VI, 1547; supervised the production of the first prayer-book, 1548; deserted the falling Protector Somerset, 1549; made overtures to Melanchthon with the view of promoting union of reformed churches; wrote against transubstautiation; made a revision of the prayer-book, but could not induce the Princess Mary to recognise the new use, which was authorised (1552) by an Act of Uniformity; promulgated forty-two articles of religion (afterwards reduced to thirty-nine), 1552; joined in signing a will of Edward VI excluding the Princess Mary from the succession, 1553; committed to the Tower for disseminating seditious bills against the mass and for having been a partisan of Lady Jane Grey, 1553; released that he might argue in justification of his alleged heresies, 1554; adjudged to be in the wrong at a discussion held at Oxford; formally cited to appear before the pope, 1665; refused to recognise papal jurisdiction; condemned for heresy by Cardinal Pole, recently appointed archbishop of Canterbury; degraded, 1656; signed six documents admitting the supremacy of the pope and the truth of all Roman catholic doctrine except transubstantiation, iu vain; burned at the stake repudiating these admissions, 21 March 1556; compiled a Reformatio Legum Ecclfsiasticnrum 1560, and wrote on Anglican discipline and theology.
  33. ^ David Cranstoun (fl. 1509–1526), professor of belles-lettres at the College of Montacute, Paris; Theol. Doc.: wrote additions to the Moralia of Almain, 1526, and to the Parva Logicalia of de Villascusa, 1520.
  34. ^ George Cranstoun, Lord Corehouse (d. 1850), Scottish judge; advocate at the Scottish bar, 1793; sheriff-depute for Sutherland, 1806; dean of the Faculty of Advocates, 1823; raised to the bench as Lord Corehouse, 1826; friend of Sir Walter Scott; author of a skit entitled The Diamond Beetle Case.
  35. ^ Helen D'Arcy Cranstoun (1766–1838), songwriter; sister of George Cranstoun, lord Corehouse; wife of Dugald Stewart.
  36. ^ James Cranstoun, eighth Baron Cranstoun (1755-1796), naval officer; fought against the French in Basseterre roads, 1782; captain, 1782; commanded Rodney's flag-ship, 1782; died just after being made governor of Grenada island, 1796.
  37. ^ William Henry Cranstoun (1714–1752), disowned his marriage with Anne Murray of Leith, 1746, in order to marry Mary Blandy. The latter murdered her father for remonstrating, but there is no proof that Cranstoun was implicated.
  38. ^ John Cranwell (d. 1793), poet; fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; M.A., 1751; incumbent of Abbott's RipUm; translator of two modern Latin poems.
  39. ^ Baron Cranworth (1790–1868). See Robert Monsey Rolfe.
  40. ^ Richard Crashaw (1613?–1649), poet; son of William Crashaw; educated at Charterhouse and Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; fellow of Peterhouse, 16371643; M.A., 1638; expelled from Peterhouse for refusing to accept the Solemn League and Covenant, 1643; entered the Roman catholic church and travelled to Paris; introduced by Queen Henrietta Maria to Cardinal Palotta of Rome; went to Italy, 1648 or 1649; sub-canon of the Basilica-church of Our Lady of Loretto, 1649; died at Loretto the same year, probably from overheating himself in the journey thither. His Steps to the Temple appeared 1646, another edition, containing designs by himself, 1652. The book includes a section of secular poems, entitled * Delights of the Muses iii. 33
  41. ^ William Crashaw (1572–1626), puritan divine and poet; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1592V; M.A., 1595; nominated by Queen Elizabeth to the bishop of Ely's fellowship, 1594; B.D., 1603; prebendary of Ripon, 1604; ordered by the archbishop of Canterbury to retract his Translation of the Life of the Marchese Caraccioli 1609; prebendary of York, 1617; incumbent of St. Mary, Whitecha pel, London, 1618-26; wrote, among other works, Romish Forgeries and Falsifications 1606, and aDialogue betwixt the Soule and the Bodie of a damned Man 1616.
  42. ^ William Cratfield (d 1415), Benedictine; camerarius and, 1390-1414, abbot of Bury St. Edmunds; compiled a Registrum of his house.
  43. ^ William Crathorne (1670–1740), Roman catholic divine; student, subsequently professor at the English college, Douay; missioner at Hammersmith; translated a Life of St. Francis of Salesand an Historical Catechism from the French.
  44. ^ Sir Charles Gregan Craufurd - (1761–1821), lieutenant-general; lieutenant, 1781; equerry to the Duke of York, 1785; translated Tielke's work on military science and the history of the Prussian, Austrian, and Russian war from 1766 to 1763, 1787; representative of the English commander-in-chief in the Netherlands at the Austrian headquarters; major-general, 1803; M.P., East Retford, 1806-12; lieutenant-general, 1810; G.C.B., 1820.
  45. ^ James Craufurd, Lord Ardmillan (1805–1876), Scottish judge; educated at the burgh school, Edinburgh, and at Edinburgh and Glasgow universities; advocate, 1829; solicitor-general for Scotland, 1853; lord of the court of session and lord of justiciary, 1855-76.
  46. ^ John Walkinshaw Craufurd (1721–1793), lieutenant-colonel; fought, as cornet, at Dettingen, 1743, and Fonteuoy, 1745; king's falconer for Scotland,, 1761; lieutenant-colonel, 1772; laird of Craufurdlaud, Ayrshire.
  47. ^ Quintin Craufurd (1743–1819), author; servant of the East India Company till 1780; adhered to the French royal family during the revolution, having settled at Paris; published a history of the Bastille, 17'JH, researches on the Hindoo civilisation, 1817, and essays on French literature, 1803.
  48. ^ Robert Craufurd (1764–1812), major-general; brother of Sir Charles Gregan-Oraufurd; fought, as captain, against Tippoo Sultan, 1790, 1791, and 1792; lieutenant-colonel, 1797: served as deputy quartermastergeneral of Ireland against the Irish rebels, 1798; com manded light brigade in attack on Buenos Ayres, 1807; served in Peninsula with distinction as commander of light troops, 1807 and 1809; major-general, 1811; killed at Ciudad Rodrigo.
  49. ^ Elizabeth, Countess of Craven (1750–1828). See Elizabeth Anspach.
  50. ^ John Craven, Baron Craven of Ryton (d. 1649), founder of scholarships; second sou of Sir William Craven; Baron Craven, 1643; founded the Craven scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge.
  51. ^ Keppel Richard Craven (1779–1851), traveller; settled at Naples, 1805; chamberlain to the Princess of Wales, 1814; friend of Sir William Gell; publishedExcursions in the Abruzzi 1838, andItalian Scenes 1825.
  52. ^ Louisa, Countess of Craven (1786?–1860), actress; nie Brunton; made her debut as Lady Townley in the Provoked Husband and Beatrice in Much Ado 1803; married William, first Earl of Craven, of the second creation, 1807.
  53. ^ Pauline Marie Armande Aglaé Craven (1808–1891), authoress; daughter of Comte Auguste Marie de La Ferronays, a French emigrant in London; married Augustus, son of Keppel Richard Craven, 1834, and lived successively at various continental, towns where her husband was attached to English legations; published, 1866,Recit d'uue Sueur relating the history of her family, which met with success. Her subsequent writings include novels and historical and autobiographical works.
  54. ^ Sir William Craven (1548?–1618), lord mayor of London; originally apprenticed to Robert Hulson, merchant taylor; entered into partnership with him, having obtained the freedom of the Merchant Taylors Company, 1569; warden of the company, 1593; gave 50. towards the building of the (library, St. John's College, Oxford; founded a grammar school at Burnsall, Yorkshire, 1602; knighted, 1603; lord mayor of London, 1610; president of Christ's Hospital, 1611-18.
  55. ^ William Craven, Earl of Craven (1606–1697), eldest son of Sir William Craven; entered the service of Maurice, prince of Orange, 1623; knighted on returning to England, 1627; commanded English troops fighting for Gustavus Adolphus, 1681; contributed 30,OOOZ. to the cause of the palatine house, 1637; fought beside Prince Rupert at Limgea; taken prisoner by the imperialists, 1637; purchased his liberty, 1639; aided Charles I with money; drafted a protest for the then exiled Elizabeth of Bohemia against the parliament's stoppage of her pension; deprived of his estates for loyalty to Charles 1, 1651; recovered his lands at the Restoration; privy councillor, 1666 and 1681; created Viscount Craven of Ufflugton and Earl of Craven, 1664; offered bis London mansion, Drury House, to Elizabeth i of Bohemia, 1661; said, without much probability, to have ; been privately married to her; lieutenant-general of the forces, 1686; bidden by James II to hand over the duty of guarding Whitehall to the Dutch troops under Soltns, 1G88. He was early a fellow of the Royal Society.
  56. ^ Earls of Crawford . See LINDSAY, SIR DAVID, first EARL, 1365 ?-1407; LINDSAY, ALEXANDER, fourth EARL, d. 1454; LINDSAY, DAVID, fifth EAJIL, 1440 ?1495; LINDSAY, DAVID, tenth EARL, d. 1574; LINDSAY, DAVID, eleventh EARL, 1547?-1607; LINDSAY, LUDOVIC, sixteenth EARL, 1600-1652?; LINDSAY, JOHN, seventeenth EARL, 1596-1678; LINDSAY, DAVID, twelfth EARL, d. 1621; LINDSAY, WILLIAM, eighteenth EARL, d. 1698: LINDSAY, JOHN, twentieth EARL, 1702-1749; LINDSAY, ALEXANDER WILLIAM, twenty-fifth EARL, 1812-1880.
  57. ^ Adair Crawford (1748–1795), physician and chemist; professor of chemistry at the military academy, Woolwich, and physician at St. Thomas's Hospital; published work maintaining the phlogiston hypothesis, 1779; wrote On Cancer and the Aerial Fluids 1790, and anInquiry into the Effects of Tonics on the Animal Fibre published 1817.
  58. ^ Ann Crawford (173 1-1801). See Ann Spranger Barry.
  59. ^ David Crawford (1665–1725, historiographer for Scotland; educate! at Glasgow University; wrote two comedies. His Memoirs from 1567 to his own times on the Scottish revolution, published 170G, were asserted by Laing to be untrustworthy.
  60. ^ Edmund Thornton Crawford (1806–1883), landscape and marine painter, and one of the earliest memlxjr!; of the Koyal Scottish Academy.
  61. ^ John Crawford (1816–1873), Scottish poet; wrote Doric Lays 1850, andMemorials of Alloa a posthumous publication.
  62. ^ Lawrence Crawford (1611–1646), soldier; served under Gustavus Adolphus and Christian of Denmark; commanded foot regiment in Ireland, 1641: refused to fight against the parliament, and was obliged to leave Scotland, 1G43; sergeant-major-general, 1644; quarrelled with Cromwell, but fought bravely for the parliament; killed at the siege of Hereford.
  63. ^ Robert Crawford . 1733), author of 'Tweedsideand other well-known Scottish songs; contributed to Ramsay's Tea-table Miscellany
  64. ^ Thomas Crawford or Craufurd (1530?–1603), soldier: taken prisoner at Pinkie, 154V; entered the service of Henry II of France, 1550; became one of the gentlemen of Lord Darnley, 1561; expressed an opinion that Mary treated Darnley too much like a prisoner; joined association for bringing Darnley's murderers to trial; unsuccessfully demanded justice on Maitland and Sir James Balfour as the murderers, 1569; captured castle of Dumbarton, 1571; received the surrender of Edinburgh Castle, 1573; rewarded with a grant of lands at Dairy, 1578.
  65. ^ Thomas Jackson Crawford (1812–1875), Scottish divine; educated at St. Andrews University; D.D. St. Andrews, 1844; professor of divinity, 1859; dean of the Chapel Royal; moderator of the general assembly, 1867; died at Genoa; wrote various theological works on presbyterian lines.
  66. ^ William Crawford (1739?–1800), Irish presbyterian minister and historian; minister of Strabane, co. Tyrone, 1766-98; M.A. Glasgow; D.D. 1785; promoted volunteer movement, 1778; founded an unsectarian academy at Strabane, 1785; admitted into the Antrim presbytery, 1798; wrote a critique on Chesterfield's 'Letters to his Son 1776, and published a History of Ireland in the form of letters, 1783.
  67. ^ William Crawford (1788–1847), philanthropist ; obtained an appointment in the naval transport office, 1804; secretary to the London Prison Discipline Society; sent to examine United States prison system, 1833; helped to introduce system of separate cells in England; inspector of prisons for the London and Midland district, 1835-47.
  68. ^ William Crawford (1825–1869), painter; studied at Rome; especially famous for his crayon portraits.
  69. ^ William Sharman Crawford (1781–1861), politician: sheriff of Down, 1811; advocated Roman catholic emancipation; M.P. for Duudalk, 1835-7; brought forward a bill to compensate evicted tenants for improvements, 1835, which was not carried; supported the chartists, 1837: M.P. for Rochdale, 1841-62; procured the formation of the Tenant Right Association in Ulster, 1846; promulgated thefederal schemefor an Irish parliament in opposition to O'Connell, 1843.
  70. ^ Archibald Crawfurd (1785–1843), Scottish poet: apprenticed to a baker in boyhood; obtained an enLMement in the family of General Hay of Ranues; publishedSt. James's in an Uproar," 1819; started two periodicals, The Correspondent and The Gaberlunzie, 1 and (1824) wrote Tales of a Grandfather
  71. ^ George Crawfurd (d. 1748), genealogist and historian; enabled by his researches Simon Fraser to i obtain the barony of Lovat, but was not recompensed; wrote on Scottish history and genealogy.
  72. ^ John Crawfurd (1783–1868), orientalist; army doctor in N.W. Provinces of India; held appointments under Lord Minto in Java from 1811; envoy to the court of Siam; appointed to administer government of.Singapore, 1823; envoy to the court of Ava; published History of the Indian Archipelago 1H20, and A Grammar an-i Dictionary of the Malay Language 1852.
  73. ^ Thomas Crawfurd or Crawford (d. 1662), professor; educated at St. Andrews University; M.A., 1621; professor of humanity, Edinburgh, 1626; rector of the high school, Edinburgh, 1630; professor of mathematics at Edinburgh, 1640-62; wrote a History of the University of Edinburgh from 1580 to 1646 (published, 1808).
  74. ^ Sir Francis Crawley (1584–1649), jmlw : scholar of Caius College, Cambridge, 1592; studied law at Staple Inn and Gray's Inn: serjeant-at-law, 1623: counsel for the Earl of Bristol, 1026; pirsne judge in the common pleas, 1632; knighted, 1632; maintained legality of shipmoney, 1636; impeached and restrained from going on circuit, 1641.
  75. ^ Richard Crawley (1840–1893), scholar; educated at Marlborough and University College, Oxford: B.A., 1866; fellow of Worcester College, 1866-80; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1869: translated Thucydides, 1866-74, an-1 wrote in verse and prose.
  76. ^ Robert Thompson Crawshay (1817–1879), ironmaster; son of William Crawshay; acting manager of Cyfarthfa ironworks; sole manager, 1867; assented to combination of masters to meet workmen's strikes; closed works on the invention of the Bessemer steel process.
  77. ^ William Crawshay (1788–1867), ironmaster; proprietor of the Oyfarthfa ironworks; sheriff of Glamorganshire, 1822; subscribed 600. on behalf of the Hungarian refugees in Turkey, 1849.
  78. ^ Peter Creagh (d. 1707), Roman catholic bishop of Cork and Cloyne, 1676; archbishop of Dublin, 1693; died an exile at Strasburg.
  79. ^ Richard Creagh (1626?–1685), Roman catholic archbishop of Armagh; studied at Louvain; B.D. of the Pontifical College, 1556; archbishop of Armagh, 1564; committed to the Tower of London, 1565; tried for high treason in Dublin, 1567; acquitted, but died in the Tower, 1585: wrote works of Irish philology, theology, and an Ecclesiastical History
  80. ^ Henry Hope Crealock (1831–1891), soldier, artist, and author; educated at Rugby; lieutenant 90th light infantry, 1852; captain, 1854; served in Crimea; in China, 1856-8; lieutenant-colonel, 1868; in India, 1858-9; military secretary to Lord Elgin in China, 1860; majorgeneral, 1870; served in Zulu war, 1879; O.M.G., 1879; retired as lieutenant-general, 1884. His Deer Stalking in Highlands of Scotland was published posthumously, 1892, with illustrations from his own drawings. ID (1812-1). Image at File:Henry Hope Crealock by Robert Russ.jpg.
  81. ^ Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy (1812–1878), historian; educate! at Eton; fellow, King's College, Cambridge, 1834; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1837; professor of modern and ancient history, London University, 1840; knighted, 1860; chief-justice of Ceylon, 1860; best known by his Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World 1852.
  82. ^ Thomas Creech (1659–1700), translator; scholar of Wadham College, Oxford, 1676; M.A., 1683; B.D., 196; fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1683; head-master of Sherhorne, 1694-6; committed suicide from disappointed love and pecuniary difficulties, 1700. He translated Lucretius, 1682 (verse), the Ode?. Satires, and Epistle? of Horace, 1684 (verse), Theocritus, 1684, Manilius, 1697 (verse), the XHIth satire of Juvenal, 1693, and parts of Plutarch and less famous Greek and Latin writers.
  83. ^ William Creech (1746–1815), Edinburgh publisher and lord provost of Edinburgh; studied at Edinburgh University: partner with the publisher Kincaki, 1771; on the withdrawal of Kincaid, 1773, leenme the foremost publisher in Scotland, and was first to bring out the works of Blair, Beattie, Mackenzie, and Burns; quarrelled with Burns; helped to found the Speculative Society: contribute! under the pseudonym ofTheophrastus essays to the newspapers; lord provost of Edinburgh, 1811-13.
  84. ^ Gary Creed (1708–1775), etcher; published plates from the marbles at Wiltou House.
  85. ^ Elizabeth Creed (1644?–1728), philanthropist; nee Pickering; married John Creed, of Oundle, 1668; gave free instruction to girls in drawing and needlework; painted altar-pieces for churches near Oundle.
  86. ^ John Creed (.f. 1663), official; deputy-treasurer of the fleet, 1660; secretary to the commissioners for Tangier, 1662; F.R.S., 1663.
  87. ^ Thomas Creed or Creede (d. 1616?), stationer; printed the 1599 quarto of Romeo and Juliet 'Richard III(1598 quarto), and Henry V (1600 quarto).
  88. ^ William Creed (1614–1663), divine; scholar of St. John's College, Oxford, 1631; M.A., 1639; B.D., 1646; regius professor of divinity, Oxford, 1660; archdeacon of Wiltshire, 1660; prebendary of Salisbury; rector of Stockton, Wiltshire.
  89. ^ Mandell Creighton (1843–1901), bishop of London; fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1866; B.A., 1867; tutor; held living of Embleton, Northumberland, 1875-84; rural dean of Alnwick, 1879; took prominent part in organising new diocese of Newcastle, 1881; was examining chaplain to Bishop Wilberforce, 1882; honorary canon of Newcastle, 1883; published, 1882, the first two volumes of his History of the Papacy (vols. iii. and iv. appearing in 1887, vol. v. 1894); honorary D.D. Cambridge; first Dixie professor of ecclesiastical history, and fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1884; first editor ofEnglish Historical Review 1886-91; canon of Worcester, 1885; canon of Windsor, 1890; bishop of Peterborough, 1891; represented English church at coronation of Emperor Nicholas II at Moscow, 1896; first president of Church Historical Society, 1894-1901; Hiusean lecturer, 1893-4, and Rede lecturer, 1895, at Cambridge; Romanes lecturer at Oxford, 1896; bishop of London, 1897; opposed the extravagances of some of the ritualistic clergy; D.D. Oxford and Cambridge; hou. LL.D. Glasgow and Harvard; hon. D.C.L. Oxford and Durham; hon. Litt.D. Durham. His works include The Age of Elizabeth 1876,Cardinal Wolsey 1888, Queen Elizabeth 1896, and numerous sermons, lectures, and historical and other writings. He contributed several memoirs to the Dictionary of National Biography.
  90. ^ Robert Creighton or Crichton (1593–1672), bishop of Bath and Wells; educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1621; professor of Greek, 1625-39; public orator, 1627-39; prebendary of Lincoln, 1631; dean of St. Burians, Cornwall, 1637; chaplain to Charles I; dean of Wells; restored Wells Cathedral; signalised himself by his outspokenness on the sins of Charles IPs court; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1670; translated Sguropulus, 1660.
  91. ^ Robert Creighton or Creyghton (1639?-1734), precentor of Wells; son of Robert Oreighton; M.A. Cambridge, 1662; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1662; professor of Greek, Cambridge, 1662-74; canon and precentor of Wells, 1674; D.D. 1678.
  92. ^ Drue Cressener (1638?–1718), protestant writer; fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambndge, 1662; M.A., 1685; D.D., 1708; prebendary of Ely, 1700; wrote on the Apocalypse.
  93. ^ Hugh Cressingham (. 1297), treasurer of Scotland; originally steward of Eleanor, queen of Edward I; audited the debts due to Henry III, 1292; prebendary in several English churches; defeated and slain fighting against Wallace at Catnbuskcimeth, 1297.
  94. '^ Madam Elizabeth Creswell (fl. 1670–1684), courtesan and self-proclaimed religious devotee; satirised by Rochester.
  95. ^ Sir Cresswell Cresswell (1794–1863), judge ; educated at Charterhouse and Emmanuel College, Cambridge;wooden spoon*; M.A., 1818: barrister, Inner Temple, 1819; together with Alexander, leader of the northern circuit; king's counsel, 1834; M.P. for Liverpool, 1837 aixl 1841; puisne judge of the court of common pleas, 1842-58; first judge in ordinary and organiser of the probate and divorce court, 1868-63.
  96. ^ Daniel Cresswell (1776–1844), divine and mathematician; fellow of Trinity College, CambridgeD.D., 1823; vicar of Enfleld, 1822-44; F.R.S.; J.P. for Middlesex, 1823; published mathematical works.
  97. ^ Joseph Cresswell (1557–1623?), Jesuit ; rector of the English college, Rome, 1589-92; worked also in Spain; rector of the college at Ghent, 1621; died at Ghent; published polemical treatises and religious biographies, also a Relacion del Estado de Inglaterra en el gobieruo de la Reina Isabella (unpublished).
