William Bauchop Wilson
|1st United States Secretary of Labor|
March 5, 1913 – March 5, 1921
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||James Davis|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Pennsylvania's 15th district
March 4, 1907 – March 4, 1913
|Preceded by||Elias Deemer|
|Succeeded by||Edgar Kiess|
April 2, 1862|
Blantyre, Scotland, UK
May 25, 1934 (aged 72)|
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
William Bauchop Wilson (April 2, 1862 – May 25, 1934) was a Scottish-born American labor leader and progressive politician. He is best remembered for his service as the first Secretary of Labor (1913–21) under President Woodrow Wilson.
William B. Wilson was born in Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland. He was the third child of Adam Black Wilson and Helen Nelson Bauchop Wilson, and the first surviving early childhood. His father was a coal miner.
During a mining strike in February 1868 the family was unceremoniously evicted from their company-owned home. Adam Wilson unsuccessfully traveled around Scotland attempting to find other work. He ultimately decided to emigrate to the United States to find employment there, leaving his wife and three children to set sail across the Atlantic in April 1870.
Adam Wilson found his place in the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania, setting in the little town of Arnot, located in Tioga County. After finding a job, Adam Wilson sent for his wife and family, who — together with his father-in-law — departed Glasgow for America in August 1870.
Immediately after arriving in the United States William was enrolled in public school in Arnot. This interval proved to be short-lived, however, as William's father began to suffer serious back problems and was unable to complete his work without assistance. Therefore, at the age of 9, William was removed from school and sent to help his father in the mines. He would continue to work as a miner for nearly two decades.
In 1874, young William engaged in labor organizing for the first time when he attempted to launch a union for the boys who worked as trappers, manually operating the ventilation of the mines. When the fledgling union threatened a strike over a wage reduction, union representative Wilson discovered the limits of union solidarity in the face of superior force, when he was thrown over a foreman's knee and paddled. The incipient strike was broken.
The event proved to be a valuable learning experience for William, who later recalled in his unpublished memoirs:
"His argument had been forceful and effective, but it was applied to the wrong part of my anatomy to be permanently convincing.... It helped impress upon my mind the fact that until working men were as strong, collectively, as their employers, they would be forced...to accept whatever conditions were imposed upon them."
In 1876, when Wilson was just 14 years old, declining membership in the local Miners' and Laborers' Benevolent Association caused the remaining members of that group to select the energetic youngster as the organization's Secretary. Wilson began to correspond with other labor activists around the country and the groundwork for his career as a trade union functionary was laid.
United Mine Workers official
He served as international secretary-treasurer of the United Mine Workers of America from 1900 to 1908.
House of Representatives
He was elected as a Democrat to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, and Sixty-second Congresses. He served as chairman of the United States House Committee on Labor during the Sixty-second Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1912 and for election in 1914.
Secretary of Labor
He was appointed United States Secretary of Labor in the Cabinet of President Woodrow Wilson and served from March 5, 1913, to March 5, 1921. During the First World War, he was a member of the Council of National Defense.
He was a member of the Federal Board for Vocational Education from 1914 to 1921 and served as chairman of the board in 1920 and 1921. He was appointed on March 4, 1921, a member of the International Joint Commission, created to prevent disputes regarding the use of the boundary waters between the United States and Canada, and served until March 21, 1921, when he resigned. In December 1916, Wilson addressed a conference on social insurance in which he discussed State developments in that field such as the provision of mothers’ pensions and workmen’s compensation, and also spoke of the possibility of the United States introducing old-age pensions and universal health insurance.
Later years and death
- "W. B. Wilson Dies. Leader Of Labor. End Comes on Train in South to the Nation's First Secretary of Labor". New York Times. May 26, 1934.
- Negative Intelligence: The Army and the American Left, 1917-1941. University Press of Mississippi. 1991. p. 67.
- "William Bauchop Wilson: First Secretary of Labor: Coming to America," blossburg.org. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- "William Bauchop Wilson: First Secretary of Labor: Growing Up in Arnot," blossburg.org. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- Quoted in "William Bauchop Wilson: First Secretary of Labor: Growing Up in Arnot," blossburg.org. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- "Proceedings of the Conference on Social Insurance". U.S. Government Printing Office. 1 January 1917. Retrieved 27 January 2017 – via Google Books.
- William Bauchop Wilson profile Archived 2008-10-28 at the Wayback Machine.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Bauchop Wilson.|
- "William Bauchop Wilson: First U.S. Secretary of Labor," www.blossburg.org Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- "William B. Wilson (1862–1934): Labor Hall of Fame Honoree (2007)," U.S. Department of Labor biography. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- United States Congress. "William Bauchop Wilson (id: W000620)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- The William Bauchop Wilson Papers, including political letters, official correspondence, files from his tenure with the Department of Labor and many other materials, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district
John J. Gardner
| Chair of the House Labor Committee
|New office|| United States Secretary of Labor
|Party political offices|
| Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania