11 April – Adolf Eichmann's trial begins before an Israeli court in Jerusalem. Eichmann is indicted on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership in an outlawed organization. The trial is the subject of a great deal of international controversy and creates huge international interest.
22 May – Population Census: 2,179,491 inhabitants in Israel.
20 June - Ten weeks into his war crimes trial, the prosecution having rested, Adolf Eichmann took the witness stand in his own defense, but refused to swear on the Bible.
2 November – Israel's Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion received approval to form a new coalition government, with the Knesset approving a vote of confidence, 63-46.
28 November – After Morocco's King Hasssan II agreed to allow the Arab nation's Jewish minority to leave, the first group 105 Jews was allowed to fly out to Israel. By the end of the year, 11,478 had left, and over the next two years, the 85,000 members of the community had emigrated.
1 December – Israel announced plans to establish "the world's first chain of industrial co-operative towns" in the Negev Desert, starting with the community of Mitzpe Ramon.