  98. ^ Hugh Paulinus Cressy or Serenus (1605-1674), Benedictine monk; B.A. Oxford, 1623; fellow of Merton College, 1626; M.A., 1629; chaplain to Thomas, lord Wentworth; prebendary of Christ Church, Dublin, and St. Patrick's, Dublin, 1636; dean of Leighlin, 1637; publicly renounced protestantism at Rome, 1646; studied theology at Paris; D.D.; confessor to the English nuns at Paris, 1651; servant of Catherine of Braganza, queen of Charles II; definitor of the southern province, 1666; cathedral prior of Rochester, 1669. His chief works were Exomologesis being reasons for his conversion, 16471653, and The Church History of Brittany, or England in two parts (part I. published 1668). He also edited various books of catholic mysticism.
  99. ^ Robert Cressy (fl. 1450?), Carmelite ; wrote a book of Homiliae
  100. ^ Andrea Crestadoro (1808–1879), bibliographer; born and educated at Genoa: Ph.D. Turin; professor of natural philosophy, Turin; took out patents in England which proved useless, one being for aerial locomotion, 1852, 1862. 1868, and 1873; chief librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries, 1864; wrote Italian treatises, and a book on the Art of making Catalogues.
  101. ^ Thomas Creswick (1811–1869), landscape-painter; studied under John Vincent Barber; exhibited for more than thirty years at the Royal Academy, also at the Suffolk Street Gallery, and the British Institution; R.A., 1851; member of the Etching Club; favourably criticised by Ruskin.
  102. ^ William Creswick (1813–1888), actor; played in travelling companies, and appeared at Queen's Theatre, London, 1835; joined Phelps's company at Sadler's Wells, 1846; at Princess's, 1847, and Haymarket, 1847-8; joint-manager of the Surrey, 1849-62; at Drury Lane, 1862-6; toured in America and Australia; last appeared at Drury Lane, 1886. His parts included Hotspur, Hamlet, Othello, Iago, Macbeth, Iachimo, and King John.
  103. ^ Edward Cresy (1792–1858), architect and civil engineer; travelled in England and on the continent, drawing and measuring ancient buildings; F.S.A., 1820; member of the British Archaeological Association; wrote on sanitary engineering, and the architecture of mediaeval Italy, also an Encyclopaedia of Civil Engineering 1847.
  104. ^ John Crew , first Baron Crew of Stene (1598-1679), son of Sir Thomas Crew; M.P. for Amersham, 1625, for Brackley, 1626, 1640, for Banbury, 1628, for Northamptonshire, 1640; voted against Stratford's attainder, 1641; supported the self-denying ordinance; arrested among the secluded members for not approving Charles I's trial, 1648; M.P. for Northamptonshire, 1654, 1660: one of the council of state, 1660: met Charles II at the Hague; created Baron Crew of Stene, 1661.
  105. ^ Nathaniel Crew, third Baron Crew of Stene (1633-1722), bishop of Durham: son of John, first baron Crew of Stene; B.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1656: fellow; rector, 1668; dean of Chichester, 1669; bishop of Oxford, 1671; married Duke of York to Maria d'Este, 1673; bishop of Durham, 1674; privy councillor, 1676; rewarded for subserviency to James II with deanery of Chapel Royal; helped to administer diocese of London, 1686; specially exoepted from general pardon, 1690, but retained as bishop of Durham; benefactor of diocese of Durham and Lincoln College.
  106. ^ Randolph Crew or Crewe (1631–1657), artist; grandson of Sir Ranulphe Crew; executed a map of Cheshire; died from violence at Paris.
  107. ^ Sir Ranulphe Crew or Crewe, (Randolph) (1558-1646), judge; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1584; M.P., Brackley, 1597; bencher of Lincoln's Inn, 1600; knighted, 1614; speaker, 1614; serjeant-at-law, 1615; commissioner for the examination of Edmond Peacham, 1615, also of Weston, as the murderer of Sir Thomas Overbury, 1615; maintained the contention of the Lords that the Commons had no right to pass sentence on Floyde for litwlling the princess palatine, 1621; lord chief-justice of the king's bench, 1625; removed for denying the legality of forced loans, 1626.
  108. ^ Thomas Crew (ft. 1580), author of 'A Nosegay of Moral Philosophy 1580.
  109. ^ Sir Thomas Crew or Crewe (1565–1634), speaker of the House of Commons; Lent reader, Gray's Inn, 1612; M.P. for Lichfield, 1603, for Northampton, 1621, for Aylesbury, 1623, for Gatton, 1625; declared the liberties of parliament to be matters of inheritance 1621; placed on an Irish commission, 1622; speaker, 1623 and 1625; knighted, 1623; member of the ecclesiastical commission, 1633.
  110. ^ Isaac Crewdson (1780–1844), author: minister of the Society of Friend*, 1816-c. 1836; seceded, 1836; author of several works, including A Beacon to the s.x-ii-ty of Friends 1835, and Trade to the East Indies e. 1827.
  111. ^ Jane Crewdson (1808–1863), poetess ; nte Fox ; publishedLays of the Reformation 1860, and other poems, chiefly religious.
  112. ^ Frances Anne Crewe, Lady Crewe (d. 1818), daughter of Fulke Greville; married John (afterwards Lord) Crewe, 1776; a fashionable beauty and friend of Fox, Burke, and Sheridan.
  113. ^ John Crewe, first Baron Crewe of Crewe (1742-1829), educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; sheriff of Cheshire, 1764; M.P., Stafford, 1765, Cheshire, 1768; carried bill for disfranchising excise officers, 1782; created Baron Crewe, 1806.
  114. ^ Tom Cribb (1781–1848), champion pugilist; champion, 1808; sparred before the emperor of Russia and the king of Prussia, 1814; guarded the entrance to Westminster Hall at the coronation of George IV.
  115. ^ Sir Alexander Crichton (1763–1856), physician; M.D. Leyden, 1785; studied at Paris, Stuttgard, Vienna, and Halle; abandoned surgery and became L.C.P., 1791; physician, Westminster Hospital, 1794; F.L.S., 1793; F.R.S., 1800; F.G.S., 1819; physician in ordinary to Alexander I of Russia, 1804; decorated with various Russian and Prussian orders; wrote on medical and geological subjects.
  116. ^ Andrew Crichton (1790–1855), biographer and historian; educated at Dumfries and Edinburgh University; LL.D. St. Andrews. 1837; licensed preacher; contributor to periodicals and theEdinburgh Cabinet Libraryseries; editor of theEdinburgh Advertiser 1832-51.
  117. ^ George Crichton (1555?–1611), jurist and claseical scholar; studied the classics at Paris and jurisprudence at Toulouse: regent, College Harcourt, 1583: professor of Greek, College Royal; doctor of canon law, Paris, 1609. His works consist chiefly of public orations in Latin.
  118. ^ James Crichton , 'The Admirable' (1560-1585?), scholar; son of Robert Crichton of Eliock; M.A. St. Andrews, 1575; travelled to Paris, 1577, where he is said to have disputed on scientific questions in twelve languages; served in French army; visited Genoa, 1579, and Venice, 1580; introduced to the learned world at Venice by the scholar-printer, Aldus Manutius; disputed doctrines of Thomists and Scotists; entertained by Cornelius Aloisi at Padua, 1581; successfully challenged the university there; a good swordsman; killed in a brawl at Mantua. His authentic and extant works consist mainly of odes and orations addressed to Italian nobler and scholars. His title of Admirable originated in Sir Thomas Urquhart's narrative of his career, 1652.
  119. ^ James Crichton, Viscount Frendraught (d. 1650), descendant of William, Baron Crichton; created Viscount Frendraught, 1642; killed himself at the battle of Invercharran, from grief at Moutrose's defeat, 1650.
  120. ^ Robert Crichton (d. 1586?), of Eliock, lord advocate of Scotland, 1662-73 and 1573-81; sole advocate and senator of the College of Justice, 1581.
  121. ^ Sir Robert Crichton (d. 1604), son of Robert Crichton of Eliock; forcibly removed his half-sister Marion from her guardians at Ardoch Castle, 1591; denounced by the privy council, 1593; forfeited his property by non-appearance when charged with assaulting a courtier in James VI's presence, 1602.
  122. ^ Robert Crichton , sixth Baron Sanquhar (d. 1612), assassin; hanged in Great Palace Yard for having hired two men to assassinate Turner, a fencing-master, who had accidentally deprived him of one eye.
  123. ^ Sir William Crichton, Baron Crichton (d. 1454), chancellor of Scotland; knighted, 1424; ambassador to Eric of Norway, 1426; privy councillor of Scotland; self-appointed guardian of James I of Scotland's infant sou, 1437; allied himself with Livingston, who had been sent by the queen's influence to arrest him in Edinburgh Castle, 1437; supported the young king against Livingston and Douglas; created Baron Crichton, 1445; arranged marriage between James II and Mary, daughter of the Duke of Gueldres, 1448.
  124. ^ William Crichton, Creighton, or Creitton (fl. 1615), Jesuit ; enabled de Gouda, the pope's legate, to escape from Scotland, 1562; intrigued unsuccessfully to convert James VI to Catholicism; saved by Queen Elizabeth from execution in Holland for supposed complicity in the murder of the Prince of Orange, 1684; planned rising in England, 1586; sent to Rome in the interest of Scottish catholics, 1592; forced to flee from Scotland, 1595; founded seminary at Douay.
  125. ^ Fridericus Cridiodunus (d. 838), bishop of Utrecht; said by William of Malmesbury to have been nephew of St. Boniface; more probably a Frisian, and unconnected with the saint.
  126. ^ John Marten Cripps (rf. 1853), traveller and antiquary; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge; F.S.A., 1805; travelled over Europe and the near East: naturalised kohl-rabi, a Russian vegetable.
  127. ^ Sir Nicholas Crisp (1599?–1666), royalist ; received from Charles I the exclusive right of trading to Guinea, in company with five others, 1632; one of the body which contracted for the great and petty customs farms, 1640; knighted, 1641; M.P. for Winchelsea, but expelled from parliament as a monopolist, 1641; fined for having collected duties on merchandise without parliamentary grant; raised regiment for Charles I, 1643; received commission to equip fifteen war- vessels, 1644; his property sequestered by the parliament, 1645; fled to France; supported Monck at the Restoration, 1660; compounded the king's debt to the East India Company, 1662; customs farmer; created baronet, 1665.
  128. ^ Samuel Crisp (d. 1783), dramatist; soured by the severe criticism to which his tragedy of Virginia was subjected, 1754.
  129. ^ Stephen Crisp (1628–1692), quaker; separatist, then baptist, 1648, and quaker, 1(155; imprisoned, 1656: visited Holland, 1663 and 1667, and also Germany and Denmark as a missionary; fined for infringing the Conventicle Act, 1670; tried to get the penal laws suspended, 1688; wrote tracts in Dutch and English.
  130. ^ Tobias Crisp (1600–1643), antinomian ; brother of Sir Nicholas Crisp; educated at Cambridge; subsequently removed to Balliol College, Oxford; M.A., 1626; rector of Newiugton Butts, also of Brink worth, Wiltshire, 1627; his discourses published posthumously.
  131. ^ Gilbert Crispin (. 1117?), abbot of Westminster: educated at Bee; made abbot by Lanfranc, 1085; exhumed the body of Edward the Confessor, 1102; ambassador to Theobald of Blois, 1118: author of Vita Herluini and Disputatio Judaei cum Christiano.
  132. ^ Joshua Cristall (1767–1847), painter in oil and water colours; china dealer at Kotherhithe; china-painter; first president of reconstituted Water-colour Society, 1821; founded the Sketching Society; leader in the English school of water-colours.
  133. ^ George Critchett (1817–1882), ophthalmic snrgeon; studied at the London Hospital: M.R.C.S., 1839: F.R.O.3., 1844: demonstrator of anatomy and, 1861-3, surgeon to the London Hospital; member of council of College of Surgeons, 1870; ophthalmic surgeon and lecturer, Middlesex Hospital, 187G-82.
  134. ^ Charles Crocker (1797–1861), poet: shoemaker's apprentice; sexton, Ohichester Cathedral, 1845; bishop's verger; his poems published by subscription, the sonnet To the British Oak being specially praised by Southey.
  135. ^ Johann Crocker (1670–1741). See John Croker.
  136. ^ William Crockford (1775–1844), proprietor of Crockford's Club; originally a fishmonger; set up his famous gambling club, 1827, out of which he amassed £1,200,000 in a few years.
  137. ^ Edward Croft (d. 1601), son of Sir James Croft (rf. 1591); M.P. for Leominster, 1571 and 1586; accused of having caused the death of Leicester, his father's enemy, by magic, 1588.
  138. ^ George Croft (1747–1809), divine; educated at the grammar school of Bolton Abbey and University College, Oxford; servitor and bible clerk, 1762; chancellor's English essay prizeman, 1768; M.A., 1769; fellow of his college, 1779; vicar of Arncliffe, 1779; head-master of Brewood school, 1780-91; Bampton lecturer, 1786; rector of Thwing, 1802; author of sermons and tractates, theological and political.
  139. ^ Sir Herbert Croft (d. 1622), Roman catholic writer; son of Edward Croft; educated at Christ Church, Oxford: M.P. for Carmarthenshire, 1589, for Launeeston, 1597, for Herefordshire, 1592, 1601, 1604, and 1614; Benedictine monk at Douay, 1617; wrote controversial works.
  140. ^ Herbert Croft (1603–1691), bishop of Hereford; son of Sir Herbert Croft (d. 1622); student at Oxford, 1616; placed by his father in the English college, St. Omer, and converted to Catholicism; con victor in the English college, Rome, 1626; brought back to the church of England by Morton, bishop of Durham; prebendary of Salisbury, 1639; D.D., 1640; chaplain to Charles I; prebendary of Worcester, 1640: canon of Windsor, 1641; dean of Hereford, 1644; ejected in the great rebellion; bishop of Hereford, 1661-91; dean of the Chapel Royal, 1668-70; wrote controversial pamphlets against Roman Catholicism.
  141. ^ Sir Herbert Croft , bart. (1751–1816), author; matriculated at University College, Oxford, 1771; entered at Lincoln's Inn; barrister; B.C.L., 1785; vicar of Prittlewell, Essex, 1786-1816; imprisoned for debt at Exeter, 1795: withdrew to Hamburg: presented with a gold medal by the king of Sweden; returned to England, 1800; died at Paris, in receipt of a pension of 200l. per annum from the English government. He contributed a memoir of Young to Johnson's Lives of the Poets and planned a new edition of Johnson's Dictionary but could not proceed for want of subscribers, 1793. In his Love and Madness which he published in 1780, he introduced letters concerning Chatterton that he had obtained from Chatterton's relations, it is said, under false pretences and without remunerating their owners. Among his works are The Abbey of Kilkhampton, being a collection of satirical epitaphs, 1780, Horace eclairci par la met nation 1810, and The Will of King Alfre,d a translation, 1788.
  142. ^ Sir James Croft (d. 1591), lord deputy of Ireland and controller of Queen Elizabeth's household; knighted, 1547; governor of Haddington, 1549; served in the Calais marches, 1550; pacified Cork, but was unable to conciliate Ulster and Connaught, 1551; implicated in Wyatt's rebellion, and (1555) fined 500l.; seneschal of Hereford and governor of Berwick, 1569; corresponded with Knox on Scottish affairs; M.P. for Herefordshire, 1564, 1570, and 1585-7; privy councillor, 1570; commissioner for the trial of Mary Queen of Seotn, 1686; had treacherous intercourse with the Duke of Parma, when on an embassy, 1588.
  143. ^ Sir James Croft, the younger (fl. 1603), son of Sir James Croft (d. 1591); gentleman-pensioner to Queen Elizabeth; knighted, 1603.
  144. ^ John Croft (1732–1820), antiquary; learnt wine trade at Oporto; sheriff of York, 1773: author of Annotations on the Plays of Shakespear 1810, and Excerpta Antiqua 1797, the outcome of researches at York.
  145. ^ Sir Richard Croft , bart. (1762–1818), accoucheur; brother of Sir Herbert Croft (1751-1816); attended the Duchess of Devonshire; accused of negligence in connection with the Princess Charlotte's accouchement, 1817; shot himself, 1818.
  146. ^ William Croft (1677?–1727), musician; chorister of the Chapel Royal; organist of St. Anne's, Westminster, 1700-11; organist of the Chapel Royal, 1707; organist, Westminster Abbey, 1708; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1713; wrote various anthems, as composer at the Chapel Royal.
  147. ^ Zachary Crofton (. 1672), Irish nonconformist divine; educated at Dublin; expelled from the living of Wrenbury, Cheshire, for refusing to take the engagement, 1651; vicar of St. Botolph, Aldgate; ejected at the Restoration; committed to the Tower for maintaining that the Solemn League and Covenant was still binding on the English nation, c. 1660: published controversial tracts.
  148. ^ Elizabeth Crofts or Croft (fl. 1551, impostor ; denounced the projected marriage of Mary and Philip of Spain from within a wall in Aldersgate Street.
  149. ^ George Crofts or Crafte (d. 1539), divine; fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, 1513-19; B.A., 1513: rector of Shepton Mallet and Winford, Somerset, 1524; chancellor of Chichester Cathedral, 1631; executed for affirming the pope's supremacy, 1539.
  150. ^ James Crofts , Duke of Monmouth (1649–1685). See Scott.
  151. ^ William Crofts, Baron Crofts of Saxham (1611?-1677), captain of Queen Henrietta Maria's guards before outbreak of civil war, during which he continued in attendance on the king and queen; given manors in Essex and Suffolk, 1645; gentleman of bedchamber to Charles II, 1652; created peer, 1658; employed on several royal missions after the Restoration.
  152. ^ George Croghan (d. 1782), captain or colonel, Passayunk, Pennsylvania; British crown agent with the Indians; trader, 1746; deputy-agent with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Indians, 1756; formed settlement near Fort Pitt, 1766.
  153. ^ Sir Alexander Croke (1758–1842), lawyer and author; educated at Oriel College, Oxford; D.C.L., 1797; member of the College of Advocates, 1797; answered the strictures of Schlegel, a Danish lawyer, upon the English admiralty court, 1801; judge in the vice-admiralty court, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1801-15; knighted, 1816; wrote on law and on genealogy and rhyming Latin verses; author of the Progress of Idolatry, a poem, 1841.
  154. ^ Charles Croke (d. 1657), professor; third son of Sir John Croke; tutor of Christ Church College, Oxford; D.D.; professor of rhetoric, Gresham College, London, 1613-19; rector of Waterstock, Oxfordshire. 1616; died in Ireland.
  155. ^ Sir George Croke (1560–1642), judge and law reporter; educated at Oxford; barrister, Inner Temple, 1584 ( treasurer, 1609; M.P., Beeralston, Devonshire, 1597; knighted, 1623; justice of the king's bench, 1628; spoke against ship-money and the prosecution of Hampden, 1638. His reports, written in Norman-French, extend over sixty years (1580-1640).
  156. ^ John Croke (d. 1554), lawyer; descended from the family of Le Blount to which Sir Thomas Blount (d. 1400) belonged: scholar of King's College, Cambridge, 1507; serjeant-at-law, 1546; M.P., Chippenham, 1547; master in Chancery, 1549; author of Ordinances upon the Estate of the Chancery Court 1564.
  157. ^ Sir John Croke (1553–1620), judge and recorder of London; grandson of John Croke; entered the Inner Temple, 1570; treasurer of his Inn, 1597; M.P. for London, 1597 and 1601; speaker of the House of Commons, 1601; king's Serjeant, 1603; knighted, 1603.
  158. ^ Richard Croke or Crocus (1489?–1558), Greek scholar and diplomatist; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; B.A., 1510; studied at Paris, 1513; recommended to Colet by Erasmus for pecuniary assistance without effect: Greek lecturer at Leipzig, 1515-17, where he taught Camerarius; M.A. Cambridge, 1517; taught Henry VIII Greek; lecturer at Cambridge, 1518; fellow of St. John's College, 1623; D.D., 1524; sent to Italy to collect the opinions of canonists on the king's divorce, 1629; deputy vice-chancellor, Cambridge, 1531; rector of Long Buckby, Northamptonshire, 1531; D.D. Oxford, 1632; canon and sun-dean of Cardinal's College, after wards Christ Church, 1532: testified to Cranmer's heresy at Oxford, 1655; his chief work was an edition of Ausonius, 1515.
  159. ^ Unton Croke (d. 1658), parliamentarian colonel; son of Unton Croke (1594?-1671); colonel in parliamentary army; B.C.L. Oxford, 1649; barrister, Inner Temple, 1653; high sheriff of Oxfordshire, 1658.
  160. ^ Unton Croke (1594?–1671), fourth son of Sir John Oroke; bencher of the Inner Temple, 1635; M.P. for Walliugford, 1626 and 1640; commissioner for treason trials, 1656.
  161. ^ John Croker, or Johann Crocker (1670-1741) engraver of English coins and medals; born at Dresden; came to England, 1691; chief engraver at the mint, 1705; public medallist.
  162. ^ John Wilson Croker (1780–1857), politician and essayist; B.A. Trinity College, Dublin: student at Lincoln's Inn, 1800; attached to the Munster circuit; JO*, for Downpatrick, 1807; temporarily chief secretary for Ireland, 1808; friend of Canning; contributor to the Quarterly Review, 1809, and afterwards famous for his scathing criticism of Keats's Endymion 1818; secretary to the admiralty, exposing (1810) defalcations; offended the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV; privy councillor and friend of Sir Robert Peel; resigned his office at the admiralty, 1830; spoke against the Reform Bill, 1831; edited Boswell's Life of Johnson 1831, and was severely criticised by Macaulay; retired from parliament on the passing of the Reform Bill, 1832; introduced the term conservatives 1830; while in retirement supported Sir Robert Peel until Peel gave in his adherence to Cobden's policy, 1845; the supposed original of Rigby in Disraeli's novel Coningsby; attacked Macaulay'sHistory of England 1849. Besides his edition of Boswell's Johnson* in 1831, his works includeAn Intercepted Letter from Canton (satire on Dublin society), 1804, Military Events of the French Revolution of 1830 1831, and Essays on the Early Period of the French Revolution 1857.
  163. ^ Marianne Croker (d. 1854), artist; wife of Thomas Crofton Croker.
