482d Operations Group
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|482d Operations Group|
Emblem of the 482d Operations Group
|Active||1943–1945; 1947–1949; 1952; 1955–1957; 1992–present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
The 482d Operations Group (482 OG) is a United States Air Force Reserve unit assigned to the 482d Fighter Wing. It is stationed at Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base, Florida, and is a direct successor to the 482d Bombardment Group.
During World War II, the group was organized and activated as the 482d Bombardment Group (Pathfinder), the only Eighth Air Force radar-equipped "pathfinder" heavy bomber group. Its B-17 Flying Fortress and B-24 Liberator aircraft were equipped with first generation radar to guide other bombardment groups to targets obscured by cloud cover over Occupied Europe and Nazi Germany ("blind bombing").
The mission of the 482d Operations Group (Tail Code: FM) is to train and equip reservists to respond to wartime and peacetime taskings as directed by higher headquarters. The group specifically trains for: Mobility, Deployment, and Employment.
The operational squadron of the 482 OG is the 93rd Fighter Squadron "Makos" (F-16C)
- For additional history and lineage, see 482d Fighter Wing
World War II
In the summer of 1943, the Eighth Air Force conducted experiments with radar for high-altitude bombing through clouds. A special organization, the 482d Bombardment Group (Pathfinder), was formed to use this technology and be devoted to pathfinder techniques using the H2S and H2X (APS-15) radars.
The 482d Bomb Group was formed at RAF Alconbury on 20 August 1943, under the command of Lt Col Baskin R. Lawrence, who had been training its 92nd BG cadre since 1 May. The 812th Bomb Squadron arrived from the United States in September with 12 new B-17 aircraft equipped with U.S. manufactured H2S radar. The 813th was a re-designation of the325th Bomb Squadron, 92nd Bomb Group, which had been training since may in B-17s equipped with British-manufactured H2S and Oboe sets. The 814th flew B-24 Liberator aircraft acquired from a disbanded anti-submarine warfare group. The 482d Group was one of two Eighth Air Force groups activated overseas (the other being the 25th Bomb Group (Reconnaissance)).
The 482d BG provided a force of radar-equipped aircraft that preceded bomber formations flying from England to Germany and indicated targets such as airfields, submarine installations, and marshalling yards obscured by weather. Eight Air Force dubbed the group with the modifier "Pathfinder" because of its similarity of mission in locating and designating obscured targets that was also the mission of the Pathfinder Force (PFF) of the Royal Air Force.
The 482d BG provided lead aircraft for other bomb groups throughout the winter of 1943/44. As lead aircraft, 482 BG B-17s and B-24s usually flew missions from stations of other groups with some key personnel of the host group flying in the pathfinder aircraft. The group earned a Distinguished Unit Citation for 11 January 1944 mission leading Eighth Air Force bombers to targets such as aircraft factories in central Germany. Although weather prevented effective fighter protection against enemy aircraft, the group bombed assigned targets and destroyed many enemy airplanes. Individual aircraft and crews led Eighth Air Force elements on attacks against factories at Gotha, Brunswick, Schweinfurt, and other German industrial centers during Big Week, 20–25 February
The 482d BG was transferred to Composite Command in February 1944 when emphasis shifted to training radar operators. The 482d began an H2X training school on 21 February 1944, initially using RAF instructors. It graduated a class of 36 radar navigators each month, as the PFF was decentralized first to the air divisions and then to the combat groups, where each assigned one squadron to be its PFF unit. Training and experimentation remained the chief role of the 482d BG for the remainder of war.
In March 1944, the 482d BG was taken off combat operations and became a development unit for various radar devices in addition to its training function, but continued to undertake special operations. With radar, photographed parts of France, the Low Countries, and Germany for training and briefing combat crews. While on experimental flights, often bombed bridges, fuel depots, power plants, and railroad stations. On 6 June, it provided 18 crews to lead bomb groups in support of the Allied invasion of Normandy, on pathfinder missions to bomb coastal defenses and attacks on traffic centers behind the beachhead.
