Schweinfurt

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Schweinfurt
Market square with town hall
Market square with town hall
Coat of arms of Schweinfurt
Coat of arms
Schweinfurt   is located in Germany
Schweinfurt
Schweinfurt
Coordinates: 50°3′0″N 10°14′0″E / 50.05000°N 10.23333°E / 50.05000; 10.23333Coordinates: 50°3′0″N 10°14′0″E / 50.05000°N 10.23333°E / 50.05000; 10.23333
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Lower Franconia
District Urban district
Government
 • Lord Mayor Sebastian Remelé (CSU)
Area
 • Total 35.71 km2 (13.79 sq mi)
Elevation 202-343 m (−923 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 52,098
 • Density 1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 97421–97424
Dialling codes 09721
Vehicle registration SW
Website www.schweinfurt.de
Imperial City of Schweinfurt
Reichsstadt Schweinfurt
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Image missing
1254–1803
Capital Schweinfurt
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Founded before 791
 -  Gained Reichsfreiheit 1254
 -  Joined Swabian League 1386
 -  Joined Franconian Circle 1500
 -  Mediatised to Bavaria 1803

Schweinfurt (in German literally 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.

History[edit]

The city was first documented in the year 790,[2] although as early as 740 a settlement called Villa Suinfurde was mentioned. In the 10th century Schweinfurt was the seat of a margraviate.[2] After the defeat of count Henry of Schweinfurt in 1002/1003, in the feud against King Henry II of Germany, his family lost its leading position in the town. In the first half of 13th century Schweinfurt expanded to become a proper city with city wall, towers and city gates. At that time the Nikolaus hospital was founded, a mint was established and construction work on the Saint Johannis church began.[citation needed]

Around 1250 Schweinfurt was totally destroyed during a feud between the Earl of Henneberg and the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. In the following years it was reconstructed. A document from 1282 signed by King Rudolf I of Habsburg states that Schweinfurt was a free city within the Holy Roman Empire. At least since then the coat of arms of Schweinfurt has been an imperial white eagle.[citation needed]

In 1309 the city was given to the Count of Henneberg, but in the 1360s the city regained its independence and joined the Swabian–Franconian Confederation. In 1397 King Wenzel entitled the town to utilize the River Main, and in 1436–1437 Schweinfurt acquired the village of Oberndorf, as well as the Teutonic Order Fort on the Peterstirn (the site of a former castle, derived from the monastery name stella Petri[3]) and a small piece of land — including the villages of Zell and Weipoltshausen. Some years later there was the first uprising of Schweinfurt's citizens against the town council, followed by a second in 1513–1514. This time the issuing of a constitution was allowed.[citation needed]

The city joined Martin Luther's Reformation in 1542. Schweinfurt was again destroyed in the course of the Second Margrave War, in 1554. The years up to 1615 were spent by the citizens for its reconstruction.[citation needed]

Schweinfurt joined the Protestant Union in 1609. In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, the remains of which are still extant.[2] In 1652 the four doctors Johann Laurentius Bausch, Johann Michael Fehr, Georg Balthasar Wolfahrt and Balthasar Metzger founded the Academia Curiosorum in Schweinfurt, which is known today as the German Academy of Life Scientists, "Leopoldina".

At some point Schweinfurt became a predominantly Roman Catholic city owing to migration from the surrounding Catholic territories, only again to receive a large section of Lutheran refugees/expellees after 1945 from Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line. The latest addition to the Lutheran churches in Schweinfurt arrived during the last years of the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

In 1777 Johann Martin Schmidt began to produce white lead (ceruse). Schweinfurt suffered from heavy casualties during the Napoleonic Wars of 1796–1801.[citation needed]

Schweinfurt remained a free imperial city until 1802, when it passed to the Electorate of Bavaria. Assigned to the grand duke of Würzburg in 1810, it was granted to the Kingdom of Bavaria four years later.[2] The first railway junction was opened in 1852. In the following years Schweinfurt became a world leading centre for the production of ball bearings. This was to lead to grievous consequences for the city during World War II.[citation needed]

A USAAF raid on ball-bearing works in Schweinfurt in 1943

World War II[edit]

In 1939 Schweinfurt produced most of Nazi Germany's ball bearings, and factories such as the Schweinfurter Kugellagerwerke became a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II to cripple tank[citation needed] and aircraft production. Schweinfurt was bombed 22 times during Operation Pointblank by a total of 2285 aircraft.[citation needed]

The Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission caused an immediate 34% loss of production[4] and all plants but the largest were devastated by fire. Efforts to disperse the surviving machinery began immediately and the Luftwaffe deployed large numbers of interceptors along the corridor to Schweinfurt.[5] Bombing also included the Second Raid on Schweinfurt on 14 October 1943 ("called Black Thursday because of the enormous loss of aircraft (60) and lives (600+)")[clarification needed] and Big Week in February 1944.

Although losses of production bearings and machinery were high and much of the industrial and residential areas of the city were destroyed, killing more than a thousand civilians, the factories were restored to production and the industry dispersed. Although German planners initially thought it essential to purchase the entire output of the Swedish ball-bearing industry, losses in the production of bearings were actually made up from surpluses found within Germany in the aftermath of the first raid. The decentralized industry was able to restore output to 85% of its pre-bombing level.[citation needed] Hitler made restoration of ball bearing production a high priority and massive efforts were undertaken to repair and rebuild the factories,[specify] partly in bomb-proof underground facilities.[citation needed]

The 42nd Infantry Division (United States) entered Schweinfurt on 11 April 1945 and conducted house-to-house fighting.[5]:2 On 12 April an internment camp at Goethe-Schule[5]:2 held male civilians aged 16–60.[6]

Recent years[edit]

The SKF building, a widely visible symbol for the ball bearing production in Schweinfurt

After the war Schweinfurt became a stronghold of the US military and their dependants. Thus Schweinfurt recovered relatively quickly from its third period of destruction. Schweinfurt still hosts the U.S. Army Garrison Schweinfurt, which the U.S. Army Europe plans to close in 2015 as part of U.S. military downsizing in Europe.[7]

Also in post-war years, the new suburbs of Bergl, Hochfeld and Steinberg were developed to settle a growing population. In 1954 the city laid the foundation stone for the new town hall and commemorated the 700th and 500th anniversaries of the two earlier periods of destruction as well as the ongoing reconstruction following World War II. In 1998 German and American veterans and survivors of the bombing raids came together to erect a war memorial to the fallen.

Schweinfurt town hall

Main sights[edit]

City walls near St. Salvador Church

Schweinfurt's main landmarks include:

The Museum Georg Schäfer specializes in 19th-century paintings by artists from German-speaking countries.

The Schweinfurter Rathaus (town hall) square has a large Friedrich Rückert monument in the centre, around which weekly markets and many city festivals are held. A large number of people, including immigrants from many other countries, add to the crowded inner-city traffic-free Markthalle shopping area.

Motherwell Park connects the surrounding medieval buildings to the inner-city market square. To avoid car-filled streets, walking through the park with part of the original city walls offers paths and shortcuts, bringing one on foot from one end of town to another, reminiscent of medieval town life.

Economy[edit]

Schweinfurt is known for its metal industry, especially ball bearing plants and bicycle manufacturing; see also FAG Kugelfischer, ZF Sachs AG, Bosch Rexroth and SKF. The pigment Schweinfurt Green is manufactured here. SRAM Corporation hosts the world's largest development center of the bicycle industry in Schweinfurt.

With GDP per capita of €78,382, Schweinfurt ranks third richest city in Germany after Wolfsburg and Frankfurt am Main.[8]

According to a recent study by the Swiss Institute of Economic Research forecasters Schweinfurt is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany. The study confirmed the city, among other things, the highest concentration of jobs in Germany with particularly high Beschäftiungsanteil (employment share) in the German high-tech sector. The Contor-2010 study, which was commissioned by the Manager magazine, ranked Schweinfurt as one of the most dynamic cities in Europe in terms of development opportunities. From rank 63 in 2007, the city significantly improved to rank 16 in 2010.[9]

Communal facilities[edit]

Historical population[edit]

Year Population
1939 49,302
1950 46,128
1961 56,923
1970 58,446
1987 51,962
2002 54,670
2004 54,467
2006 53,970
2010 53,433[10]

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). 31 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911.
  3. ^ Brochure: Welcome to Schweinfurt
  4. ^ Coffey, Thomas M. (1977). Decision Over Schweinfurt. David McKay Company, Inc. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-679-50763-5. 
  5. ^ a b c Walden, Geoff. "Third Reich in Ruins". Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  6. ^ Turner, S.J., (F. R. G. S) -- maps. Pictorial History of the Second World War. Wm. H. Wise & Co., Inc. p. 1880. "Germans await American orders April 14, 1945 THEY DON'T LIKE IT. After the fall of Schweinfurt, the ball bearing centre of Germany, male civilians between sixteen and sixty were rounded up to be screened by American authorities. (caption)" 
  7. ^ www.schweinfurt.army.mil
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ 2010-09-30
  11. ^ Scottish Government — Chapter Three: Existing Engagement between Scotland and Germany
  12. ^ a b c [3]

References[edit]

External links[edit]