  164. ^ Temple Henry Croker (1730?–1790?), miscellaneous writer; educated at Westminster School; scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 17-16; removed to Oxford; M.A., 1760; chaplain to the Earl of Hillsborough: rector of Igtham, Kent, 1769-73; rector of St. John's, Capisterre, St. Christopher's, in the West Indies. He translated the Orlando Furioso 1755, the Satires of Ariosto 1759, wrote on Experimental Magnetism 1761, and compiled a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences 17641766.
  165. ^ Thomas Crofton Croker (1798–1864), Irish antiquary; friend of Tom Moore, to whom he forwarded fragments of ancient Irish poetry, 1818: clerk at the admiralty in London, 1818-50; helped to found the Camden Society, 1839, the Percy Society, 18-10, and the British Archaeological Association, 1843; best-known works, The Fairy Legenda and Traditions of the South of Ireland 1825, and Popular Songs of Ireland 1839; edited memoirs and books connected with the topography and archax)logy of Ireland.
  166. ^ Richard de Crokesley (d. 1258), ecclesiastic and judge; abbot of St. Peter's, Westminster, 1247; archdeacon of Westminster; arranged marriage between Prince Edward and the daughter of the Duke of Brabant, ll'47; L-haplain to the pope at Lyons, 1251, whither he had been sent to bring about a meeting between the pope and Henry III; unsuccessful in his negotiations for the restoration of Henry Ill's French provinces, 1257; arbitrator for Henry III at the Oxford conference, 1258; baron of the exchequer, 1250 and 1257.
  167. ^ Francis Croll (1826?–1854), line engraver; articled to an Edinburgh draughtsman; executed engravings for the Art Journal and for the Royal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland.
  168. ^ James Croll (1821–1890), physical geologist : apprenticed as wheelwright at Collace; worked as joiner at Banchory; kept temperance hotel at Blairgowrie, 1862-3; keeper of Andersonian University and Museum, Glasgow, 1859; keeper of maps and correspondence of Geological Survey of Scotland, 1867-80; F.R.S. and LL.D. St. Andrews, 1876; retired owing to ill-health. 1880; published 'Climate and Time 1875,Philosophic Basis of Evolution 1890, and other writings chiefly on questions in physical geology.
  169. ^ William Crolly (1780–1849), Roman catholic archbishop of Armagh; entered Maynooth, 180l; priest, 1806; professor at Maynooth; parish priest of Belfast, 1812-26; bishop of Down and Connor, 1825; archbishop of Armagh, 1835.
  170. ^ George Croly (1780–1860), author and divine; educated at Trinity College, Dublin: licensed to an Irish curacy, 1804; settled in London, 1810; dramatic critic to the New Times and contributor to the Literary GazetteandBlack wood's Magazine; gained reputation for eloquence when rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 1835-47; afternoon lecturer at the Foundling, 1847; wroteSalathiel a romance, 1829, Catiline a tragedy, 1822, Paris in 1815 a poem, 1817, Divine Providence, or the Three Cycles of Revelation 1834, Marston a novel, 1846, and numerous narrative and romantic poems.
  171. ^ Earls of Cromarty . See MACKENZIE, GEORGE, first EARL, 1630-1714; MACKENZIE, GEORGE, third EARL, d. 1766.
  172. ^ Count Cromarty , in the Swedish peerage (1727-1789). See John Mackenzie.
  173. ^ Alexander Crombie (1762–1840), philologist and schoolmaster: educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen; M.A. Aberdeen, 1777; LL.D., 1798; licentiate of the church of Scotland; kept private school in Highgate; wroteA Defence of Philosophic Necessity 1793,Gymnasium sive Symbola Oritica 1812, and Natural Theology 1829, also tractates on questions of political economy,
  174. ^ James Crombie (1730–1790), presbyteriau minister; M.A. St. Andrews, 1752; presented to the living of Lhanbryd, near Elgin, 1760; tutor in the family of the Earl of Moray; co-pastor in the first non-subscribing presbyterian congregation of Belfast, 1770; sole pastor, 1781-90; D.D. St. Andrews, 1783; founder of the Belfast Academy, 1786, and its principal; wrote An Essay on Church Consecration 1777, and a tion of Sabbath observance. tractate on the ques
  175. ^ Edward Crome (d. 1562),protestaut divine; M.A. Cambridge, 1507; D.D. 1526; fellow of Gouville Hall; university preacher, 1516; maintained the nullity of Henry VIII's marriage with Catherine of Arragon, 1530; in sympathy with Roman catholic doctrine; parson of St. Antholin's, London, and subsequently of St. Mary Aldermary; preached against the mass, 1546; recanted; ; managed to escape the stake in Mary's reign,
  176. ^ John Crome (1768–1821), landscape-painter; born ! in humble circumstances; apprenticed to a sign-painter, 1783; introduced the art of graining at Norwich; picked up an informal education in art from Thomas Harvey of Oatton, Norfolk, who allowed him access to his collection of Flemish and Dutch pictures; taught drawing; founded the Norwich school of painting and a joint-stock assoI elation of accomplishments and worldly goods which exhibited from 1805 to 1833; exhibited at the Royal Aca: demy, first in 1806. His painting of trees was exceptionally sympathetic in its treatment of the subject, the Oak at Poringland and the k Willow being among the best picture* in their kind.
  177. ^ John Bernay Crome (1794–1842), painter ; son of John Crome: educated at Norwich grammar school; landscapes by him exhibited (1811-43) at the Royal Academy, and other institutions; travelled in France, Holland, Belgium, and Italy.
  178. ^ Robert Hartley Cromek (1770–1812), engraver; studied under Bartolozzi; published an edition of Blair's Grave with etching* after Blake by Schiuvonetti; compiled Reliques of Burns 1808, and Select Scottish Songs 1810.
  179. ^ George Cromer (d. 1642), archbishop of Armagh, 1622; lord chancellor of Ireland, 1532; opposed Henry VIII's attempt to make the reformatory measures passed at Westminster binding upon the parliament of Dublin, 1636; refused to recognise the king as supreme head of the church; intrigued with the pope and the Duke of Norfolk to prevent the Reformation setting foot in Irelaud,
  180. ^ Samuel Cromleholme (1618–1672), head-master of St. Paul's School; M.A. Corpus Christi College, Oxford; master of the Mercers Chapel School, London; surmaster of St. Paul's School, 1647-61; master of Dorchester grammar school, 1661-7; headrmaster, St Paul's School, 1667-72.
  181. ^ Samuel Crommelin -LOUIS (1662–1727), director of Irish linen enterprise; born at Armandcourt, Picardy; his family compelled to leave France upon the revocation of the edict of Nantes; arrived at Lisburn, Ireland, by invitation of William III, for the pin-pose of inquiring into the linen manufacture of the French colony there, 1698; overseer of the royal linen manufacture of Ireland; thanked by the Irish parliament, 1707; promoted settlements for the manufacture of hempen sail-cloth in southern Ireland, 1717; wrote on his work, 1706.
  182. ^ Sir Charles John Crompton (1797–1866), justice of the queen's bench; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin; barrister, Inner Temple, 1821; joined the northern circuit; postman in the exchequer; counsel for the board of stamps and taxes; assessor of the court of passage, Liverpool, 1836; knighted, 1862; raised to the bench, 1862.
  183. ^ Hugh Crompton (fl. 1657), poet; published Poems by Hugh Crompton, the Son of Bacchus and Godson of Apollo 1667, and Pierides 1668 (?).
  184. ^ John Crompton (1611–1669), nonconformist divine; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge; lecturer at All Saints Derby; rector of Brailsford; forced to retire at the Restoration; vicar of Arnold, near Nottingham; ejected by the Act of Uniformity.
  185. ^ Richard Crompton (fl. 1573–1699), lawyer; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; bencher of the Inner Temple; summer reader, 1573; Lent reader, 1678; edited Fitzherbert's Office et Aucthoritie de Justices de Peace 1583; wrote L'Authoritie et Jurisdiction des Courts de la Maiestie de la Uoygne 1594, and The Mansion of Magnanirnitie 1599.
  186. ^ Samuel Crompton (1753–1827), inventor of the spinning mole; induced by the imperfections of Hargreaves's spinning-jenny to invent a substitute, 1779; gave it to the public, but received no pecuniary advantage; granted 6,0001. by the House of Commons, 1812.
  187. ^ William Crompton (1599?-1642), puritan divine; son of Richard Crompton; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; M.A., 1623; lecturer at Barnstaple, 1828-40; pastor of the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Launeeston. Hi chief work, St. Austin's Religion 1624, was written to prove that St. Aiiftiuagreed with the religion of the protestants
  188. ^ William Crompton (1633–1696), nonconformist divine; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool and Christ Church, Oxford; ejected from his living of Collumptou, Devonshire, for nonconformity at the Restoration; author of some puritan tractates.
  189. ^ Edward Cromwell, third Baron Cromwell (1559?-1607), politician; pupil of Richard Bancrof t at Jesus College, Cambridge; M.A., 1893; colonel under Essex when sent to aid Henri IV in Normandy, 1891; served against Spain, 1697; accompanied Essex to Ireland. 1599; sent to the Tower for complicity in Essex's rebellion, 1601; fined 6,000. and released, 1601; privy councillor, 1603; appointed governor of Lecale, 1606.
  190. ^ Henry Cromwell (1628–1674), son of Oliver Cromwell; entered the parliamentary army; colonel, 1660; defeated Lord Inchiquin near Limerick, 1650; entered at Gray's Inn, 1654; represented Ireland in the Barebones parliament, 1653; sent to Ireland to counteract the influence of the anabaptists; major-general of tho forces in Ireland, and member of the Irish council, 1(154; remonstrated against the oath of abjuration imposed upon Irish catholics in 1667, but did not mitigate the rigour of the transplantation; lord-deputy, 1657; attempted to relieve the financial difficulties of the Irish administration, but was thwarted from home; urged his father to refuse the title of king, 1667; advised the remodelling of the army, 1658; governor-general of Ireland, 1658; unsuccessfully solicited by partisans of Prince Charles, 1659; returned to England and went into retirement, 1659; lost his lands at the Restoration, but subsequently had his possessions in Meath and Connaught confirmed to his trustees in compensation,
  191. ^ Oliver Cromwell (1699–1658), the Protector ; matriculated from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, 1616; said to have been a member of Lincoln's Inn; married Elizabeth Bourchier, 1620; M.P. for Huntingdon, 1628; J.P. for Huntingdon, 1630: said to have intended emigrating to America: became a religious enthusiast, 1638; M.P. for Cambridge, 1640; moved the second reading of Strode's bill for reviving the old law of Edward III for annual parliaments, 1640; proposed committee to put the kingdom in a posture of defence, 1642; fought at EdgehiU in the army of Essex, 1642; converted his troop of horse into a regiment, 1643; suppressed a royalist rising at Lowestoft, 1643; recaptured Stamford, 1643; governor of the Isle of Ely, and second in command to the Earl of Manchester, 1643; lieutenant-general, 1644; took part in the siege of Lincoln, 1644; commanded the left wing at the victory of Marston Moor, 1644; urged toleration for differences of religious opinion in the parliamentary army, and demanded the dismissal of Major-general Crawford, an intolerant presbyteriau, but subsequently forgave him; fought at Newbury, 1644; accused the Earl of Manchester of half-hearteduess, who retaliated by charging him with contempt for the Scots and presbyteriaus, 1644; largely helped the remodelling of the army and the passing of theSelf-denying Ordinance which he was excused from obeying, 1644; relieved Tauntou, 1645; fought with success in Oxfordshire and at Naseby, 1645; took part in the sieges of Bridge water, Sher borne, and Bristol, 1645; captured Devizes, Winchester, and Basing House, 1645; thanked by the House of Commons, 1646; assisted in negotiations for surrender of Oxford, 1646; recognised the grievances of the army in its quarrel with parliament, 1647; restored military subordination when commissioner, 1647; supposed to have planned the seizure of Charles I, 1647; his policy based on the assumption that terms might ultimately be arrived at with the king; entered into an engagement with the soldiers for the redress of their wrongs, 1647; induced parliament to vote that no further address should be made to the king, the case seeming hopeless, 1648; accused by Lilburn of apostacy and double-dealing, 1648; subdued a Welsh insurrection, 1648; routed the Scots at Preston, 1648; denounced the treaty made by parliamentwith Charles 1 at Newport, 1648; active in the prosecution of Charles I, 1648; temporary president of the council of state after Charles's execution; opposed the anarchical designs of the levellers 1649; commander-in-chief and lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1649; stormed Drogheda and Wexford, massacring their garrisons, 1649; compelled to raise the siege of Waterford, 1649; reduced Cahir, Cashel, Kilkenny, and Clonmel, 1660; treated non-combatants with leniency, but forbade the exercise of catholic worship; returned to Encrland, 1660; commauder-iu-chief, 1650; defeated the Scots at Duubar, 3 Sept. 1650; stirred up dissension among the Scots, some of them being convinced by his arguments and humane policy; captured Perth, 1651; defeated the Scots, in whose army was Prince Charles, at Worcester, 3 Sept. 1651; procured the Act of Pardon and Oblivion, 1652; dissolved the Long parliament, which had shown itself unequal to dealing satisfactorily with the complaints of the army, 1652; convoked the Little parliament; dissolved it in consequence of its rejection of a scheme for the appointment and maintenance of the clergy; installed as protector and head of the executive power, 1653; during the aljeyance of parliament issued ordinances, having the force of law until parliament otherwise ordered, providing for the administration of justice in Scotland, the representation of Ireland in the IJriti.-h parliament, and the re-organisation of the church in Kugland ou comprehensive lines, 1653-4; reorganised the court of chaiiivry, recommended the revision of the criminal code, 1657, and appointed new judges; engaged in negotiations for the acquisition of Dunkirk, 1652; signed au advantageous peace with the Dutch States-General, 1654: concluded commercial treaties with Sweden and Denmark, li)6l, the latter country having been recently in open hostility to England; ended a war with Portugal by a commercial treaty, 1653; failed to get unanimous recognition of the authority which had been conferred on him by the army from parliament, 1664: dissolved parliament, the Commons having delayed a vote of supplies, 1656; became the object of conspiracies, which were speedily foiled, 1665; parcelled out the country into twelve divisions, each under the command of a majorgeneral, 1655; imprisoned lawyers for impugning the validity of his ordinances, and dismissed malcontent judges; prohibited the use of the prayer-book, 1665; found himself compelled to prosecute the anabaptists, but protected the quakers and Jews; sent Blake to bombard Tunis, 1655; championed the cause of the persecuted Vaudois, and, by the influence of Cardinal Mazarin, obliged the Duke of Savoy to respect their rights as his subjects, 1665; made a treaty with France against Spain, 1655; at war with the latter country owing to its aggressive Catholicism and exclusive colonial policy; refused the title of king, 1657; installed Protector a second time, that being a style to which the army did not object, as it objected to the royal title, 1657; acquired right to appoint his own successor; concluded offensive and defensive alliance with France, 1657; formed league with Sweden against the Austrian Hapsburgs; dissolved the parliament of 1658 in consequence of its restiveness; again intervened on behalf of the Vaudois; humbled the Spaniards at Dunkirk, 1658; alleged to have prejudiced the interests of trade by friendship for Holland and hostility to Spain, 1659; assailed by plots, Gerard's, 1654, and Sindercombe's, 1657; denounced in a pamphlet entitled Killing no Murder 1657; died of a tertian ague, 3 Sept. 1658; buried in Westminster Abbey, 23 Nov.; disinterred and hung ou the gallows at Tyburn, 30 Jan. 1661.
  192. ^ Oliver Cromwell (1742?–1821), biographer; solicitor in the Strand and clerk to St. Thomas's Hospital; wrote Memoirs of the Protector Oliver Cromwell, and of his sons, Richard and Henry," from whom he was descended.
  193. ^ Ralph Cromwell, fourth Baron Cromwell (1394?-1466), lord treasurer of England; fought at Agincourt, 1415; first summoned to parliament, 1422; chamberlain of exchequer, c. 1423-32; lord treasurer, 1433-43; served at relief of Calais, 1436; master of king's me WB and falcons, 1436: constable of Nottingham Castle, and warden of Sherwood Forest, 1445; led attack on Suffolk, 1449; founded a college at Tattershall.
  194. ^ Richard Cromwell (1626–1712), Lord Protector; third son of Oliver Cromwell; member of Lincoln's Inn, 1647; M.P for Hampshire, 1654, for Cambridge, 1656; member of committee of trade and navigation, 1656; chancellor of Oxford University, 1657; member of the council of state, 1657; sat in Cromwell's House of Lords; twice nominated as his father's successor, 31 Aug. and 2 Sept. 1658; proclaimed protector amid apparent satisfaction; refused the petition of a number of officers that a commander-in-chief should be appointed, and increased the pay of the soldiers, 1658; compelled to assent to the retirement of his chief adviser, Thurloe, 1658; inclined to ignore his father's treaty with Sweden; recognised as his father's successor by parliament, 1659; retained the right to make peace or war; opposed by parliament in the matter of supplies and by Fleetwood, who took advantage of the grievances of the army to stir up mutiny; driven to throw in his lot with the army and dissolve parliament, 21 April 1659; obliged to recall the Long parliament, 7 May 1659; said, probably without much foundation, to have intrigued for the restoration of the Stuarts: practically deposed by the army, May 1669; appealed to Monck for pecuniary assistance, arrangein. ! its formulated by parliament for the payment of his debts having, come to nothing, 1660; retired to the continent and lived at Paris under the name of John Clarke, 1G60; returned to England, c. IGso, and lived in retirenumt.
  195. ^ Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (1485?-1540), statesman; compelled to leave England when young owing to a misdemeanor; said to have been present at the battle of Garigliano, 1503; escaped to Florence in a state of destitution; much of his early history uncertain in point of date, its obscurity being increased by the fact that he was sometimes called Thomas Smyth; clerk at Antwerp; visited Italy a second time, and introduced himself to Pope Julius II, in company with one Geoffrey Chambers; stated by Cardinal Pole to have been clerk to a Venetian merchant; engaged in money-lending, legal practice, and cloth dressing in England, c. 1513; appointed by Wolsey collector of the revenues of the see of York, 1514; entered parliament, 1523; humoured the king's designs upon France, while deprecating their immediate execution; member of Gray's Inn, 1524; one of the commissioners appointed by the influence of Wolsey to in r're into the state of the smaller monasteries, 1625; wed great harshness when on this commission; receiver-general of Cardinal's College, Oxford; managed all Wolsey's legal business, as his secretary, drawing up the deeds for the foundation of Cardinal's College and Ipswich College; pleaded Wolsey's cause in the House of Commons, 1529; suggested to Henry VIII the policy of making himself head of the church of England, and so facilitating his divorce from Catherine of Arragon; attempted to convert Cardinal Pole to the doctrines of Machiavelli, 1529; privy councillor, 1531: master of the jewels and master of the king's wards, 1532; obtained grant of the lordship of Romney in Newport, South Wales, 1532; medium of communication between Henry VIII and Chapuys, the imperial ambassador; chancellor of the exchequer, 1633; king's secretary, 1534; master of the rolls, 1534; endorsed the frivolous charge of treason against Bishop Fisher, 1534; vicar-general, 1535; commissioned to hold a general visitation of churches, monasteries, and clergy, 1535; chancellor of the university of Cambridge; took a great part in procuring the dissolution of the smaller monasteries 1536; conveyed Anne Boleyn to the Tower, 1536; made lord privy seal and Baron Cromwell of Oakham, 1536; knight of the Garter, 1537; dean of Wells, 1537; appointed to oversee the printing of the bible for five years, 1539; rewarded with confiscated lands of the larger monasteries, 1538-40; lord great chamberlain of England, 1539; negotiated the marriage of Henry VIII with Anne of Cleves, 1539; created Earl of Essex, 1540; accused of treason by the Duke of Norfolk and executed, the king, who was dissatisfied with Anne of Cleves and the German protestant alliance, not interposing, 1540.
  196. ^ Thomas Cromwell, fourth Baron Cromwell (d. 1653), son of Edward Cromwell; created Viscount Lecale, 1624, and Earl of Ardglass, 1645.
  197. ^ Thomas Cromwell (1792–1870), dissenting minister; entered literary department of Messrs. Longmans; Unitarian minister, Stoke Newington Green, 1839-64; F.S.A., 1838; minister of the old presbyterian congregation at Canterbury; chief works, Oliver Cromwell and his Times 1821, The Soul and the Future Life 1869, The Druid: a Tragedy 1832, and a History of the Ancient Town and Borough of Colchester 1825.
  198. ^ Saint Cronan (7th cent.), abbot and founder of Roscrea, Tipperary; born in Munster; travelled over the south and west of Ireland founding monasteries; appeased the auger of Fiugen, king of Cassel, against the people of Ely, a district on the borders of Counaught and Munster.
  199. ^ Robert Crone (d. 1779), landscape-painter; a native of Dublin; exhibited paintings of Italian scenery at the Society of Artists, 1768-9, and the Royal Academy, 1770-8.
  200. ^ John Crook (1617–1699), quaker; knight of the shire for Bedfordshire, 1653; commissioner of the peace; joined quakers, and lost his commission, 1654; tried at the Old Bailey for refusing the oath of allegiance, 1662; remanded to prison, but soon liberated; imprisoned again, 1669; author of An Apology for the Quakers, 1662, and numerous books of quaker exegesis.
  201. ^ Helkiah Crooke (1576–1635), physician; scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1591; B.A., 1596; M.D. Leyden, 1597; M.D. Cambridge, 1604; physician to James I; F.C.P., 1620-35; anatomy reader, 1629; governor of Bethlehem Hospital, 1632; took no notice of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood; chief work, Mikrokosmographia, a Description of the Body of Man 1616.
  202. ^ Samuel Crooke (1575–1649), divine; son of Thomas Crooke; educated at Merchant Taylors School; scholar of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; B.D. Cambridge; fellow of Emmanuel College; rhetoric and philosophy reader in the public schools; rector of Wrington, Somerset, 1602; parliamentarian in his leanings, but submissive to the royal commissioners, 1643; ono of the ministers appointed to superintend the district of Bath and Wrington, under a scheme for the presbyterian government of Somerset, 1648.
  203. ^ Thomas Crooke (fl. 1582), divine; scholar, Trinity College, Cambridge, 1562; fellow; M.A., 1566; D.D., 1578; rector of Great Waldingfield, Suffolk, 1574; took part in conferences between English churchmen and Roman catholics, 1582; urged Cartwright to publish his book on the Rhemish translation of the New Testament.