From August 1944 to April 1945, the 482d BG conducted 202 radar scope and 'pickling' sorties over hostile territory without loss, dropping 45 tons of bombs in Nazi controlled territory. In November 1944, the group was re-designated as the 482d Bomb Group (Heavy).
Redeployed to the US in May 1945. The aircraft departed between 27–30 May 1945. The ground unit sailed on the Queen Elizabeth from Gourock on 24 June 1945. The group re-established at Victorville AAF, Ca. on 5 July 1945, but inactivated on 1 September 1945
Trained in the Reserve as a heavy bombardment group, June 1947 – June 1949; as a troop carrier group, June–December 1952; and as a fighter-bomber group flying various fighter and trainer aircraft, May 1955 – November 1957. From August 1992 controlled the 482d Fighter Wing's flying and aerial port operations.
When Hurricane Andrew devastated Homestead later that month, flying operations moved to Wright-Patterson AFB, September–December 1992 and to MacDill AFB, February 1993 – March 1994, before returning to Homestead.
- Established as 482 Bombardment Group (Pathfinder) on 10 August 1943
- Activated on 20 August 1943
- Redesignated 482 Bombardment Group, Heavy on 11 November 1944
- Inactivated on 1 September 1945
- Redesignated 482 Bombardment Group, Very Heavy on 3 June 1947
- Activated in the Reserve on 26 June 1947
- Inactivated on 27 June 1949
- Redesignated 482 Troop Carrier Group, Medium on 26 May 1952
- Activated in the Reserve on 14 June 1952
- Inactivated on 1 December 1952
- Redesignated 482 Fighter-Bomber Group on 12 August 1955
- Activated in the Reserve on 18 May 1955
- Inactivated on 16 November 1957
- Redesignated: 482 Tactical Fighter Group on 31 July 1985 (Remained inactive)
- Redesignated: 482 Operations Group on 1 August 1992
- Activated in the Reserve on 1 August 1992.
- 1st Bombardment Division, 20 August 1943
- VIII Air Force Composite Command, 14 February 1944
- VIII Fighter Command, 1 October 1944
- 1st Air Division, 1 January 1945
- AAF Western Flying Training Command, 5 July-1 September 1945
- Tenth Air Force, 26 June 1947
- 307 Bombardment Wing (later, 307 Air Division) 17 October 1947 – 27 June 1949
- 482d Troop Carrier Wing, 14 June-1 December 1952
- 482d Fighter-Bomber Wing, 18 May 1955 – 16 November 1957
- 482d Fighter Wing, 1 August 1992–present
- 6th Bombardment Squadron: 30 September 1947 – 27 June 1949
- 93rd Fighter Squadron: 1 August 1992–present
- 812th Bombardment Squadron (MI): 20 August 1943 – 1 September 1945; 9 September 1947-27 June 1949; 14 June-1 December 1952; 18 May 1955 – 16 November 1957.
- 813th Bombardment Squadron (PC): 20 August 1943 – 1 September 1945; 24 September 1947-27 June 1949; 14 June-1 December 1952; 8 July-16 November 1957
- 814th Bombardment Squadron (SI): 20 August 1943 – 1 September 1945; 9 September 1947-27 June 1949; 14 June-1 December 1952.
- RAF Alconbury (AAF-102), England, 20 August 1943 – 21 May 1945
- Victorville Army Airfield, California, c. 5 July-1 September 1945
- New Orleans Municipal Airport, Louisiana, 26 June 1947 – 27 June 1949
- Miami International Airport, Florida, 14 June-1 December 1952
- Dobbins AFB, Georgia, 18 May 1955 – 16 November 1957
- Homestead AFB (later, ARS), Florida, 1 August 1992–present
- Temporarily assigned to: Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, September–December 1992
- Temporarily assigned to MacDill AFB, Florida, February 1993 – March 1994
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.