  204. ^ John Crookshanks (1708–1795), navy captain; lieutenant, 1734; captain of the Lowestoft frigate, 1742; appeared unwilling to risk fighting on three occasions, thereby causing general discontent, 1742, 1746, and 1747; charged with neglect of duty, and dismissed by courtmartial at Jamaica, 1747; brought groundless accusations of unfairness against the court, 1759 and 1772; ultimately restored to the half-pay of his rank.
  205. ^ William Croone or Croune (1633–1684), physician; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool; fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge; professor of rhetoric, Gresham College, London, 1659-70; M.D. Cambridge, 1662; F.R.S., 1663; anatomy lecturer on the muscles to the Company of Surgeons, 1670-84; F.O.P., 1675; left money to the Royal Society, also funds to establish algebra lectures at Cambridge and the Croonian lecture; published De ratione motus Musculorum 1664.
  206. ^ John Crophill (fl. 1420), astrologer ; his writings preserved among the Harleian MSS. (British Museum, 1735).
  207. ^ James Cropper (1773–1840), philanthropist; founded mercantile house of Cropper, Benson & Co., Liverpool; worked for abolition of slavery in West Indies and amelioration of social conditions among Irish poor; director of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, 1830; started agricultural industrial school near Warrington, 1833.
  208. ^ Andrew Crosbie (*. 1786), Scottish advocate ; stated to have been the original of * Councillor Pleydell inGuy Mannering friend of Johnson and Boswell; died in distressed circumstances.
  209. ^ Allan James Crosby (1835–1881), archivist; educated at Worcester College, Oxford; B.A., 1858; clerk in the Record Office; barrister, Inner Temple, 1865; edited, 1871-81,Calendar of State Papers(Foreign Series) from 1558.
  210. ^ Brass Crosby (1725–1793), lord mayor of London ; attorney in London; city remembrancer, 1760; sheriff, 1764; alderman, 1766; M.P. for Honiton, 1768-74; lord mayor, 1770; refused to back the press warrants, 1770; committed to the Tower for releasing from custody one Miller, printer of theLondon Evening Post who had been summoned to the bar of the House of Commons, and had refused to attend, 1771; returned to the Mansion House at the close of the session, 1771; president of Bethlehem Hospital, 1772; governor of the Irish Society, 1786.
  211. ^ Sir John Crosby (d. 1475), alderman of London ; M.P. for London, 1466; alderman, 1468; sheriff, 1470; helped to repel Falconbridge's attack on London, 1471; knighted, 1471; despatched on missions to tbt Duke of Burgundy, 1472 and 1473; mayor of the Staple of Calais; built a mansion of some fame in Bishopsgate Street.
  212. ^ Thomas Crosby (. 1740), author of History of the Baptists; deacon of the baptist church, Horsleydown; chief works, a History of the English Baptists from the Reformation to the beginning of the Reign of George I 1738-40, and The Book-keeper's Guide 1749.
  213. ^ John Crosdill (1751?–1825), violoncellist; member of the Royal Society of Musicians, 1768; principal 'cello at the Concerts of Antient Music, 1776; violist of the Chapel Royal, 1778-1825; chamber musician to Queen Charlotte, 1782; principal violoncellist at the Handel festival in Westminster Abbey, 1784.
  214. ^ George Crosfield (1785–1847), botanist: elder in the Society of Friends, 1815; published Calendar of Flora 1810,Memoirs of S. Fothergill 1837, and religious works.
  215. ^ Thomas Croskery (1830–1886), theologian and reviewer; entered at the old college, Belfast, 1845; reporter in connection with the Belfast press; licensed to preach, 1851; ordained, 1860; in charge of the presbyteriau congregation at Creggan, at Clouakilty, 1863, and at Waterside, Londonderry, 1866; professor of logic and belles-lettres, Magee College, Londonderry, 1875-9; professor of theology, 1879-86; D.D. of the Presbyterian Theological Faculty, Ireland, 1883; published Plymouth Brethrenism: a Refutation of its Principles and Doctrines 1879, and Irish Presbyterianism 1884.
  216. ^ Mrs Camilla Dufour Crosland (1812–1895. See Toulmin.
  217. ^ David Crosly (1670-1744), baptist minister; originally stonemason at Walsden; minister at Tottlebank, near Lancaster, 1695-1705; pastor of the particular baptist church, CurriersHall, London Wall, 1705; groundlessly slandered, and expelled, 1718; kept school at Goodshaw; correspondent of George Whitefield; published sermons and (1720) a poem, entitled Adam, where art Thoui
  218. ^ John Cross (1630–1689), Franciscan; provincial of his order in England for three years, 1674-7; re-elected, 1686; D.D.; established a small community at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 1687; compelled to retire from the place by popular violence, 1688; died at Douay; published devotional works and a treatise, De Dialectica.
  219. ^ Sir John Cross (1766–1842), judge in bankruptcy ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1795; king's Serjeant, 1827; attorney-general of the duchy of Lancaster, 1827; judge in bankruptcy, 1831; knighted, 1831; subsequently became chief judge.
  220. ^ John Cross (1819–1861), painter; studied at St. Quentin; director of the old French classical school; unsuccessful candidate for the decoration of the houses of parliament, 1844; exhibited a picture, by which he became famous, called The Clemency of Richard Oceur-deLion towards Bertrand de Gourdon at the exhibition of 1847; sent historical pictures to the Royal Academy; broke down under pecuniary failure.
  221. ^ Mary Ann Cross or MARIAN (1819–1880), novelist under the name of George Eliot; nee Evans; was sent to school at Coventry, 1832; reproduced much of her early history in her novels; converted from evangelism to more liberal views by the influence of Charles Bray, a ribbon manufacturer of Coventry, 1842: finished Miss Brabant's translation of Strauss's Life of Jesus,* 1846; visited Geneva, 1849; on returning to England contributed to the Westminster Review of which she became (1861) assistant editor; resigned the post, 1853; translated Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity 1854; attracted by positivism; formed a lifelong union without legal form with George Henry Lewes, 1864; visited Berlin, 1854; published Amos Barton serially in 'Blackwood's Magazine 1887, under the pseudonym of George Eliot published Scenes of Clerical Life, 1858, 'Adam Bede 1859,The Mill on the Floes 1860, and Silas Marner 1861; visited Florence, 1860 and 1861, in search of material for an Italian story of the time of Savonarola; published Romola in serial instalments in the Cornhill Magazine 1862-3; finishe Felix Holt 1866; travelled in Spain, 1867: produced The S Gypsy 1868; published Middlemarch in parts, 1871-2, and Daniel Deronda in the same way, 1874-6; wrote the Impressions of Theophrastus Such 1878 (published, 1H79); founded, after Lewes's death in 1878 the George Henry Lewes Studentship 1879; married Mr. J. W. Cross, then;i bunker at Nrw York, t May 1880. In addition to her novels she published Agatha a poem, 18C.9,Jtibal and other 1'ot-tiis 1H74, and many pssays. She claimed in all IUT books to be an {esthetic teacher and to interpret philosophical ideas. Most of her novel?, despite the tendency to didacticism, stand in the first rank of literary fiction.
  222. ^ Michael Cross (fl. 1630–1660), painter; copied pictures for Charles I in Spain and Italy; reported to have executed a copy of a Madonna by Raphael so accurately that it was interchangeable with the original.
  223. ^ Nathaniel Cross (18th cent.), English violinmaker; worked in partnership with Barak Norman; excelled as a maker of violoncello? on the model of Jacob Stainer.
  224. ^ Nicholas Cross (1616–1698), Franciscan; provincial, 1662, 1671, 1680, and 1689; chaplain to Anne, diH'hfs-= of York; died at Douay, 1698; published The Cynosura, a paraphrase on the 50th Psalm, 1670.
  225. ^ Thomas Cross (fl. 1632–1682), engraver: employed in engraving portraits of authors and celebrities as frontispieces to books; engraved music,
  226. ^ Andrew Crosse (1784–1855), electrician; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, 1802; lived, at Fyne Court in Somerset, the life of an amateur scientist; experimented on electro-crystallisation and metallurgy; gained notoriety by announcing the appearance of insects of genus Acants in connection with the arrangements of a voltaic battery, 1837.
  227. ^ John Crosse (1739–1816), vicar of Bradford; studied at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; B.A., 1768; ordained; appointed to the Lock Chapel, London; incorporated B.A. at Cambridge, 1776; M.A. King's College, Cambridge; incumbent of Todmorden and Halifax in Yorkshire, also of White Chapel, Cleckheaton; presented to the vicarage of Bradford, 1784; published religious pamphlets.
  228. ^ John Crosse (1786–1833), writer on music ; F.S.A.; published History of the York Festivals, 1825.
  229. ^ John Green Crosse (1790–1850), surgeon ; studied at St. George's Hospital and the school of anatomy, Windmill Street, London; demonstrator, Trinity College, Dublin; surgeon, Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, from 1826; famous as a lithotomist: F.R.S., 1836; president of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association, 1846: wrote on the urinary calculus (Jacksonian prize-essay, 1833), and (1820) on the variolous epidemic which occurred in 1819 at Norwich.
  230. ^ Lawrence Crosse (1650?–1724), miniaturepainter; imitated Samuel Cooper (1609-1672); said to have created an erroneous type of the features of Mary Queen of Scots by renovating a portrait of her.
  231. ^ Richard Crosse (1742–1810), miniature-painter ; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1770-95, and other institutions; painter in enamel to the king, 1790; portraitpainter in water-colours and oil.
  232. ^ Robert Crosse (1605–1683), puritan divine ; fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, 1627; B.D., 1637; nominated to the assembly of divines, 1643; declined regius professorship of divinity at Oxford, 1648; vicar of Chew Magna, Somerset, c. 1648-83; entered into controversy with Joseph Glanvill on the Aristotelian philosophy; published Aovov dAovut a denial of reason in matters of faith, 1655.
  233. ^ William Crosse (fl. 1630), poet and translator ; educated at St. Mary Hall, Oxford; M.A., 1613; preacher to Sir Edward Horwood's regiment at Cadiz, 1626, and to the company of the Nonsuch at Rochelle, 1630; wrote a boo of verses on the Spanish ware in Holland, 1625; collaborator in Edward Grimestone'sHistoric of the Netherlands 1627; translated Sallust, 1629.
  234. ^ David Crossley (1670–1744).
  235. ^ Sir Francis Crossley (181?-1 872), carpet manufacturer and philanthropist; with his father, John Crossley, and brothers, constituted the firm of J. Cropsley k Sons, carpet manufacturers, Halifax; applied machinery to carpet-making, driving out the hand-looms; mayor of Halifax, 1849 and 1850; M.P. for Halifax, 1852-9, for the West Hiding of Yorkshire, 1H59, for the northeni division of the West Hiding, 1869-72; erected almshouses at Halifax. 1H55; presented a park to the townspeople, 1857; built orphan school on Skircout Moor, 1860; created baronet, 1863; gave 20,0007. to the London Missionary Society, 1870.
  236. ^ James Crossley (1800–1883), author; articled to Thomas Ainsworth, solicitor, 1817: wrote for Blackwood's Magazine and for the Retrospective Review 1820: assisted Lockhart in the Quarterly Review; edited Sir Thomas Browne'sTracts 1822; wrote theFragment on Mummies generally ascribed to Sir Thomas Browne, for Wilkin's edition of that author; partner with Thomas Ainsworth, 1823; president of the Incorporated Law Association of Manchester, 1840 and 1857; president of the Manchester Athenteum, 1847-50; formed Chetham Society, 1843. becoming president, 1848; edited Dr. John Worthington's Diary 1848-52.
  237. ^ Samuel Crossman (1624?–1684), divine and poet; educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge; B.D., 1660; rector of Little Henny, Essex; ejected, 1662; prebendary of Bristol, 1667; dean of Bristol, 1683-4: published homiletic poems and sermons.
  238. ^ Lord Crossrig (1643–1707). See Sir David Hume.
  239. ^ Thomas Croston (1603?-1663?). See Croxton.
  240. ^ William Crotch (1775–1847), composer; performed on the organ in London, 1779; studied at Cambridge, 1786, at Oxford, 1788; organist at Christ Church, Oxford, 1790-1807, at St. John's College, 1787, and at St. Mary's, Oxford; professor of music, 1797-1806; Mus. Doc., 1799; published six etchings of Christ Church, 1809; member of the Philharmonic Society, 1814-19; first principal of the Royal Academy of Music, 1822-32; played the organ at a Handel festival, Westminster Abbey, 1834; composed two oratorios of note,Palestine 1812, and The Captivity of Judah 1834, besides a juvenile work, 'The Captivity of Judah 1789; published anthems, lectures on music, and (1812)Elements of Musical Composition
  241. ^ William Crotty (d. 1742), Irish highwayman and rapparee; hanged at Waterford.
  242. ^ Anna Maria Crouch (1763–1805), vocalist ; nie Phillips; played Mandane in Arne's Artaxerxes 1780; appeared as Clarissa in Lionel and Clarissa 1781, and as Venus in Dryden and Purcell's King Arthur; generally performed at Drury Lane; married Crouch, a lieutenant in the navy, 1785; taught Michael Kelly English, 1787; separated from her husband, 1791; retired from the stage and society, 1801.
  243. ^ Humphrey Crouch or Crowch (fl. 1635-1671), ballad-writer and pamphleteer; published a folio broadside in verse entitled A Whip for the back of a backsliding Brownist 1640?; wrote numerous poems and ballads, including Love's Court of Conscience 1637, The Heroic History of Guy, Earl of Warwick, The Madman's Morris and The Welch Trareller 1671, as well as a few prose tracts.
  244. ^ John Crouch (fl. 1660–1681), royalist verse-writer : probably brother of Humphrey Crouch; at one time servant to Robert Pierrepoint, marquis of Dorchester; author of numerous elegies, panegyrics, and verses on the events of his time.
  245. ^ Nathaniel Crouch (1632?–1725?), miscellaneous author under initials R. B; apprenticed to a London stationer, 1656; made free of the Stationers Company, 1663; issued several journals.
  246. ^ William Crouch (1628–1710), qaaker ; apprenticed to an upholsterer of Cornhill, 1646; Imprisoned for refusing to pay tithes; declined to be parish constable, 1662; complained of the persecution of his sect to Archbishop Bancroft, 1683; publishedThe Enormous Sin of Oovetousness detected 1708.
  247. ^ William Croune (1633–1684). See Croone.
  248. ^ Francis Crow (d. 1692), nonconformist divine ; M.A.; vicar of Hundon, Suffolk; ejected, 1(562; preached at Ovington, Essex, and Bury St. Edmund; retired to Jamaica, 1686; returned to Essex 'upon K. James's liberty'; published The Vanity and Impiety of Judicial Astrology in Jamaica, 1690; his Mensalia Sacra published posthumously.
  249. ^ Hugh Crow (1765–1829% voyager; captain of a merchant vessel in the African trade; his Memoirs posthumously published, valuable for their descriptions of the west coast of Africa.
  250. ^ Mitford Crow (d. 1719), colonel; as British diplomatic ageut in Catalonia espoused the cause of the Archduke Charles; governor of Barbados, 1707-11; M.P., Southampton; friend of Swift.
  251. ^ Anselm Crowder or Crowther (1588–1666), Benedictine monk; sub-prior and professor of philosophy, Douay; deflnitor, 1621; cathedral prior of Rochester, 1633, of Canterbury, 1657; provincial of Canterbury, 1653-66; died in the Old Bailey; wrote devotional works.
  252. ^ Sir Richard Budden Crowder (1795–1859), judge: educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge; barrister of Lincoln's Inn, 1821; joined western circuit, 1821; Q.C., 1837; M.P., Liskeard, 1849-54; puisne justice in the court of comuiou pleas and knighted, 1854; counsel to the admiralty and judge-advocate of the fleet.
  253. ^ Catherine Crowe (1800?-1876), novelist and writer on the supernatural; n&e Stevens; chief works, the Night Side of Nature 1848, Spiritualism, and the Age we live in 1859, and two novels, Susan Hopley 1841, and 'Lilly Dawson 1847; translated Kerner'sSeeress of Prevorst 1845.
  254. ^ Eyre Evans Crowe (1799–1868), historian; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; visited Italy, 1822; Paris correspondent of the Morning Chronicle; editor of the Daily News 1849-51; contributed a History of France to Lardner's Encyclopaedia 1830; published The Greek and the Turk 1853, History of Louis XVIII and Charles X 1854, and novels, 1825-53.
  255. ^ Sir Joseph Archer Crowe (1825–1896), journalist, art-critic, and commercial attache; son of Eyre Evans Crowe; became correspondent for Morning Chronicle and DailyNews 1843; correspondent to Illustrated London News in Crimea, and to Times during Indian Mutiny, 1857, and war between Austria and Italy, 1859; consul-general for Saxony, 1860; consul-general for Westphalia and Rhenish Provinces, 1872; commercial attache to embassies at Berlin and Vienna, 1880; commercial attachd for whole of Europe, residing at Paris, 1882; O.B., 1885; K.C.M.Q., 1890; published in collaboration with Cavalcaselle,an Italian painter, works relating to Italian painting.
  256. ^ William Crowe (1616–1675), bibliographer; educated at Caius College, Cambridge; chaplain and schoolmaster of the hospital of Holy Trinity, Croydon, 1668-75; committed suicide. His bibliographical work was exclusively concerned with the scriptures.
  257. ^ William Crowe (d. 1743), divine; educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; fellow, 1713; M.A., 1717; D.D., 1728; rector of St Botolph's, Bishopsgate, 1730, of Finchley, 1731-43; chaplain in ordinary to George II.; said to have lent his notes on Greek literature to Bentley; published sermons.
  258. ^ William Crowe (1745–1829), poet and divine; scholar of Winchester College, 1758; fellow of New College, Oxford, 1767; B.C.L., 1773; rector of Alton Barnes, Wiltshire, 1787-1829; public orator, Oxford, 1784-1829; lectured on poetry at the Royal Institution; author of Leweadon Hill a poem, 1788, and of several sermons and orations; edited Collins's poems, 1828. 7-1876), Hebrew
  259. ^ John Rustat Crowfoot (1817 , and Syriac scholar; foundation scholar at Eton; B.A. Oaius College, Cambridge, 1839: fellow, 1840; M.A., 1842; B.D., 1849; curate, Great St. Mary's, Cambridge, 1851-3; vicar of Wangford-cum-Reydon, Suffolk, 1860; issued pamphlets on university matters; travelled in Egypt in search of ByrUc manuscripts of the gospels, 1873; published FragmeuU Evangelica, 1 1870.
  260. ^ Nicholas Joseph Crowley (1819–1857), painter: exhibited The Eventful Consultation at the Royal Academy, 1835; member of the Ro3 r al Hibernian Academy, 1838; painted historical pictures and portraits.
  261. ^ Peter O'Neill Crowley (1832–1867), Fenian; shot in a skirmish with the constabulary at Kilclooney Wood, 1867.
  262. ^ Robert Crowley, Crole, or Croleus (1518?-1588), author, printer, and divine; demy, Magdalen College, Oxford; probationer-fellow and B.A., 1542; printed his metrical version of the Psalms, 1549; printed three impressions of theVision of Pierce Plowman 1550; exile at Frankfort, 1554; returned to England on the death of Queen Mary; archdeacon of Hereford, 1559; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1563; opposed Archbishop Parker on the question of the surplice, 1564; vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry, 1676-8; published a few satirical writings, sermons, and controversial tractates, several of which have been reprinted by the Early English Text Society.
  263. ^ John Crowne (d. 1703?), dramatist; returned to England from Nova Scotia, whither his father had been compelled to emigrate; became gentleman-usher to a lady early in Charles II's reign; wrote Pandion and Amphigenia (romance), 1666, Juliana, or the Princess of Poland (tragi-oomedy), 1671, and History of Charles the Eighth a rhyming tragedy, 1672; satirised Settle's 'Empress of Morocco 1673; preparedCalisto a court masque, 1676; producedSir Courtly Nice comedy, 1685, 'Darius tragedy, 1688, andDseneids burlesque poem, 1692; published The Married Beau, a comedy, 1694; wrote songs and a few other dramas, including Thyestes founded on Seneca's play, 1681.
  264. ^ Alfred Crowquill (pseudonym) (1804–1872). See Alfred Henry Forrester.
  265. ^ James Crowther (1768–1847), botanist ; worked as draw-boy at a loom and as porter; assisted J. B. Wood in compiling the Flora Mancuniensis; first to discover the lady's-slipper orchid at Malham, Yorkshire.
  266. ^ Jonathan Crowther (1760–1824), methodist preacher; sent to Scotland by John Wesley, 1787; president of conference, 1819; president of the Irish conference, 1820; author of two books on methodism and a life of Thomas Coke, D.C.L.
  267. ^ Jonathan Crowther (1794–1856), Wesleyan minister; nephew of Jonathan Crowther (1760-1824) ; head-master of Kings wood school, Gloucestershire, 1823; general superintendent of the Wesleyan missions in India, 1837-43; classical tutor in the Wesleyan Theological Institution at Didsbury, Lancashire, 1849; examiner at Wesley College, Sheffield.
  268. ^ Samuel Adjai Crowther (1809?–1892), negro bishop of the Niger territory from 1864 till death; born of negro parents in the Yoruba country, West Africa; carried off as slave, but recovered by British, 1821; studied at Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone; ordained in England, 1843; missionary in Yoruba country.
  269. ^ Rodney Croxall (fl. 1745), brother of Samuel Croxall; prebendary of Hereford. 1732; treasurer, 1746.
  270. ^ Samuel Croxall (d. 1752), miscellaneous writer ; educated at Eton and St. John's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1717; D.D., 1728; prebendary of Hereford, 1727 and 1730; vicar of St. Mary Somerset and St. Mary Mounthaw, London, 1731-62; archdeacon of Shropshire, 1732; chancellor of Hereford, 1738; built a house with the materials of an ancient chapel in Hereford Cathedral; publishedAn Original Canto of Spencer (*tc) 1713 and 1714 (satire on the Earl of Oxford),The Vision 1715, a translation of Ovid'sMetamorphoses 1717,The Fair Circassian an indelicate adaptation of the Song of Solomon, first printed in 1720, a translation of -rEsop's Fables 1722, andScripture Politics 1735.
  271. ^ Thomas Croxton (1603?–1663?), colonel in the parliamentarian army, 1650; militia commissioner for Chester, 1650; defended Chester Castle against Sir George Booth's royalists for three weeks, 1659; arrested for conspiracy, 1663; possibly released.
  272. ^ Roger of Croyland (d. 1214?). See Roger.
  273. ^ Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (1796?–1848), navy-captain; went to the Cape of Good Hope as mate of the Doterel sloop, 1818; accompanied Captain Parry in Arctic voyages, 1821-7; lieutenant, 1826; served off Portugal, 1831-5; commander of the Cove, 1837; went with Iloss to explore Antarctic Ocean, 1839; discovered north-west passage in company with Sir John Franklin (record found, 1859); lost in Arctic regions, 1848.
  274. ^ Alexander Cruden (1701–1770), author of the Biblical Concordance: educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen; M.A.; amanuensis to the tenth Earl of Derby, 1729; discharged on account of his ignorance of French, 1729; tutor in the Isle of Man; bookseller in the Itoyal Exchange, London, 1732: published his Concordance 1737; became insane, 1738; escaped from confinement, 1738; corrected works of learning for the press; believed himself divinely appointed to reform the nation; received with great respect at Oxford and Cambridge, 1755; wrote pamphlets on his experiences and contemporary events; repulsed by the daughter of Sir Thomas Abney, to whom he paid his addresses, 1755; founded bursary at Marischal College, Aberdeen.
  275. ^ William Cruden (1725–1785), Scottish divine; M.A. Aberdeen, 174S; minister of the Scottish presbyterian church, Covent Garden, 1773; chief work, Nature Spiritualised a book of religious poems.
  276. ^ George Cruikshank (1792–1878), artist and caricaturist; son of Isaac Cruikshunk; his earliest important caricatureSir Francis Burdett taken from his house, No. 80 Piccadilly, by warrant of the Speaker of the House of Commons 1810; supplied etchings to The Scourge a satirical periodical, 1811-16, and to "The Meteor 1813-14; produced caricatures of Bonaparte, Joanna Southcott, the purchase of the Elgin marbles, and contemporary events; did much to put an end to the death-penalty for forgery of bank-notes by a cartoon entitled Bank-note not to be Imitated 1818; produced coloured etchings for the Humourist(series of tales), 1819-21, and two volumes of etchings for Grimm's 'Popular Tales 1824-6, by some considered his masterpiece; produced Phrenological Illustrations 1826; substituted wood-engraving for etching, 1828; issued the firs tn umber of the Comic Almanack 1835; engraved for Dickens's Sketches by Boz 1836 and 1837; designed a cover and supplied 126 plates for Bentley's Miscellany 1837-43; illustrated Ainsworth's Tower of London 1840, and Guy Fawkes 1841, alsoAinsworth'sMagazine 1842-4; claimed, without much show of reason, to have suggested to Dickens the story of Oliver Twist and to Ainsworth the general plan of the Miser's Daughter started The Table Book a miscellany, 1845; illustrated for it Thackeray's Legend of the Rhine; published The Bottle a famous picture, 1847, andThe Drunkard's Children 1848, in support of the cause of total abstinence; essayed a new Cruikshank's Magazine which he soon dropped, 1854; ! supplied frontispiece to Lowell's Biglow Papers 1859; issued satirical pamphlet against General W. Napier's aspersions on the British volunteers of 1803, 1860, and another against spiritualistic seances, 1863; exhibited oil paintings at the Royal Academy on humorous subjects, such asMoses dressing for the Fair 1830, and, his magnum oput, a cartoon entitled The Worship of Bacchus: or, the Drinking Customs of Society 1862. In the treatment and moral tone of his drawings he resembled Hogarth.
  277. ^ Isaac Cruikshank (1766?–1811?), caricaturist and water-colour painter; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1790 and 1792; designed frontispiece for the Witticisms and Jests of Dr. Samuel Johnson 1791: executed caricatures of Gillray and Rowlandson type, some political and some social.
  278. ^ Isaac Robert Cruikshank, or Robert (1789-1856), caricaturist and miniature-painter; son of Isaac Cruikshank; midshipman in the East India Company's ship Perseverance; gave up a seaman's life for an artist's; satirised social extravagances; published cartoon urging neutrality on England, 1823; illustrated various books dealing with the humours of English, and especially London, life, including the English Spy 1825, and The Orphan a translation of the MathSde of Eugene Sue.
  279. ^ William Cumberland Cruikshank (1745–1800), anat.mist; M.A. Glasgow, 1767; French and Italian scholar; assistant to Dr. William Hunter, 1771; partner with Hunter in the Windmill Street school; F.R.S., 1797; proved the effluence of carbolic acid from the skin; chief work, The Anatomy of the Absorbing Vessels of the Human Body 1786.
  280. ^ William Cruise (d. 1824), legal writer ; member of Lincoln's Inn, 1773; licensed conveyancer; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1791, a statute of William III, which excluded him as a catholic, having been repealed; published 'An Essay on the Nature and Operation of Fines and Recoveries 1783,A Digest of the Laws of England respecting Real Property 1804, and a few other legal
  281. ^ Jodocus Crull (d. 1713?), miscellaneous writer; native of Hamburg; M.D. Leyden, 1679; M.D. Cambridge, 1681; L.R.C.P., 1692; translated and compiled for the booksellers; among other bookti translated Pufendorf, On the Nature and Qualification of Religion, in reference to Civil Society 1698, and published an account of The Autient and Present State of Muscovy 1698.
  282. ^ Samuel Crumleholme or Crumlum (1618–1672).
  283. ^ Henry Crump (fl. 1382), theologian ; Cistercian of the monastery of Baltinglass, co. Wicklow; probably fellow of University College, Oxford; D.D.; preached against Wycliffe's scheme of putting church property under secular control; subscribed to the document condemning Wycliffe's doctrine of the sacrament, 1381; suspended from his academical acts by Robert Rygge , the chancellor, 1382; reinstated by the king, 1382; condemned for heresy and opposition to mendicant orders at Meath, 1385; returned to Oxford; compelled to abjure, 1392; wrote polemics against the friars and a book of scholastic logic, all lost.
  284. ^ Samuel Crumpe (1766–1796), Irish physician; M.D. Edinburgh, 1788; author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Properties of Opium 1793, and An Essay on the best Means of providing Employment for the People of Ireland 1793.
  285. ^ Lewis Crusius (1701–1775), biographer ; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1737; head-master of the Charterhouse School, 1748-69; prebendary of Worcester, 1751; F.R.S., 1764; rector of Stoke Prior, Worcester, 1754, St. John's, Bedwardine, 1764; prebendary of Brecknock; published The Lives of the Roman Poets a critical and historical work, 1733.
  286. ^ John Cruso (rf. 1681), civilian; entered Cains College, Cambridge, 1632; fellow; M.A. Oxford, 1639; lost his Cambridge fellowship on account of his royalist views; LL.D., 1662; member of the College of Advocates, 1662; chancellor of St. David's; wrote books on military science and Euribates a drama.
  287. ^ Timothy Cruso (1656?–1697), presbyterian minister; studied in the Newington Green Academy; M.A. of one of the Scottish universities; pastor at Crutched Friars, 1688; appointed to PinnersHall merchantslectureship, 1694; published homilies and sermons.
  288. ^ Clement Cruttwell (1743–1808), author and compiler; surgeon at Bath; took orders; published Bishop Wilson's bible and works, with a life, 1786, a 'Concordance of the Parallel Texts of Scripture Gazetteer of France 1793,Gazetteer of the Netherlands 1794, and the Universal Gazetteer 1798.
  289. ^ Richard Cruttwell (1776–1846), writer on the currency; educated at Exeter College, Oxford; B.C.L., 1803; chaplain of H.M.S. Trident, and secretary to Rearadmiral Sir Alexander John Ball; perpetual curate of Holmfirth, Yorkshire; rector of Spexhall, Suffolk, 1822-46; wrote Treatise on the State of the Currency (against Ricardo), 1825, The System of Country Banking defended 1828, Reform without Revolution 1839, and other works on monetary and social questions.
  290. ^ Thomas Crystal (d. 1536), abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Kinloss, Morayshire: recommended in youth by his musical talent to Galbraith, abbot of Kinloss; novice, 1487; monk, 1488; abbot, 1499; recovered by legal processes the property of his foundation; erected mills at Strathisla and repaired abbey buildings of Kinloss; benefactor of monastery mid church at Ellon; as visitor of his order restored the foundations of Deer and Culross; patronised learning.
  291. ^ Sir Mark Cubbon (1784–1861), commissioner of Mysore; cadet, Madras infantry, 1800; captain, 1816; deputy commissary-general, Madras Presidency, 1822, and a commissioner to inquire into Mysore rebellion, 1831; colonel, 1831; commissioner of Mysore, 1834-61; lieutenant-general, 1852; K.C.B., 1859; died at Suez on his way home, 1861.
  292. ^ Joseph Cubitt (1811–1872), civil engineer ; son of Sir William Cubitt; constructed the Great Northern railway, the London, Chatham, and Dover railway, and part of the London and South- Western; built the new Blackfriars Bridge.
  293. ^ Thomas Cubitt (1788–1855), builder; in early life made a voyage to India as ship-carpenter; master carpenter in London, 1809; built the London Institution, Finsbury Circus, 1815; carried out building operations in London; built east front of Buckingham Palace; supported Thames embankment scheme; guaranteed a sum of money to the Great Exhibition of 1851; much interested in sewage questions.
  294. ^ Sir William Cubitt (1785–1861), civil engineer; invented self-regulating windmill sails, 1807; chief engineer of Messrs. Ransome's establishment, Ipswich, 1812-21; partner, 1821-6; invented the treadmill, 1818; constructed Oxford canal and the Liverpool Junction canal; F.R.S., 1830; constructed docks at Cardiff and Middlesborough; constructed South-Eastern railway; consulting engineer to the Great Northern railway and to the Boulogne and Amiens railway; constructed the waterworks of Berlin; president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1850, 1851; knighted, 1851.
  295. ^ William Cubitt (1791–1863), lord mayor of London; partner in the building firm of his brother, Thomas Cubitt, at Gray's Inn Road; subsequently sole proprietor; M.P., Andover, 1847-61, 1862; sheriff of London, 1847; lord mayor, 1860-1, 1861-2; president of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.
  296. ^ Ambrose Cuddon (fl. 1827), Roman catholic publisher and journalist; began the publication ofThe Catholic Miscellany 1822; published A Complete Modern British Martyrology 1824-5.
  297. ^ Richard Cudmore (1787–1840), musician ; pupil of Salomon; led the band at the Chichester Theatre, 17991808; solo pianist and violinist in London after 1808; led the Gentlemen's Concerts, Manchester; composed The Martyr of Antioch an oratorio.
  298. ^ Ralph Cudworth (1617–1688), divine; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1639; fellow and tutor, 1639; master of Clare Hall, 1645; regius professor of Hebrew, 1645-88; presented to the living of North Cadbury, Somerset, 1650; D.D., 1651; master of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1654; consulted with a committee of the House of Commons on a proposed revision of the translation of the bible, 1657; originated theory of a plastic nature to combat doctrines of chance and constant divine interference; chief works, The True Intellectual System of the Universe 1678, and aTreatise concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality published posthumously.
  299. ^ Henry Cuff or Cuffe (1563–1601), author and politician; scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, 1578; fellow 1683; tutor at Merton, 1586: M.A., 1589; lecturer at Queen's College; professor of Greek, 1590-6; accompanied Essex to Cadiz as secretary, 1596; faithful to his master when in disgrace, but a reckless adviser; imprisoned for complicity in Essex's treason, 1601; executed, 1601. Cuff wrote The Differences of the Ages of Man's Life 1600, and assisted Columbanus in his edition of Longus's Pastoral of Daphnia and Ohloe
  300. ^ James Dodsley Cuff (1780–1853), numismatist; employed in the Bank of England; F.S. A.; contributed descriptions of coins to Hearne's Supplement to Ainslie's Illustrations of the Anglo-French Coinage 1830.
  301. ^ George Cuit or Cuitt, the elder (1743–1818), painter; sent to study in Italy by Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1769: exhibited The Infant Jupiter fed with goat's milk and honey at the Royal Academy, 1776.
  302. ^ George Cuitt , the younger (1779–1864), etcher; son of George Cuit, or Ouitt, the elder; published etchings of anctent buildings in England and Wales, 1810.
  303. ^ Robert Culbertson (1766–1823), Scottish divine; educated at Edinburgh University; pastor of the associate congregation, Leith, 1791; editor of theChristian Magazine and author of secessionist treatises of divinity.
  304. ^ Culen or Colin (967–971?), king of Scotland ; defeated Dubh, who had taken the crown by the law of tanistry, 967; slain by the Britons, 971.
  305. ^ Patrick Cullen (d. 1534), bishop of Clogher ; prior of St. John without Newgate, in Dublin, till 1531; bishop of Clogher, 1516; compiled a register of the antiquities of his church, 1525.
  306. ^ Lords Cullen . See GRANT, SIR FRANCIS, 1658: 1726; CULLEN, ROBERT, d. 1810.
  307. ^ Paul Cullen (1803–1878), cardinal; studied at Carlow College and in the Urban College of the Propa j ganda, Rome; made a doctor by the pope in person, 1 828; priest, 1829; rector of the Irish College, Rome; rector of the Propaganda College, 1848-9, which he saved from j Mazzini by placing it under American protection, 1848; archbishop of Armagh, 1849-52; summoned synod of Irish catholic clergy at Thurles, 1850; archbishop of Dublin, 1852; delegate apostolic for the foundation of a catholic university in Ireland; opposed the Fenian brotherhood; cardinal-priest, 1866; presided at the synod of Maynooth, 1875.
  308. ^ Robert Cullen, Lord Cullen (d. 1810), Scottish judge; son of William Oullen; educated at Edinburgh University; advocate, 1764; introduced bill for reform of Scottish representation, 1785; lord of session, 1796; lord justiciary, 1799.
  309. ^ William Cullen (1710–1790), physician; studied at Glasgow University; studied at the Edinburgh Medical School, 1734-6; M.D. Glasgow, 1740; professor of medicine, Glasgow, 1751-5; professor of chemistry, Edinburgh, 1756; clinical lecturer, 1757; professor of the theory of physic, 1 1766; president of the Edinburgh College of Physicians, 1773-5; F.R.S., 1777; attacked by John Brown (1735-1788), founder of the Brunonian system; chief works, An Essay on the Cold produced by Evaporating Fluids 1755, and First Lines of the Practice of Physic 1776-84.
  310. ^ George Culley (1735–1813), cattle-breeder ; pupil of Bakewell; author of works on agriculture,
  311. ^ Isaac Cullimore (1791–1852), egyptologist ; began to publish the oriental seals and cylinders of the British Museum, 1842.
  312. ^ Sir Dudley Cullum , third baronet (1657–1720), horticultural writer; grandson of Sir Thomas Cullum ; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, 1675; corresponded with Evelyn; recorded his horticultural experiments at Hawsted, Suffolk, in the Philosophical Transactions 1694; high sheriff, 1690; M.P., 1702.
  313. ^ Sir John Cullum, sixth baronet (1733–1785), anti j quary and divine of Hardwick, Suffolk; educated at ! Catharine Hall, Cambridge; fourth junior optime, 1756; fellow; rector of Hawsted, 1762; vicar of Great Thurlow, I 1774; F.S.A., 1774; F.R.S., 1775; published The History and Antiquities of Hawsted and Hardwick in the County of Suffolk; an accomplished botanist.
  314. ^ Sir Thomas Cullum (1687?–1664), sheriff of London; apprenticed to John Rayney, draper; alderman and member of the Drapers Company; sheriff, 1646; imprisoned in the Tower as a royalist, 1647; created baronet, 1660; compelled to disburse a large sum, 1663, in connection with the excise, of which he had formerly been commissioner.
  315. ^ Sir Thomas Gery Cullum (1741–1831), Bath 1 king-at-arms; educated at the Charterhouse; member of the Corporation of Surgeons, 1800; practised at Bury St. Edmunds; printed privately Florae Anglicse Specimen imperfectum et ineditum 1774.
  316. ^ Richard Culmer (.*. 1660), fanatical divine; educated at the King's School, Canterbury; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1619; rector of Goodnestone, Kent, 1630; suspended for refusing to read the Book of Sabbath Sports 1635; rector of Chartham, Kent, 1643; appointed by the parliament to destroy the monuments and stained glass of Canterbury Cathedral, 1643; appointed to the living of Minster, Thanet, 1644; excited great dislike by his fanaticism and personal peculiarities; ejected, 1660; arrested for supposed complicity in Venner's conspiracy, but liberated.
  317. ^ Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654), writer on astrology and medicine; astrologer and physician in Spitalfields, 1640; fought for parliament in civil war; published a translation of the College of Physicians Pharmacopeia for which he was virulently lampooned, 1649; published The English Physician Enlarged 1653, Semeiotica Uranica 1651, and other quaint medleys of astrology and medicine; many of his manuscripts published posthumously.
  318. ^ Sir Thomas Culpeper , the elder (1578–1662), writer on usury; entered Hart Hall, Oxford, 1591; student at one of the Inns of Court; knighted, 1619; published Tract against the high rate of Usurie 1621.
  319. ^ Sir Thomas Culpeper , the younger (1626–1697), writer on usury; son of Sir Thomas Culpeper (15781662); B.A. University College, Oxford, 1643; probationer-fellow All SoulsCollege; knighted; wrote pamphlets against usury.
  320. ^ Nathanael Culverwel (d. 1651?), divine ; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1640: fellow, 1642; author of theLight of Nature 1662; one of the Cambridge platoiiists.
  321. ^ David Culy (d. 1725), sectary ; founded the Culimite sect of anabaptists.
  322. ^ Dukes of Cumberland . See RUPERT, 1619–1682; GEORGE, PRINCE OF DENMARK, 1653-1708; WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, 1721-1765; HENRY FREDERICK, 17451790; ERNEST AUGUSTUS, 1771-1851.
  323. ^ Earls of Cumberland . See CLIFFORD, HENRY DE, first EARL, 1493-1542; CLIFFORD, HENRY DE, second EARL, d. 1670; CLIFFORD, GEORGE, third EARL, 15581605; CLIFFORD, HENRY, fifth EARL, 1591-1643.
  324. ^ Countess of Cumberland (1560?–1616). See Margaret Clifford.
  325. ^ Richard Cumberland (1631–1718), bishop of Peterborough; educated at St. Paul's School and at Magdalene College, Cambridge; fellow, 1656; M.A., 1666; M.A. Oxford, 1657; B.D. Cambridge, 1663; rector of Brampton, Northamptonshire, 1658-67; respondent at the public commencement, Cambridge, 1680; bishop of Peterborough, 1691; published De Legibns Naturae Disquisitio philosophica 1672, in opposition to the doctrines of Hobbes; author of a translation of Sanchoniatho, published 1720.
  326. ^ Richard Cumberland (1732–1811), dramatist; great-grandson of Richard Cumberland (1631-1718); educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge; fellow-; private secretary to Lord Halifax in the board of trade; Ulster secretary, 1761; clerk of reports in the board of trade; secretary to the board of trade, c. 1776; sent to Spain to arrange a separate treaty with England, 1780; wrote pieces of the sentimental comedy type, his best play being the West Indian acted 1771; with Sir James Bland Burges wrote an epic called the Exodiad 1808; author of some tragedies, a translation of Greek comic fragments, and the Clouds of Aristophanes, two novels, Arundel 1789, and Henry 1795, and the Observer, 1 a periodical.
  327. ^ Richard Francis G. Cumberland (1792-1870), captain; grandson of Richard Cumberland (17321811); captain 3rd foot guards, 1814; aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington in Peninsula.
  328. ^ Cumine Ailbhe or Finn (657?–669?), seventh abbot of Hy; of the race of Conall Gulban; attempted to introduce into the ancient Irish church the Roman cycle for calculating Easter; author of a life of St. Columba, published by Mabillon, 1733; his day, 24 Feb.
  329. ^ Alexander Cuming or Cumming (1690?-1776), chief of the Cherokees; called to the Scottish bar, 1714; sailed to America, 1729; chosen lawgiver of the Cherokee nation, 1730; presented seven Cherokee chiefs in audience to George II, 1730; drew up an agreement with them in the name of the British nation, 1730; ineffectually proposed to settle Jewish families in the Cherokee mountains; accused of having defrauded settlers of South Carolina; imprisoned, 1737; poor brother of the Charterhouse, 1765.
  330. ^ Hugh Cuming (1791–1866), naturalist; sail-maker at Valparaiso, 1819; collected shells and living orchids in the Pacific, on the coast of Chili, and in the Philippine islands, 1835; finally returned to England, 1839.
  331. ^ Alexander Cumming (1733–1814), mathematician and mechanic; F.R.S.; wrote largely on the mechanical laws and action of wheels.
  332. ^ Sir Arthur Cumming (1817–1893), admiral ; studied at Royal Naval College, Portsmouth; mate and lieutenant, 1840; served with distinction off South America; commander, 1846; captain, 1854; served in Baltic, 1864, and Black Sea, 1855-6; with Channel fleet, 1859-63; C.B., 1867; commander-in-chief in East Indies, 1872-6; vice-admiral, 1876; admiral, 1880; K.C.B., 1887.
  333. ^ James Cumming (d. 1827), official in the India Office; head of the revenue and judicial department under the board of control, 1807-23; collaborator hi a House of Commons report on the government of Madras.
  334. ^ James Cumming (1777–1861), professor of chemistry at Cambridge; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1801; fellow, 1803; professor of chemistry, 1815-60; an independent discoverer of thermo-electricity, publishing A Manual of Electro-Dynamics 1827.
  335. ^ John Cumming (1807–1881), divine; M.A. Aberdeen, 1827; licensed to preach, 1832; appointed to the National Scottish Church at Crown Court, Covent Garden, 1832; took part in Maynooth controversy, 1845; opponent of papal aggression 1860; published (1848-70) books on the Apocalypse, maintaining that the last vial was to be poured out between 1848 and 1867.
  336. ^ Joseph George Cumming (1812–1868), geologist and divine; senior op time, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1834; vice-principal of King William's College, Isle of Man, 1841-56; warden and professor, Queen's College, Birmingham, 1858; rector of Mellis, Suffolk, 1862-7; wrote on the history and geology of the Isle of Man, 1848.
  337. ^ Roualeyn George Gordon-Cumming - (1820–1866), African lion-hunter; cornet, Madras cavalry, 1838-1840; joined the Cape mounted rifles, 1843; resigned, to take up a sportsman's life, 1843; published on his return to England Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South Africa 1850.
  338. ^ Thomas Cumming (d. 1774), quaker; successfully organised expedition against French posts in South Barbary.
  339. ^ William Cumming (fl. 1797–1823), portrait painter; one of the first fourteen academicians of the Royal Hibernian Academy, 1821.
  340. ^ William Cumming (1822?–1866), pioneer of modern ophthalmology; demonstrated that light falling on the retina might be reflected back to an observer's eye, 1846.
  341. ^ Sir Samuel Cunard (1787–1865), shipowner; merchant at Halifax, Nova Scotia; established British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, 1839; F.R.G.S., 1846; created baronet, 1859.
  342. ^ James Cundy (1792–1826), sculptor; son of Thomas Cundy the elder
  343. ^ Joseph Cundy (1796–1875), architect in Belgravia ; son of Thomas Oundy the elder.
  344. ^ Nicholas Wilcocks Cundy (fl. 1778), architect; brother of Thomas Oundy the elder; designed the Pantheon, Oxford Street, London.
  345. ^ Samuel Cundy (d. 1866), architect ; son of James Candy; employed on restorations at Westminster Abbey and St. Albans.
  346. ^ Thomas Cundy , the elder (1765–1825), architect and builder. His name is associated with Hawarden Castle, Sion House, Osterley Park, and other famous buildings.
  347. ^ Thomas Cundy , the younger (1790–1867), architect; son of Thomas Oundy (1765-1825); surveyor to Earl Qrosvenor's London estates, 1825-66; built numerous churches in west end of London.
  348. ^ Cungab or Cyngar, Saint (fl. 500?), anchorite ; Raid to have been the son of an emperor of Constantinople; founded oratories at Congresbury in Somerset and Morgan wy in Glamorganshire; granted land by King Iva.
  349. ^ William Cuningham or Keningham (fl.–1586), physician, astrologer, and engraver; M.B. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1557; M.D. Heidelberg, 1559; public lecturer at SurgeonsHall, 1563; chief works, The Cosmographicall Glasse 1559, Commentaria in Hippocratem and Organographia
  350. ^ Francis Philip Cunliffe-Owen (1828-1894). See Owen.
  351. ^ Alexander Cunningham , first Earl of Glencairn (d. 1488), lord of parliament with the title Lord Kilmaurs, c. 1450; created Earl of Gleucairn, 1488; slain at the battle of Sauchieburn, 1488.
  352. ^ Alexander Cunningham , fifth Earl of Glencairn (d. 1574), principal promoter of the reformation in Scotland; surrendered by his father as pledge for performance of treaty against England, 1544; invited Knox to return from Geneva, 1557; prevented the queen-regent of Scotland from advancing against the Scottish reformers in Perth, 1559; signed letter to Queen Elizabeth for assistance against the queen-regent, 1559; ambassador to England to claim aid from Elizabeth in repelling French invasion, 1560; commissioned to destroy the monasteries and monuments of idolatry in western Scotland, 1561; privy councillor of Scotland, 1561; declared guilty of lesemajesty for not appearing before Mary Queen of Scots to answer a charge of rebellion in having accompanied Moray in an attack on Edinburgh, 1565; commanded the insurgents under the Earl of Morton; commanded a division at Langside, 1568; nominated for the regency, but defeated by the Earl of Morton, 1671.
  353. ^ Alexander Cunningham (1655?–1730), critic ; educated in Holland and at Edinburgh; professor of civil law, Edinburgh, 1698; ousted for political reasons, 1710; retired to the Hague, 1710; attacked Bentley's edition of Horace, 1721; published an edition of Horace, 1721; friend of Burmann and Leclerc; famous as a chess-player; edited Virgil, published, 1743, and Phaedrus, published, 1757.
  354. ^ Alexander Cunningham (1654–1737), historian; sometimes confused with Alexander Cunningham, (1655 7-1730); tutor to John, marquis of Lorne, 1697: employed by William III as a spy upon the French military preparations, 1701; travelling tutor to Lord Lonsdalein Italy, 1711; British envoy to Venice, 1715-20; wrote in Latin a history of Great Britain from the Revolution in 1688 to the accession of George I which was translated and published in 1787.
  355. ^ Sir Alexander Cunningham (1703–1785). See Dick.
  356. ^ Sir Alexander Cunningham (1814–1893), soldier and archaeologist; son of Allan Cunningham (17841842); educated at Christ's Hospital and Addiscombe; second-lieutenant, Bengal engineers, 1831; aidede-camp to Lord Auckland, 1836; executive engineer to King of Oudh, 1840, and at Gwalior, 1844-5; field-engineer in first Sikh war, 1846, and in second, 1848-9; lieutenant-colonel; chief engineer in Burmab, 1856-8, and in north-western provinces, 1858-61; retired as major general, 1861; archaeological surveyor to government of India, 1861-5; director-general of Indian archajolosrical survey, 1870-85; O.S.I., 1871; C.I.E., 1878; K.C.I.E., 1887; published valuable treatises on Indian archaeology and numismatics, including The Ancient Geography of India (Buddhist period), 1871, andCoins of Mediaeval India posthumously, 1894.
  357. ^ Allan Cunningham (1791–1839), botanist; botanical collector to the royal gardens, Kew, 1814; travelled on a botanical expedition in South America, 1815, in Australia, 1817, and subsequently in Tasmania: declined post of colonial botanist to New South Wales in favour of his brother Richard, 1832; colonial botanist on his brother's death, 1835; reached Sydney, 1836; resigned, 1836; buried at Sydney.
  358. ^ Allan Cunningham (1784–1842), miscellaneous writer; friend of Hogg the Ettrick shepherd; provided R. H. Cromek with old ballads of his own composition, 1809; published in London Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song 1810; parliamentary reporter to the 'Day 1810-14; secretary to Francis Chantrey, 1814-41; contributed Recollections of Mark Macrabin, the Cameronian to * Blackwood's Magazine 1819-21; published Traditional Tales of the English and Scottish Peasantry 1822,The Songs of Scotland, Ancient and Modern," including the famous A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea 1825,Lives of the most Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects 1829-33, and an edition of Burns, 1834.
  359. ^ Sir Charles Cunningham (1765–1834), rearadmiral; first lieutenant of the Hinchingbroke with Nelson, 1779; attached to Mediterranean fleet on outbreak of war with France, 1793; practically ended the mutiny at the Nore, 1797; rear-admiral, 1829; knight commander of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, 1832.
  360. ^ Edmund Francis Cunningham or Calze (1742?-1795), portrait-painter; son of a Jacobite refugee; studied in Italy; exhibited at the Royal Academy under the name Calze, 1770-81; entered the service of Catharine II of Russia; went to Berlin, 1788; painted portraits of Frederick the Great's court.
  361. ^ Francis Cunningham (1820–1876), commentator on Ben Jonson; son of Allan Cunningham (1784-1842); field-engineer at Jellalabad; member of the Mysore ; commission; edited Marlowe, 1870, Massinger, 1871, and Ben Jonson, 1871.
  362. ^ James Cunningham (d. 1709?), botanist ; surgeon i to the East India Company's factory, Emotii, China, 1698; escaped massacre at Pulo Condore, 1705; driven from i Banjar-Massin by a native rising, 1707; chief of Banjar, 1707, under the East India Company; botanical collector in China; author of meteorological and geographical papers.
  363. ^ James Cunningham , fourteenth Earl of Glencairn (1749–1791), friend of Burns ; captain in the West Fencible regiment, 1778; Scottish representative peer, ! 1780.
  364. ^ Sir John Cunningham (d. 1684), lawyer ; defended Argyll, 1661: created baronet of Nova Scotia, 1669: suspended by Charles II for maintaining the right of appeal from the court of session to parliament, 1674; M.P. for Ayrshire, 1681.
  365. ^ John Cunningham (1729–1773), poet; published Love in a Mist, a farce, 1747; strolling actor; author of The Contemplatist 1762, Fortune, an Apologue 1765, and Poems, chiefly Pastoral 1766.
  366. ^ John Cunningham (1819–1893), historian ; educated at Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities; minister of Crieff, Perthshire, 1846-86; successfully advocated introduction of instrumental music into church, 1867; modeI rator of general assembly and principal of St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, 1886; D.D. Edinburgh, 1860; LL.D. Glasgow, 1886; honorary LL.D. Dublin, 1887; published 'Church History of Scotland 1859. and other works.
  367. ^ John William Cunningham (1780–1861), evangelical divine; fifth wrangler, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1802; fellow, 1802; vicar of Harrow, 1811-61; editor of the Christian Observer, 1860-8; wrote on missions and religious work.
  368. ^ Joseph Davey Cunningham (1812–1851), historian of the Sikhs; son of Allan Cunningham (1784-1842); nominated to the Bengal engineers, 1831; fortifu 1 -! Firozpur, 1 H37; entrusted with various important missions in the Sikh country; fought at Sobraon; captain, 1845: political agent at Bhopal, 1846: published History of the Sikhs 1849; removed for having revealed governmental secrets in his History 1860.
  369. ^ Peter Cunningham (d. 1805), poet ; curate at Eyam, near the Peak, 1775-90 V; author of Leith Hill 1789, and of St. Anne's Hill 1800.
  370. ^ Peter Cunningham (1816–1869), author and critic; son of Allan Cunningham (1784-1842); educated at Christ's Hospital; chief clerk in the audit office; treasurer of the Shakespeare Society; edited Walpole's 'Letters 1857, and the works of Drummond of Hawthornden, 1833; compiled a Handbook to London 1849.
  371. ^ Peter Miller Cunningham (1789–1864), navy surgeon; assistant-surgeon to the English fleet off Spain, 1810; surgeon, 1814; surgeon-superintendent of convict ships sailing to New South Wales; failed as settler in Australia; served at Alexandria, 1840; wrote Two Years In New South Wales 1827, and a book on the influence of galvanic action on the human constitution, 1834.
  372. ^ Richard Cunningham (1793–1835), botanist; colonial botanist at Sydney, 1833-6; murdered by natives.
  373. ^ Thomas Mounsey Cunningham (1776–1834), Scottish poet; foreman superintendent of Fowler's chain cable manufactory, London; contributed to the Scots Magazine 1806, and to the Edinburgh Magazine 1817; author ofThe Hills oQallowa and other songs and satires.
  374. ^ Timothy Cunningham (d. 1789), antiquarian ; F.S.A., 1761; founded Cunningham prize in Royal Irish Academy; compiled legal and antiquarian works.
  375. ^ William Cunningham , fourth Earl of Glencairn (d. 1547), lord high treasurer of Scotland, 1526 ; sent to France to conclude a treaty for James V's marriage with Mary of Guise, 1538; taken prisoner at Sol way Moss, 1542; supported the reformers; acknowledged Henry VIII as protector of Scotland, 1544; defeated by the Earl of Arran, 1544; treacherously lost the battle of Coldingham in the interests of England, 1544; went over to the queen-regent, 1544.
  376. ^ William Cunningham , ninth Earl of Glencairn (1610?–1664), privy councillor and commissioner of the treasury, 1641: lord justice-general, 1646; privy to the attempted rescue of Charles I, 1648; commissioned by Charles II to command the king's forces in Scotland, 1653; defeated at Dunkeld, 1654; arrested by Monck, 1655; excepted from Cromwell'sgrace and pardon chancellor of Glasgow University, 1660; lord chancellor of Scotland, 1661.
  377. ^ William Cunningham (1805–1861), church leader and theologian; educated at Edinburgh University; minister of Trinity College Church, Edinburgh, 1834; D.D. Princeton, New Jersey, 1842; professor of church history in the Free church, New College, 1845; principal, 1847; Calvinist controversialist and writer ofHistorical Theology
  378. ^ William Cunnington (1754–1810), antiquary; F.S.A.; excavated numerous barrows in Wiltshire.
  379. ^ Cunobelinus (d. 43?), British king ; supposed son of Oassivelaunus; ally of Augustus and paramount ruler of Britain. Shakespeare's Cymbeline is named after him, but is not historical.
  380. ^ Sir Arthur Augustus Thur Cunynghame Low (1812–1884), general; second lieutenant 60th royal rifles, 1830; aide-de-camp to Lord Saltoun, 1841; present at the investment of Nankin; brevet-colonel, 1854; fought at Inkermann and held the fortress of Kertch, 1855; K.C.B., 1869; commanded in South Africa, 1874-8; general, 1877.
  381. ^ William Cure (d. 1632), statuary ; master-mason to James I; worked under Inigo Jones at the Banqueting House, Whitehall
  382. ^ Sir Charles Cureton (1826–1891), general; son of Charles Robert Oureton; ensign in East India Company's army, 1843; major-general, 1870; general, 1888; served in Sutlej and Punjab and north-west frontier campaigns, 1846-52; in Indian Mutiny, 1857, and in north-west frontier campaign, 1860; commanded Oude division, Bengal army, 1879-84; K.C.B., 1891.
  383. ^ Charles Robert Cureton ( 1789–1848),' brigadier-general; ensign in Shropshire militia, 1806; lieutenant; fled from creditors and enlisted, 1808; served in Peninsular war; gazetted ensign in 40th foot, 1814; lieutenant 20th li-ht dragoons, 1816; adjutant, 1816; captain, 16th lancers, 1826; major, 1833; brevet colonel, 1846; served in India, 1822-6, Afghanistan, 1839, and Gwalior campaign, 1843; C.B., 1844; commanded cavalry in Satlaj campaign, 1846; colonel and aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, 1846; adjutant-general in East Indies, 1846; killed in action at Ramnagar in second Sikh war.
  384. ^ Edward Burgoyne Cureton (1822–1894), lieutenant-general; son of Charles Robert Oureton; ensign, 13th foot, 1839; major-general, 1878; colonel, 12th lancers, 1892; served in India and in the Kaffir and Crimean wars.
  385. ^ William Cureton (1808–1864), Syriac scholar ; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1833; D.C.L., 1868; chaplain of Christ Church; chaplain in ordinary to the queen, 1847; canon of Westminster, 1849-64; discovered (1846), when assistant-keeper of manuscripts at the British Museum, the epistles of St. Ignatius among manuscripts from the Nitrian monasteries, also theCuretonian Gospels; edited Arabic texts.
  386. ^ Hippolitus Curle (1592–1638), Scottish Jesuit ; studied in the Scots seminary, Douay; rector, 1633.
  387. ^ Henry Curling (1803–1864), novelist; captain in the 52nd foot.
  388. ^ Edmund Curll (1675–1747), bookseller; pamphleteer during the Sacheverell controversy, 1710; offended Pope by ascribing to him the authorship of Court Poems 1716; published a pirated edition of the trial of the Earl of Wintoun, 1716; convicted of printing j immoral books, 1725; claimed to have unearthed a plot ! against the government, but was ignored, 1728; accused by Pope of selling forged letters under the name of Mr. Pope's Literary Correspondence for thirty years 1735; published among other books Swift's Meditation upon a Broomstick 1710, John Bale'sDiscourse 1720, and Betterton's History of the English Stage from the Restoration to the Present Times," 1741.
  389. ^ Walter Curll (1575–1647), bishop of Winchester; entered at Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1592; fellow; D.D., 1612; chaplain to James I; dean of Lichfield, 1621; bishop of Rochester, 1628-9*; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1629; bishop of Winchester, 1632; helped to defend Winchester Castle against Cromwell, 1645; compelled to surrender and deprived of his private property and episcopal income, 1645.
  390. ^ John Philpot Curran (1750–1817), Irish judge; sizar at Trinity College, Dublin, 1769; studied law at the Middle Temple, 1773; studied declamation in private; called to the Irish bar, 1775; gained a verdict for Neale, a Roman catholic priest, who sued Lord Doneraile for assault, 1780; king's counsel, 1782; M.P., Kilbeggan, 1 Westmeath, 1783; joined Grattan's party; M.P., liathcorj mac, co. Cork; spoke in favour of Flood's motion for pari liamentary reform, 1783; fought a duel with Fitzgibbon, ( an old friend, in consequence of a quarrel at a debate on the abuse of attachments in the king's bench, 1785; reI fused at the price of a judgeship to vote for the adoption by the Irish parliament of Pitt's measure limiting the power of the regent, 1786; spoke on the question of the Portugal trade, 1786; lost his chancery practice in consequence of the hostility of Fitzgibbon (then chancellor and Lord Clare), 1789: attacked the extravagance of the administration, and was indirectly led thereby into fighting one of his five duels, 1790; spoke on Roman catholic disabilities, 1792; defended Archibald Hamilton Rowan, secretary of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen, when prosecuted for a seditious publication, 1794; spoke on the disarming of Ulster, 1797; supported Ponsonby's scheme for parliamentary reform and catholic emancipation, 1797; defended all the leaders of the United Irishmen conspiracy when brought to trial, 1798; refused to be intimidated; sympathised with Robert Emmet's insurrection of 1803; troubled by domestic misfortunes; appointed master of the rolls, with a seat in the privy council, by the whig ministry of 1806; a famous orator.
  391. ^ Frances Mary Richardson Currer (1785-1861), book-collector; possessed a library of fifteen thousand volumes (catalogued 1820 and 1833); printed Extracts from the Literary and Scientific Correspondence of Richard Richardson, M.D. 1835.
  392. ^ Frederick Currey (1819–1881), mycologist; educated at Eton; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1844; secretary of the Linnean Society, 1860-80; translated Hofmeister's Higher Oryptogamia; fungi Curreya named after him.
  393. ^ Sir Frederick Currie , first baronet (1799–1875), Indian official; educated at Charterhouse and the East India Company's College, Haileybury; cadet, Bengal civil service, 1817; judge of sudder adawlut, N.W. Provinces, 1840-2; foreign secretary to the Indian government, 1842-9; drew up the treaty with the Sikhs after Sobraon; created baronet, 1847; member of the supreme council, 1849-53; chairman of the East India Company, 1867; vice-president of the council of India; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1866.
  394. ^ James Currie (1756–1805), physician; entered Dumfries grammar school, 1769; trader in Virginia, U.S.A., 1771; sailed for Greenock, 1776, and after many hardships, his goods being confiscated by the revolted colony, reached London, 1777; studied medicine and metaphysics at Edinburgh University; graduated at Glasgow, 1780; physician at Liverpool from 1780; advocated abolition of slave trade, 1787; F.R.S., 1792; published brochure against war with France, 1793; published 'Medical Reports on the Effects of Water, cold and warm, as a Remedy in Fever 1797.
  395. ^ Lords Curriehill . See SKENE, SIR JOHN, 1543 ?-1617; MARSHALL, JOHN, 1794-1868.
  396. ^ John Curry (d. 1780), historian ; studied medicine at Paris and obtained a diploma at Rheims; published an Historical and Critical Review of the Civil Wars in Ireland 1775, in defence of the Irish catholics, and an Essay on ordinary Fevers 1743.
  397. ^ Robert Curson , de Courçon, de Corceone, or de Curchun (d. 1218), cardinal; born at Kedleston, Derbyshire; studied at Oxford and Paris; canon of Paris, 1211; cardinal-priest, 1212; legate a latere in France and preacher of a crusade, 1213; held a council in Paris, 1213; arranged truce between King John and Philip of France after battle of Bouvines, 1214; actively opposed the heretics of Toulouse a'nd handed over their laud to Simon of Moutfort, 1215; died at Damietta.
  398. ^ Richard Curteys (1532?–1582), bishop of Ohichester; scholar, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1550; M.A., 1556; senior fellow, 1559; university proctor, 1563; dean of Chichester, 1566; D.D., 1569; bishop of Ohichester, 1570; an active reformer of abuses, though bigoted; chief work,The Truthe of Christes uaturall Bodye 1577.
  399. ^ John Curtis (. 1790), landscape-painter; exhibited A View of Netley Abbey at the Royal Academy, 1790, and a battle-piece, 1797.
  400. ^ John Curtis (1791–1862), entomologist ; writing clerk in lawyer's office; placed with an engraver at Bungay, where he learned to dissect, draw, and describe insecte and engrave them on copper; executed engravings for many eminent uaturaliste; F.L.S., 1822; produced in parts, 1824-39, his British Entomology; president of Entomological Society, 1855. His writings include Farm Insecte 1860, Guide to arrangement of British Insects 1829, and numerous papers in scientific journals.
  401. ^ Patrick Curtis (1740–1832), Roman catholic archbishop of Armagh: regius professor of astronomy and natural history at Salamanca; rector at the Irish college; arrested as a spy by the French, 1811; returned to Ireland, 1818; archbishop of Armagh, 1819; advocated catholic emancipation before a committee of the Lords, 1825; corresponded with the Duke of Wellington on the subject.
  402. ^ Sir Roger Curtis (1746–1816), admiral; served on the coasts of Africa and Newfoundland; lieutenant, 1771; commander of Lord Howe's flagship, 1777; blockaded by the French at Minorca, 1781; destroyed floating batteries at Gibraltar, 1782; knighted, 1782; rear-admiral, 1794; created baronet, 1794; admiral, 1803; commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, 1809; G.C.B., 1815.
  403. ^ Samuel Curtis (1779–1860), florist; succeeded to the proprietorship of the Botanical Magazine by his marriage, 1801.
  404. ^ William Curtis (1746–1799), botanist and entomologist; translated Linuseus's Fundainenta Entomologiae 1772; undertook the Botanical Magazine 1781; publishedBritish Grassesand some entomological pamphlets.
  405. ^ Sir William Curtis (1752–1829), lord mayor of London: alderman of the Tower ward, 1785; established the present bank of Robarte, Lubbock & Co.; sheriff, 1789; M.P. for London, 1790-1818, and 1820; lord mayor, 1795; created baronet, 1802; M.P. Bletchingley, 1819, Hastings, 1826; friend of George IV.
  406. ^ Henry Curwen (1845–1892), journalist; educated at Rossall school; worked in London for John Camden Hotten, the publisher; went to India, 1876; chief editor of Times of India 1880; a joint-proprietor, 1889; published novels, compilations, and volumes of short stories, translations, and essays, including, Echoes from French Poets 1870, and Sorrow and Song 1874.
  407. ^ Hugh Curwen or Coren (d. 1568), archbishop of Dublin; B.C.L. Cambridge, 1510; vicar of Buckden, Huntingdonshire, 1514; chaplain to Henry VIII; D.C.L. Oxford, 1632; defended Henry VIII's marriage with Anne Boleyn, 1533; dean of Hereford, 1541; archbishop of Dublin, 1555-67; consecrated according to the form of the Roman pontifical, 1555; lord chancellor of Ireland, 1556; lord justice of Ireland, 1557; became a protestant at Elizabeth's accession; compelled to resign his archbishopric by the hostility and suspicions of Loftus, archbishop of Armagh, and others, 1567; bishop of Oxford, 1567.
  408. ^ John Curwen (1816–1880), writer on music ; in charge of the independent chapel, Plaistow, 1844; first to advocate the tonic sol-fa system, 1842; compiled People's Service of Song 1849-60; judge at the Welsh National Eisteddfod, 1873; founded the Tonic Sol-fa College (incorporated 1875); published numerous books on music.
  409. ^ Thomas Curwen (fl. 1665), quaker; imprisoned at Lancaster, probably for refusing to take the oath of allegiance, 1660, 1663; imprisoned, together with his wife, at Boston, as a quaker missionary, 1678; sent to Newgate, 1683.
  410. ^ Robert Curzon , fourteenth Baron Zouche(or de la Zouche), of Harringworth (1810-1873); educated at the Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P., Clitheroe, 1831; travelled in Egypt and Palestine in search of manuscripts, 1833-4; visited Mount Athos, 1837; attache at the embassy at Constantinople, 1841; joint-commissioner for defining the boundary between Turkey and Persia, 1843; decorated by the shah and the sultan; student of the early history of handwriting; published a Visit to the Monasteries in the Levant 1849, and anAccount of the most celebrated Libraries of Italy 1864; succeeded his mother in barony of Zouche, 1870.
  411. ^ Thomas Cusack or Cusake (1490–1671), lord chancellor of Ireland; recommended the extension of English law to every part of Ireland; lord chancellor, 1551; lord justice, 1552; again lord chancellor, 1563.
  412. ^ Sir William George Cusins (1833–1893), pianist and conductor; studied under Fétis at Brussels, and at Royal Academy of Music, London, where he was subsequently professor; organist of Queen Victoria's private chapel, Windsor, 1849; conducted concerts of Philharmonic Society, 1867-83; master of the music to Queen Victoria, 1870; professor of pianoforte at Guildhall, 1885; knighted, 1892; published musical compositions and writings on musical subjects.
  413. ^ John Edwin Cussans (1837–1899), antiquary : engaged in commercial pursuits; adopted authorship as profession, 1863; published genealogical and heraldic works.
  414. ^ Sir Edward Cust (1794–1878), general and j military historian; educated at Eton; lieutenant, 1810; I fought in most of the battles of the Peninsular war; M.P., Orantham, 1818-26, Lostwithiel 1826-32; knight commander of the Quelphic order of Hanover, 1831; master of the ceremonies to Queen Victoria, 1847; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1853; colonel, 16th light dragoons, 1859; general, 1866; created baronet, 1876; author of Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century
  415. ^ Sir John Cust (1718–1770), baronet, speaker of the House of Commons; educated at Eton; barrister, Middle Temple, 1742; M.A. Corpus Ohristi College, Cambridge, 1739; M.P., Grauthani, 1743-70; speaker, 1761; privy councillor, 1762; again speaker, 1768-70.
  416. ^ John Cutcliffe, Rochetaillade, or de Rupescissa (fl. 1345), Franciscan; native of Dammage, Devonshire; studied at Toulouse; became a Franciscan monk; imprisoned at Figeac for criticising the abuses of the church, 1345; imprisoned at Avignon by Alexander VI, 1349; doubtfully said to have been burnt at Avignon; author of books on alchemy and prophetical writings.
  417. ^ Saint Cuthbert (d. 687), bishop of Lindisfarne ; kept sheep on the hills near the Lauder, a tributary of the Tweed, 651; entered the monastery of Melrose, 651; guest-receiver at the monastery of Ripon, but expelled for refusing to adopt the Roman usages, 661; prior of Melrose; adopted the Roman usages, 664; abbot of Lindisfarne; anchorite on Fame island, 676; accepted see of Lindisfarne, 684; retired to Fame island, 686; died in his cell, 687; reputed a worker of miracles. His body, which was said to have remained in a state of incorruption for many years, was finally transferred to Durham Cathedral, 1104.
  418. ^ Cuthbert (d. 758), archbishop of Canterbury; abbot of Liminge, Kent; bishop of Hereford, 736; archbishop of Canterbury, c. 740; assessor of Ethelbald, king of Mercia, at a council held at Clovesho, 742; summoned council at Clovesho to regulate the monastic life and duties of priests, 747; friend of Boniface, archbishop of Mentz; built a chapel to St. John Baptist at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral.
  419. ^ Cuthburh or Cuthburga, Saint (fl. 700), sister of Ine, king of the West-Saxons; founder and abbess of Wimborne, Dorset.
  420. ^ Cuthred (d. 754), over-lord of the West-Saxon kingdom; defeated JEthelbald of Mercia at Burford, Oxfordshire, 752; defeated the Welsh, 753.
  421. ^ Sir John Cutler (1608?–1693), London merchant; promoted the subscriptions raised by the city of London for Charles II, 1660; created baronet, 1660; treasurer of St. Paul's, 1663; founded lectureship on mechanics at Gresham College, London, 1664; honorary F.R.S., 1664; four times master warden of the Grocers Company; benefactor of the College of Physicians, 1679; benefactor of the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, 1682; personally parsimonious, and the occasion of Wycherley's Praise of Avarice play Bac.
  422. ^ William Henry Cutler (6. 1792), musician ; yed pianoforte concerto at the Haymarket, 1800; Mus. Oxford, 1812; organist, St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 1818-23; organist at Quebec Street Chapel, 1823; founded an academy, which proved unsuccessful, for teaching music on the Logierian system.
  423. ^ Moll Cutpurse (1584?-1659). See Mary Frith.
  424. ^ Sir Roger Cuttance (fl. 1650–1669), navy captain; commanded the Sussex in the Dutch war, 1652-3; assisted in reduction of Porto Farina, 1655; flag-captain of the Naseby, 1657; knighted, 1665; captain of the fleet, 1665.
  425. ^ Francis Cuttinge (16th cent.),lutenist and composer; contributed music to Barley's New Booke of Tabliture 1596: possibly identical with Thomas Cuttinge, lutenist to the king of Denmark, 1607.
  426. '^ John Cutts , Baron Cutts of Gowran, Ireland (1661-1707), lieutenant-general; fellow-commoner, Catharine Hall, Cambridge, 1676; published La Muse de Cavalier 1685; volunteer against the Turks in Hungary, 1686; adjutant-general to the Duke of Lorraine, 1686; colonel, 1st foot guards; fought for William III at the Boyne, 1690; created Baron Cutts of Gowran, 1690; honorary LL.D. Cambridge; hero of siege of Namur, 1695; took part in negotiating treaty of Ryswick, 1697; with Marlborough in Holland, 1701; captured Fort St. Michael, 1702; lieutenant-general, 1702; fought at Blenheim, 1704; commander-in-chief in Ireland, 1705; M.P. for Cambridgeshire, 1689-1701, and for Newport, 17021707.
  427. ^ Thomas Cutwode (fl. 1599), poet; published Caltha Poetarum: or the Bumble Bee a satire on contemporary poets, which the archbishop of Canterbury condemned to the flames, 1599.
  428. ^ Cwichelm (d. 636), king of the West-Saxons ; son of, and co-ruler with, Cynegils; defeated Britons at Beandun, 614; beaten by Eadwine of Northumbria, 626; baptised, 636.
  429. ^ Cybi, Cubi, or Kebi (fl. 560?), Welsh saint; visited Ireland, but was expelled by Crubthir Fintam, a local chief; founder, abbot, and bishop of monastery on Holyhead island.
  430. ^ Cyfeiawg (d. 927). See Cimelliauc.
  431. ^ Cymbeline (d. 43 ?). See Cunobelinus.
  432. ^ Cynegils or Kinegils (d. 643), king of the WestSaxons; together with his son Cwichelm, defeated the Britons at Beandun, 614; defeated by Eadwine of Northumbria, 626; conquered the East-Saxons, 626; baptised, 635; founder of the see of Dorchester, Oxfordshire.
  433. ^ Cynewulf or Cynwulf (fl. 750), Anglo-Saxon poet; probably a Northumbrian minstrel. The poems ascribed to him are contained in the Exeter Codex and the Vercelli Codex ,two manuscript collections of Anglo-Saxon verse. Many poems in them may be by Cynewulf; four certainly are his, viz. The Christ The Passion of St. Juliana Elene and The Dream of the Cross; Cynewulf's poems first printed, 1842; translated into modern English or into German by various hands between 1871 and 1889.
  434. ^ Cynewulf (d. 785), king of the West-Saxons; fought with the Welsh; defeated by Offa, 777; slain by the followers of Cyneheard the setbeling, a prince whom he had ordered into banishment.
  435. ^ Cynric (d. 560?), king of the Gewissas or WestSaxons; probably son, and perhaps grandson, of Cerdic , whom he is said to have succeeded, 534; traditionally defeated the Britons at Searobyrig, 552.
  436. ^ William Cyples (1831–1882), philosophical writer; published an Inquiry into the Process of Human Experience 1880; author of Pottery Poems and Satan Restored 1859.
  437. ^ Robert Daborne (rf. 1628), dramatist and divine ; dean of Lismore, 1621; collaborated with Field aud Massinger; wrote several plays, two of which, A Christian tarn'd Turke 1612, andThe Poor-man's Comfort are still extant.
  438. ^ Barons Dacre . See FIENNES, THOMAS, ninth Baron 1617–1541; FIENNES, GREGORY, tenth BARON, 1539-1594; LENNARD, FRANCIS, fourteenth BARON, 1619-1662; *Henry Bouverie William Brand, twenty-third Baron, (1814–1892).
  439. ^ Baroness Dacre . See FIENNES, ANNE, d. 1595 ; Barbarina Brand, 1768–1854.
  440. ^ Leonard Dacre (d. 1573), promoter of the Northern rebellion in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; defeated near Carlisle by Lord Hunsdon, who had been ordered to arrest him, 1570; fled to Scotland, and sat in a convention of the nobles at Leith, 1570; died at Brussels.
  441. ^ Arthur Dacres (1624–1678), physician; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1645: fellow, 1646; M.D., 1654; assistant-physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 1653-78: professor of geometry, Gresham College, 1664; censor of the College of Physicians, 1672.
  442. ^ Sir Richard James Dacres (1799–1886), field-marshal; captain in the royal artillery, 1837; brevetmajor, 1851; commanded the royal horse artillery at the Alma, 1854; engaged in the bombardments of Sebastopol; general, 1867; G.C.B., 1869; field-marshal, 1886.
  443. ^ Sir Sidney Colpots Dacres (1806–1884), admiral; brother of Sir Richard James Dacres; lieutenant in navy, 1827; reduced Kastro Morea, and received the crosses of the Legion of Honour and of the Redeemer of Greece, 1828; commanded the Sans Pareil before Sebastopol, 1854; captain of the Mediterranean fleet, 1859: commander-in-chief in Channel, 1683; vice-admiral, 1865; G.C.B., 1871.
  444. ^ William Dade (1740?–1790), antiquary; rector of St. Mary's, Castlegate, York, and Barmston; F.S.A., 1783: hisHistory of Holderness published by Poulson, 1840-1.
  445. ^ James Dafforne (d. 1880), writer on art; contributed to the Art Journal; published The Life and Works of Edward Matthew Ward, R.A. 1879, and translated De la Croix's Arts of the Middle Ages.
  446. ^ Thomas Daffy (d. 1680), inventor of Daffy's elixir salutis; rector of Harby, Leicestershire, 1647, and of Redmile, Leicestershire, 1666-80.
  447. ^ Richard Datt (1835–1900), cricketer; amateur, 1857; played for Gentlemen, 1858, and as professional for Nottinghamshire, 1858-81; took team to Canada and United States, 1879; published Kings of Cricket 1893.
  448. ^ Jacques D'Agar (1640-1716), painter; court painter at Copenhagen; visited London, c. 1700; died at Copenhagen.
  449. ^ Richard Dagley (d. 1841), subject-painter and engraver; educated at Christ's Hospital; exhibited sixty pictures at the Royal Academy, 1785-1833; illustrated the elder D'Israeli's Flim-flams; author of Gems selected from the Antique 1804, and other works.
  450. ^ Sir George Charles D'Aguilar (1784-1865), lieutenant-general: lieutenant, 1802; brigade-major, 1806; served against the Marathas; sent by Lord William Bentinck on a military mission to Yanina and Constantinople; major in the rifle brigade, 1817; commanded in the Chinese war, receiving the submission of Canton, 1847; lieutenant-colonel and K.C.B., 1851; author of manuals of military discipline.
  451. ^ Michael Dahl (1666–1743), portrait-painter; born at Stockholm; portrait-painter in London from 1688: patronised by Queen Anne and most of the nobility: undeservedly styled the rival of Kneller.
  452. ^ Richard Daintree (1831–1878), geologist ; educated at Bedford grammar school and Christ's College, Cambridge; student in the Royal School of Mines, 1856; field geologist on the geological survey of Victoria, 18681864; government geologist, North Queensland, 1869-72; examined the auriferous strata of Queensland; agentgeneral for Queensland, 1872-8; C.M.G., 1878.
  453. ^ Daircell or Taircell, otherwise Mollino (d. 696), Irish saint and bishop; founded a monastery and church at Ross Broc, on the river Barrow; settled the boundary between Leiuster and the territories of Diarmuid and Blathmac. kings of Ireland; procured a remission of the boruma tax by stratagem from King Finnacbta in favour of the Leinstermen; supposititious author of the Baile Moiling a prophetic rhapsody.
  454. ^ William Dakins (d. 1607), divine ; educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; major fellow, 1594; M.A., 1594; B.D., 1601; vicar of Trumpington, 1603-5; professor of divinity, Gresham College, London, 1604; junior dean, Trinity College, 1606-7; took part in the authorised translation of the bible,
  455. ^ Sir James Charles Dalbiac (1776–1848), lieutenant-general; captain, 4th light dragoons, 1798; fought, as lieutenant-colonel, at Talavera, 1809, and at Salamanca, 1812; commanded the Goojerat district of the Bombay army, 1822-4; president of court-martial for trial of Bristol rioters, 1831; K.C.H.; M.P., Ripon, 1835-7; lieutenant-general, 1838.
  456. ^ John Dalbier (d. 1648), soldier ; perhaps in service of Count Mansfeld during thirty yearswar; entered English service, c. 1627, and accompanied Buckingham to Isle of Re; in service of Sweden, c. 1628-32; quartermaster-general and captain of troop of horse under Essex in civil war; commanded forces at siege of Basing; took Donnington Castle, 1646; joined royalists, 1648; killed after defeat at St. Neots.
  457. ^ Isaac Dalby (1744–1824), mathematician : mathematical master in the naval school, Chelsea, 1781: trigonometrical surveyor for connecting meridians of Greenwich and Paris, 1787; assisted in trigonometrical survey of England and Wales; professor of mathematics, Sandhurst College, 1799-1820; published books on mathematics, especially trigonometry.
  458. ^ Robert Dalby (d. 1589), Roman catholic divine ; ordained priest at Douay: sent back to England as a missiouer, 1588; executed, 1589.
  459. ^ John de Dalderby (d. 1320), bishop of Lincoln; archdeacon of Carmarthen, 1283: chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral; bishop of Lincoln, 1300; denied the right of Edward I to tax ecclesiastics without consent of pope, 1301; papal commissioner to try the templars, 1308; present at the appointment of the ordainers 1310.
  460. ^ David Dale (1739–1806), industrialist and philanthropist; fixed on New Lanark as a site for the erection of cotton-mills in conjunction with Arkwright; partner in cotton-mills at Catrine; established the first Turkeyred dyeing works in Scotland, 1785; imported at his own risk food-stuffs for the poor in times of dearth.
  461. ^ Robert William Dale (1829–1895), congregatioual divine; joined congregational church, 1844; usher successively at Brixton Hill and Leamington; studied theology at Spring College, Birmingham; M.A. London, 1863; assistant minister at Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, 1853; sole pastor, 1859; lecturer on literature, philosophy, and homiletics at Spring Hill, 1858; presided over international council of congregational churches, 1891; LL.D. Glasgow, 1883; published numerous theological works, and compiledThe English Hymn Book 1874.
  462. ^ Samuel Dale (1659?–1739), physician ; practised at Braintree, Essex, 1686; chief work, Pharmacologia 1693; wrote an appendix to Taylor'sHistory and Antiquities of Harwich and Dovercourt 1730.
  463. ^ Sir Thomas Dale (d. 1619), naval commander; served in the Low Countries; marshal of Virginia, 1609; governor of Virginia, 1611 and 1614-16; defeated the Dutch off Jacatra, Java, 1618.
  464. ^ Thomas Dale (1729–1816), physician; educated at St. Paul's School and Edinburgh University; M.D. Edinburgh, 1775; L.R.C.P., 1786; one of the originators of the Royal Literary Fund.
  465. ^ Thomas Dale (1797–1870), dean of Rochester; educated at Christ's Hospital and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; M.A., 1826; vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, 1835; professor of English at London University, 1828-30, and at King's College, 1836-9; prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1843; vicar of St. Pancras, 1846-61; dean of Rochester, 1870; D.D. Cambridge, 1870: published theological writings and poems, includingThe Widow of Nain 1817, and The Outlaw of Taurus 1818; translated Sophocles, 1824.
  466. ^ Thomas Pelham Dale (1821–1892), ritualistic divine; son of Thomas Dale (1797-1870); educated at King's College, London, and Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; M.A., 1848; rector of StVedast's, Foster Lane, with St. Michael-le-Querne, London; instituted ritualistic practices and, after protracted legal proceedings, was lodged in Holtoway gaol, 1880; afterwards became rector of Sausthorpe-cum-Aswardby, Lincolnshire; published religious writings.
  467. ^ Valentine Dale (d. 1589), civilian and diplomatist; fellow of All SoulsCollege, Oxford, 1542; B.O.L., 1545; D.C.L. Orleans; LL.D. Cambridge, 1562; ambassador in Flanders, 1563; in France, 1573-6; M.P., Chichester, 1572, 1584, 1586, and 1589: dean of Wells, 1575; assisted at trial of Mary Queen of Scots, 1586; ambassador to Prince of Parma, 1588-9.
  468. ^ John Dobree Dalgairns, in religion Bernard (1818-1876), priest of the Oratory; born in Guernsey; M.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1842; converted to Catholicism, 1845; superior of the Oratory at Brompton, 1863-5; assisted in translating theCatena Aurea a mediaeval compilation from St. Thomas Aquinas, 1841-5, and wrote mystical and metaphysical works.
  469. ^ George Dalgarno (1626?–1687), pasigraphist; educated at the university of New Aberdeen; master of Elizabeth School, Guernsey, 1662-72; chief works, Didascalocophus 1680, and the Ars Signorum 1661, an attempt to formulate a philosophical language; the latter is alluded to by Leibnitz.
  470. ^ William Dalgliesh (1733–1807), theological writer; D.D. Edinburgh, 1786; minister at Peebles, 17611807; published The Self-existence and Supreme Deity of Christ defended 1777, in justification of his True Sonship of Christ investigated 1776.
  471. ^ Marquis of Dalhousie (1812–1860). See RAMSay, James Andrew Broun.
  472. ^ Earls of Dalhousie . See RAMSAY, WILLIAM, first EARL, d. 1674; RAMSAY, JAMeS ANDREW BKOUN, tenth EARL, 1812-1860; MAULE, Fox, eleventh EARL, 1801-1874; RAMSAY, GEORGE, twelfth EAHL, 1806-1880; RAMSAY, JOHN WILLIAM, thirteenth EARL, 1847-1887.
  473. ^ Sir William Dalison (d. 1559), judge; barrister, Gray's Inn, 1537; reader, 1548 and 1552; justice of the county palatine of Lancaster, 1554; knighted, 1556; justice of the king's bench, 1656.
  474. ^ Nicholas Thomas Dall (d. 1777), landscapepainter; a Dane; in London, c. 1760; A.R.A., 1771.
  475. ^ George Dallam (17th cent.), organ- builder ; added a choir organ to Harris's instrument at Hereford Cathedral, 1686.
  476. ^ Ralph Dallam (d. 1672), organ-builder; built organs at Rugby, Hackney (1665), and Lynn Regis, as well as one for St. George's Chapel, Windsor, which proved unsatisfactory.
  477. ^ Robert Dallam (1602–1665), organ-builder : son of Thomas Dallam; member of the Blacksmiths Company; built organs for Durham Cathedral, York Minster, 1634, Jesus College, Cambridge, 1634, and New College, Oxford, 1661.
  478. ^ Thomas Dallam (fl. 1615), organ-builder ; member of the BlacksmithsCompany; built organs for King's College, Cambridge, 1606, and for Worcester Cathedral, 1613.
  479. ^ Saint Dallan (fl. 600), Irish saint; otherwise Forgaill; wrote verse panegyric on Columba, made public after Golumba's death, 597, also panegyrics on Bishop Seuan and Abbot Conall Coel.
  480. ^ Alexander Robert Charles Dallas (1791-1869), divine; son of Robert Charles Dallas; treasury clerk, 1805; present at Waterloo, 1816; gentleman-commoner, Worcester College, Oxford, 1820; vicar of Yardley, Hertfordshire, 1827; prebendary of Llandaff, 1827; chaplain to Bishop Sumner; M.A. Lambeth; founded the Society for Irish Church Missions, 1843; wrote theological works.
  481. ^ Elmslie William Dallas (1809–1879), artist; gold medallist of the Royal Academy, 1834; assisted in decoration of garden pavilion at Buckingham Palace, 1840; exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy, 1842-68.
  482. ^ Eneas Sweetland Dallas (1828–1879), journalist and author; born in Jamaica; educated at Edinburgh University; publishedPoetics 1862, "The Gay Science 1866, and an abridgment of Richardson's Clarissa Harlo we 1 868.
  483. ^ George Dallas (1630–1702?), lawyer; writer to the signet; deputy- keeper of the privy seal of Scotland, 1660 till death; published A System of Stiles 1697.
  484. ^ Sir George Dallas (1758–1833), political writer; educated at Geneva; writer in the East India Company's service, 1776; superintendent of the collections at Rajeshahi; created baronet, 1798; M.P., Newport, 1800-2; published pamphlet in vindication of Warren Hastings, 1789, a defence of the Marquis Wellesley's policy in India, 1806, Letters on the Political and Commercial State of Ireland 1797, and tractates against the French revolution.
  485. ^ Sir Robert Dallas (1756–1824), judge; educated at Geneva; barrister of Lincoln's Inn, 1782; counsel for Warren Hastings, 1787: counsel for Lord George Gordon, 1788; king's counsel, 1795; M.P., St. Michael's, Cornwall, 1802-5, Kirkcaldy, 1805-6; solicitor-general, 1813; knighted, 1813; chief-justice of common pleas, 1818-23; privy councillor, 1818.
  486. ^ Robert Charles Dallas (1754–1824), miscellaneous writer; born in Jamaica; lived on the continent, in Jamaica, and hi America; prohibited by Lord Eldon from publishing his friend Lord Byron's letters, 1824; died in Normandy; wrote tales, poems, a History of the Maroons 1803, and ethical treatises.
  487. ^ Sir Thomas Dallas (d. 1839), lieutenant-general ; great-grandson of George Dallas; fought in the Carnatic and at the siege of Seringapatam.
  488. ^ James Dallaway (1763–1834), topographer and miscellaneous writer; scholar of Trinity College, Oxford; M.A., 1784; appointed to a curacy near Stroud; F.S.A., 1789; M.B. Oxford, 1794; secretary to the earl marshal, 1797-1834; prebendary of Chichester, 1811; edited Burrell's manuscript History of the Three Western Rapes of Sussex 1811; w.rote on heraldry, English architecture, and ancient sculpture, and edited The Letters and other Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 1803, and Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting 1826-8.
  489. ^ William Bede Dalley (1831–1888), Australian politician; born in Sydney; educated at Sydney and St. Mary's colleges; called to bar, 1856; Q.O., 1877; member for Sydney in first constitutional parliament, 1857, and for Cumberland boroughs, 1858; solicitorgeneral, 1858-9; attorney-general, 1875-7, 1877, and 1883: acting premier and foreign secretary, 1885; carried out plan of sending troops to aid the imperial forces in Egypt; privy councillor, 1887.
  490. ^ Baron Dalling and Bulwer (1801–1872). See William Henry Lytton Earle Bulwer.
  491. ^ Sir Robert Dallington (1561–1637), master of Charterhouse; educated at Cambridge; gentleman of the privy chamber in ordinary to Prince Henry; master of Charterhouse, 1624-37; knighted, 1624; publishedA Survey of the Great Duke's State of Tuscany 1605, and part of Quiccinrdini's history, 1613.
  492. ^ John Henry Dallmeyer (1830–1883), optician; born in Westphalia: educated and apprenticed at OsnabrUck; came to England, 1851; workman in, and subsequently scientific adviser to, the firm of Andrew Ross; F.R.A.S., 1861; received the cross of the Legion of Honour and the Russian order of St. Stanislaus; supplied photo-heliographs to the Wilna observatory, 1863, and to the Harvard College observatory, 1864; executed five photo-heliographs for government, 1873; famous as a maker of photographic lenses and object-glasses for the microscope.
  493. ^ Alexander Dalrymple (1737–1808), hydrographer to the admiralty; writer in the East India Company's service, 1752-4; as deputy-secretary, effected a commercial treaty with the sultan of Sulu; attempted to open up trade with Sulu, but failed, 1762; published chart of northern part of Bay of Bengal, 1772; member of council, Madras, 1775-7; hydrographer to the East India Company, 1779; hydrographer to the admiralty, 1795; died broken-hearted on his dismissal, 1808; published an Account of Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean before 1764 1767.
  494. ^ Sir David Dalrymple , first (Nova Scotia) baronet of Hailes(d. 1721), Scottish politician; member of the Faculty of Advocates, 1688; created baronet of Nova Scotia, 1700; solicitor-general to Queen Anne; M.P. for Culross in the Scottish parliament, 1703; M.P. for Haddington in the parliament of Great Britain, 1708-21; commissioner for the treaty of union, 1706; auditor to Scottish exchequer, 1720.
  495. ^ Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes (1726-1792), Scottish judge; educated at Eton; studied civil law at Utrecht; admitted to the Scottish bar, 1748; judge of the court of session as Lord Hailes, 1766; refused to revise Hume's Inquiry considering its principles atheistic, 1753; friend and correspondent of Dr. Johnson, who revised Hailes's Annals of Scotland 1 776; judge of the criminal court, 1776; wrote against Gibbon, 1786. Other of his works are An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem, and an Inquiry into the Authenticity of the Leges Malcolmi 1769, a translation of the Octavius of Minucius Felix, 1781, Ancient Scottish Poems, published from the Manuscript of George Bannatyne, 1568 1770, and The Canons of the Church of Scotland 1769.
  496. ^ Sir Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick (1652-1737), lord president of session; third son of Sir James Dalrymple, first viscount Stair; commissary of Edinburgh; M.P. for New Galloway burgh, 1690, and for North Berwick burgh, 1702, in the Scots parliament; dean of the Faculty of Advocates, 1695; created baronet of Nova Scotia, 1698; lord president of session, 16981737; commissioner for the articles of union between England and Scotland, 1702 and 1703.
  497. ^ Hon. Sir Hew Dalrymple (1690–1755), lord justiciary, 1745; son of Sir Hew Dalrymple; lord of session as Lord Drummore, 1726.
  498. ^ Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple , baronet (1750-1830), general; great-grandson of Sir James Dalrymple, first viscount Stair; lieutenant, 1766; major 77th royals, 1777; knighted, 1779; colonel, 1790; lieutenant-governor of Guernsey. 1796-1801; commander of the Gibraltar garrison, 1806-8; signed convention of Ciutra, 18U8; general, 1812; created baronet, 1815; governor of Blackness Castle, 1818.
  499. ^ Sir James Dalrymple, first Viscount Stair (1619-1695), Scottish lawyer and statesman: art graduate of Glasgow University, 1637; commanded a troop under William, earl of Gleucairn; repent of Glasgow University, 1641-7; admitted to the Scottish bar, 1648; secretary to commissions for treating with Charles II, 1649 and 1650; judge of the reformed court of session, 1657-60; advised Monck to call a full and free parliament, 1660; judge of the court of session under Charles II, 1661; allowed to make a proviso in taking the declaration against the Solemn League and Covenant, 1664; president of session, 1670; issued regulations for the conduct of judicial business and advocatesfees; M.P. for Wigtownshire, 1672 and 1673-4; privy councillor of Scotland, 1674; protested against Lauderdale's persecution of the covenanters, 1677; attempted to lessen the severity of the Test Act, 1681; fled from its operation to London; published Institutions of the Law of Scotland 1681; driven by the hostility of the Duke of York and Olaverhouse to Leyden, 1682; published * Physiologia Nova Experimentalis 1686; sailed to England with William of Orange, 1688; created Viscount of Stair, Lord Glenluce and Stranraer, 1690; member of the privy council which advised that Glencoe's oath should not be taken after the day originally appointed, 1692; furnished a report on which was grounded the Act for the Regulation of the Judicatures, 1696; published A Vindication of the Divine Perfections 1695.
  500. ^ Sir James Dalrymple , first (Nova Scotia) baronet of Borthwick (fl. 1714), Scottish antiquary; second son of Sir James Dalrymple, first viscount Stair; member of the Faculty of Advocates, 1675; commissary of Edinburgh; principal clerk of the court of session; created baronet of Nova Scotia, 1698; chief work,Collections concerning the Scottish History preceding the death of King David the First hi 1153 1705.
  501. ^ Sir John Dalrymple, first Earl of Stair (1648-1707), son of Sir James Dalrymple, first viscount Stair; knighted, 1667; Scottish advocate, 1672; imprisoned, through the hostility of Graham of Olaverhouse, in Edinburgh Castle, 1682-3; imprisoned in the Tolbooth, 1684; king's advocate, 1686-88: lord justiceclerk, 1688; moved in convention of estates that James Stuart had forfeited the crown of Scotland, 1688; as lord advocate represented William Ill's government in the Scottish parliament; opposed by Sir James Montgomery, an extreme covenanter; conciliated the presbyterians by establishing presbyterian church government; Master of Stair, 1690; joint-secretary of state, 1691; commissioned the privy council to make an offer of indemnity to the highland clans, in the hope that its conditions would not be accepted, 1691; bitterly hostile to the Macdonalds of Glencoe, and implicated in the massacre of that clan, 1692; accused by parliament of exceeding instructions in the matter, 1695; resigned office, 1695; succeeded as Viscount Stair, 1695; privy councillor, 1702; created Earl of Stair, 1703; supporter of the Act of Union, 1707.
  502. ^ John Dalrymple, second Earl of Stair (1673-1747), general and diplomatist; son of Sir John Dalrymple, first earl of Stair; studied at Leyden: present at the battle of Steenkerk, 1692; master of Stair, 1695; lieutenant-colonel in Scots guards; aide-de-camp to Marlborough, 1703; colonel of a regiment in the Dutch service, 1705; colonel of the Oameronians, 1706; sent home with the despatches of the battle of Oudenarde, 1708; major-general, 1709; ambassador to Augustus, elector of Saxony, 1709; knight of the Thistle, 1710; covered the siege of Bouchain, 1711; general, 1712; privy councillor, and ambassador at Paris, 1716; secured expulsion of James Edward, the Old Pretender, from Paris; revealed schemes of Alberoni and Oellamare; recalled, 1720; vice-admiral of Scotland, 1720-33; rural economist; opponent of Sir Robert Walpole; deprived of his viceadmiralty for asserting the right of the Scottish peers to elect representative peers without governmental interference, 1733; field-marshal, 1742; governor of Minorca, 1742; fought at Dettingen, 1743; commander-in-chief in south Britain, 1744; general of the marines, 1746.
  503. ^ John Dalrymple, fifth Earl of Stair (1720-1789), army captain; advocate of the Scottish bar, 1741; captain in the army; representative peer, 1771; presented a petition on behalf of Massachusetts, 1774; published pamphlets on the national finances.
  504. ^ Sir John Dalrymple, fourth baronet of Cranstoun (1726-1810), Scottish judge; educated at Edinburgh University and Trinity Hall, Cambridge; advocate at the Scottish bar, 1748; exchequer baron, 1776-1807; discovered the art of making soap from herrings; chief works, Essay towards a General History of Feudal Property in Great Britain 1757, and Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland (1681-1692) 1771.
  505. ^ John Dalrymple, sixth Earl of Stair (1749–1821), son of John, fifth earl of Stair; captain 87th foot; served in the first American war; minister plenipotentiary to Poland, 1782, and to Berlin, 1786.
  506. ^ John Dalrymple (1803–1852), ophthalmic surgeon; son of William Dalrymple (1772-1847); M.R.O.S., 1827; surgeon to the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, 1843; F.R.S., 1850; writer on ophthalmic science.
  507. ^ Sir John Hamilton Macgill Dalrymple, eighth Earl of Stair (1771-1863), son of Sir John Dalrymple (1726-1810); served as captain in Flanders, 1794 and 1795; general, 1838; devised a substitute for corporal punishment in the army; M.P. for Midlothian, 1832; keeper of the great seal of Scotland, 1840-1, and 1846-52; created Baron Oxenford of Couslaud, 1841; K.T., 1847.
  508. ^ William Dalrymple (1723–1814), religious writer; minister of the first charge at Ayr, 1756; D.D. St. Andrews, 1779: moderator of the general assembly, 1781; eulogised in Burns's Kirk's Alarm
  509. ^ William Dalrymple (1772–1847), surgeon; surgeon of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, 1814-39; successful as an operator in tying the common carotid artery, and in lithotomy.
  510. ^ John Dalton (1709–1763), poet and divine ; taberdar, Queen's College, Oxford, 1730; M.A., 1734; adapted Milton's Comus for the stage, 1738; fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 1741; canon of Worcester, 1748; rector of St. Mary-at-Hill, 1748; D.D., 1750; published sermons and didactic and descriptive poems.
  511. ^ John Dalton (1726–1811), captain under the East India Company; as second lieutenant in the 8th marines was employed on the Coromandel coast, 1745; captain of European grenadiers under the East India Company, 1749; defended Trichinopoly, 1753; returned to England, 1754.
  512. ^ John Dalton (1766–1844), chemist and natural philosopher; kept a Quaker's school, 1778; assistant and subsequently partner in a school at Kendal, 1781-93; commenced meteorological journal, 1787; studied mathematics, zoology, and botany, compiling a Hprtus Siccus; professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, New College, Manchester, 1793-9; publishedMeteorological Observations and Essays maintaining electrical origin of aurora borealis, 1793; revealed his discovery of colourblindness, 1794; constituted meteorology a science by his papers on theConstitution of Mixed Gases and on The Expansion of Gases by Heat 1801; discovered the law of chemical combinations, and tabulated the atomic weights of various elements, 1805; president of the Manchester Philosophical Society, 1817-44; foreign associate of the Paris Academy of Sciences, 1830; prizeman of the Royal Society for his development of the chemical theory of Definite Proportions 1825; honorary D.O.L. and LL.D. of Oxford and Edinburgh respectively, 1832 and 1834; publishedA New System of Chemical Philosophy 1808 and 1827, in which he partly anticipated (1808) Dulong and Petit's law of specific heats, and wrote the article Meteorology in Rees's Cyclopaedia
  513. ^ John Dalton (1792-1867), Irish historian, genealogist and biographer; graduate of Trinity College, Dublin: law student of the Middle Temple, London, 1811; called to the Irish bar, 1813; medallist, Royal Irish Academy, 1827, and prizeman, 1831: published a 4 Treatise on the Law of Tithes a poem entitled Dermid Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin 1838, a History of the County of Dublin 1838, and the Annals of Boyle
  514. ^ John Dalton (1814–1874), Roman catholic divine ; missioner at Northampton, Norwich, and Lynn; member of the chapter of the diocese of Northampton; translated Latin and Spanish devotional works, also aLife of St. Winif rede from a British Museum manuscript, 1857.
  515. ^ Laurence Dalton (d. 1561), Norroy king-ofarrns; Rouge Croix pursuivant, 1546; Richmond herald, 1547; Norroy king-of-arms, 1557.
  516. ^ Michael Dalton (d. 1648?), legal writer; J.P. for Cambridgeshire; commissioner of sequestrations for the county of Cambridge, 1648; author of The Countrey Justice 1618, and Officium Vicecomitum, or the Office and Authorise of Sheriffs 1623.
  517. ^ Richard Dalton (1715?–1791), draughtsman, engraver, and librarian; studied art in Rome; travelled, 1749, in Greece, Constantinople, and Egypt, publishing first drawings of monuments of ancient art in those countries; librarian to George III as Prince of Wales and as king; keeper of pictures and antiquarian to George III; one of original committee which drew up project for establishment of Royal Academy, 1765; original member, 1765, and treasurer of Incorporated Society of Artists; antiquarian to Royal Academy; F.S.A., 1767.
  518. ^ Daniel Daly or O'Daly, or Dominic (1595-1662), ecclesiastic and author; a native of Kerry; Dominican monk at Lugo, Galicia, with the name of Dominic de Rosario; professor at the Irish Dominican college of Lou vain; established an Irish Dominican college at Lisbon, and was appointed rector, 1634; enlisted men in Limerick for the Spanish service; founded nunnery for Irish Dominicans at Lisbon, 1639: Portuguese envoy to Charles I and Charles II; urged Charles II to give the Irish civil and religious liberty, 1649; bishopelect of Ooimbra and president of the Portuguese privy council; author of an account in Latin of the Geraldine Earls of Desmond, 1655, published at Lisbon,
  519. ^ Denis Daly (1747–1791), Irish politician ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for Galway county, 1768-90, for Galway town, 1790; opposed the measure of independence, 1780: muster-master-general, 1781; opposed Flood's bill for parliamentary reform, 1783.
  520. ^ Sir Dominick Daly (1798–1868), governor of South Australia; assistant-secretary to the government of Lower Canada, 1825-7; provincial secretary for the united provinces of Canada, 1840-8; member of the council, 1840; lieutenant-governor, Tobago, 1851-4; lieutenant-governor, Prince Edward island, 1854-9; knighted, 1856; governor of South Australia, 1861-8.
  521. ^ Sir Henry Dermot Daly (1821–1895), general ; ensign 1st Bombay European regiment, 1840; brevetcolonel, 1864; major-general, 1870; lieutenant-general, 1877; general, 1888; served in Sikh war, 1848-9, and against Afridis, 1849; with field force under Captain Coke, 1851, and under Sir Colin Campbell, 1852; served at Delhi and Lucknow and in campaign in (hide, 1858; commander of Central India Horse and political assistant at Augur for Western Malwa, 1861; agent to governorgeneral for Central India at Indore and opium agent in Malwa, 1871; K.C.B., 1875; O.I.E.. 1880; G.C.B., 1889.
  522. ^ Richard Daly (d. 1813), actor and theatrical manager; fellow-commoner, Trinity College, Dublin: first appeared on the Dublin stage as Lord Townley; opened Smock Alley Theatre, Dublin, 1781; became proprietor of Crow Street Theatre; patentee for a theatre royal at Dublin, 1786; obtained decision for libel against Magee, a journalist, 1790; surrendered his claim to the theatre royal, 1797; pensioned, 1798.
  523. ^ Robert Daly (1783–1872), bishop of Cashel and Waterford; son of Denis Daly; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1832; D.D., 1843; dean of St. Patrick's Dublin, 1842; bishop of Cashel and Waterford, 1843; edited Bishop O'Brien's Focaloir Gaoidhilge-Sax-Bhearla, or Irish-English Dictionary 1832.
  524. ^ Sir John Graham Dalyell (1775–1851), antiquary and naturalist; studied at Edinburgh University; member of the Faculty of Advocates, 1796; vice-president, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1797; knighted, 1836; president, Society of Arts for Scotland, 1839-40; preses of the board of directors of the Zoological Gardens, Edinburgh, 1841; published works, includingScottish Poems of the Sixteenth Century 1801,The Darker Superstitious of Scotland 1834, and The Powers of the Creator displayed in the Creation (vol. L 1851, vol. ii. 1853).
  525. ^ Robert Dalyell or Dalzell, second Earl of Carnwath (d. 1654), privy councillor for Scotland, 1641 ; hostile to the covenanters; fined 10,000l. Scots for refusing to appear in answer to a charge of treasonable correspondence with the queen, 1642; said to have caused the royalist defeat at Naseby by his over-caution, 1646; declared guilty of treason, 1645; committed to the Tower, 1651.
  526. ^ Sir Robert Dalyell or Dalzell, sixth Earl of Carnwath (d. 1737), educated at Cambridge ; captured on Stuart side at Preston, 1715; condemned to death by the House of Lords for favouring the Pretender, 1716, but finally protected by the indemnity,
  527. ^ Sir Robert Anstruther Dalyell (1831–1890), Indian civilian; educated at Haileybury; entered Madras civil service, 1851; secretary of Madras government revenue department, 1868; member of board of revenue and chief secretary to Madras government, 1873; vice-president of council of secretary of state for India, 1883-4; O.S.I., 1879; K.C.I.E., 1887.
  528. ^ Thomas Dalyell or Dalzell (1599?–1686), of Binns; general; took part in Rochelle expedition, 1628; colonel in Ireland, 1642; in charge of the customs at Oarrickfergus, 1649; proclaimed banished from Scotland, 1650; taken prisoner at Worcester, and committed to the Tower, 1651; escaped to the continent, 1662; assisted in the Scottish rebellion, 1654; as lieutenantgeneral in the Russian army, fought against the Poles and Turks; commander-in-chief in Scotland, 1666-79; defeated the covenanters in the Pentlands, 1666; privy councillor, 1667; M.P. in the Scottish parliament for Linlithgow, 1678-85; reapppinted commander-in-chief, 1679; commissioner of justiciary to punish the rebels of Bothwell Bridge, 1679; enrolled the Scots Greys, 1681; commander-in-chief with increased powers, 1685.
  529. ^ Andrew Dalzel (1742–1806), classical scholar ; M.A. Edinburgh; collaborator in Dr. Alexander Adam's Latin Grammar 1772; professor of Greek, Edinburgh University, 1779-1805; corresponded with Heine; helped to found the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1783; principal clerk to the general assembly, 1789; compiledAvaAeKTo. 'EAATjiiKa "Ho'O'Oi'a 1789,AvaAcxraEAAijfiKa Metbpa 1805 translated Chevalier's Tableau de la Plaine de Troye 1791, and wrote a History of the University of Edinburgh published 1862.
  530. ^ Nicol Alexander Dalzell (1817–1878), botanist; M.A. Edinburgh, 1837; assistant commissioner of customs, Bombay, 1841; conservator of forests, Bombay, 1841; retired, 1870; author of The Bombay Flora 1861, and other works on Indian botany.
  531. ^ Robert Dalzell (1662–1768), general; said to have been in the direct line of succession to the earldom of Carnwath; town-major of Portsmouth, 1 702; fought as lieutenant-colonel under Marlborough in the Netherlands, 1705-6; served in Spain as colonel, 1708; lieutenant-general, 1727; commander of the forces in North Britain, 1732; general, 1745; sold his regimental commissions, 1749; chairman of the directors of the Sun Fire Office, 1750.
  532. ^ Alexander Damascene (d. 1719), musician ; a Frenchman by birth; naturalised in England 1682; gentleman extraordinary of the Ohapel Royal, 1690; gentleman of the Ohapel Royal, 1695; composed numerous eongs.
  533. ^ Anne Seymour Damer (1749–1828), sculptress ; daughter of Field-marshal (Henry Seymour) Conway ; studied under Oeracchi and Cruikshank; married John Darner, lord Milton, 1767; friend of Nelson, Waipole, Josephine de Beauharnais, and Napoleon; made a statue of George III for the Edinburgh register office; executed heads of Thame and Isis for Henley Bridge, 1785; executrix and residuary legatee of Horace Wai pole, 1797; presented Napoleon with a bust of Fox, and the king of Tanjore with a bronze cast of her bust of Nelson, 1826.