AMC Eagle

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AMC Eagle
1987 AMC Eagle wagon burgundy-woodgrain NJ.jpg
1987 AMC Eagle Wagon Limited
Overview
Manufacturer
Also called
  • Eagle Wagon
  • American Eagle
Production 1979–1987
Model years 1980–1988
Assembly
Body and chassis
Class Compact / crossover SUV
Body style
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 97.2 in (2,469 mm) liftback/kammback
  • 109.3 in (2,776 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
Length
  • 166.6 in (4,232 mm) liftback/kammback
  • 186.2 in (4,729 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
Width
  • 73.0 in (1,854 mm) liftback/kammback
  • 72.3 in (1,836 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
Height
  • 55.2 in (1,402 mm) liftback/kammback
  • 54.4 in (1,382 mm) coupe/sedan
  • 54.6 in (1,387 mm) wagon

The AMC Eagle is a compact-sized four-wheel drive passenger vehicle that was produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1979 to 1987. The AMC Eagle models were predecessors of what would later be called the category of crossover SUVs.

Introduced in August 1979 for the 1980 model year, the coupe, sedan, and station wagon body styles were based on the AMC Concord.

The AMC Eagles were the only four-wheel-drive passenger cars produced in the U.S. at the time.[1] They were affordable cars offering a comfortable ride and handling on pavement together with superior traction in light off road use through AMC's innovative engineering and packaging.[2]

In 1981, the two-door subcompact-sized AMC Spirit-based models, the SX/4 and Kammback, joined the Eagle line. The Sundancer convertible conversion was available during 1981 and 1982. For the 1988 model year, the Eagle was manufactured by the Chrysler Corporation retaining the AMC badging. Production of the Eagle continued until December 14, 1987, and the vehicle was marketed through early 1988.

History[edit]

The concept[edit]

AMC Eagle Wagon in off-road duty
AMC Eagle Wagon at classic car show

The initial proposal for production of what would become the AMC Eagle came from Roy Lunn, the chief design engineer for AMC Jeep.[3] "Project 8001 plus Four" was Lunn's code name for a new "line of four-wheel-drive vehicles with the ride and handling conventions of a standard rear wheel drive car" built on a unit-body platform.[3] In February 1977, AMC contracted FF Developments to build a prototype vehicle based on a production V8 powered AMC Hornet with drive torque split 33% front and 66% rear.[3] Testing and further development proved the feasibility of a vehicle with greater ground clearance, larger 15-inch wheels, as well as a torque split closer to 50% - 50%, with Lunn recommending using the AMC straight-6 engine coupled to an automatic transmission.[3]

Thus, the AMC Eagle came about when Jeep's chief engineer joined a Concord body with a four-wheel-drive system.[4] Such a vehicle was a logical step for AMC, according to then CEO Gerald C. Meyers, as a second energy crisis had hit in 1979, and sales of AMC's highly profitable truck-based Jeep line dropped in part to their low fuel efficiency, leaving AMC in a precarious financial position.[1] The Eagle provided a low-cost way of bridging the gap between AMC's solid and economical, but aging, passenger car line and its well-regarded, but decidedly off-road-focused, Jeep line, as the Eagle used the existing Concord (and later, Spirit) automobile platform.

The Eagle also bridged the sizable price gap between the low-end imported 4WD Subaru and the large-sized domestic four-wheel-drive vehicles like the Jeep Wagoneer.[5] The Eagle models provided the biggest new boost to the automaker's profit mix.[1] Sales were brisk since Day One,[5] with the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) for the basic 2-door model starting at $6,999 (US$20,033 in 2014 dollars[6]) and the 4-door station wagon at $7,549 (US$21,607 in 2014 dollars[6]). The Eagle represented a "burst of AMC's genetic creativity...quickly captured the attention of many American drivers who found its unique union of four-wheel drive safety and security with the comfort of an automobile."[7]

A first in mass production passenger cars,[8][9] the early AMC Eagles came with a true full-time automatic system that operated only in permanent all-wheel drive. The four-wheel drivetrain added approximately 300 pounds (136 kg) to the Eagle's curb weight.[5] The AMC Eagles were also the first mass-produced U.S. four-wheel-drive vehicles with an independent front suspension.[2]

The AMC Eagle's central differential behind its TorqueFlite automatic transmission was single-speed (without a low-range option) and used a viscous fluid coupling for quiet and smooth transfer of power to the axle with the greatest traction, on wet or dry pavement. The central unit consisted of closely spaced, wavy clutch plates operating in a "honey-like Silicone fluid" performing a "limited-slip function" between the front and rear drives, as well as under adverse driving conditions sending torque to the axle with the most traction.[2]

Designed as "reasonably size[d] passenger cars" offering a comfortable ride and handling on pavement, the AMC Eagles "behave more like mountain goats" when off the road.[2] The value of four-wheel drive in the AMC Eagle was apparent when driving in slippery conditions, and they were used in America's first ice-driving school.[10] The Eagle models provided the comfort and appointments expected of passenger models with off-road technology offering an extra margin of safety and traction.[11] The Eagle was designed for customers that "must get through regardless of road or weather conditions (doctors, police, emergency personnel and so on)" as well as those living areas of bad weather or roads, and adventurous hunters and fishermen.[12] The AMC Eagle did not compete with traditional, rudimentary four-wheel-drive vehicles. Not built for off-road performance as a Chevrolet Blazer or a Jeep Cherokee, the Eagle "will overcome mud, sand, snow, and obstacles that would stop ordinary sedans cold."[13]

The AMC Eagle was the first production car to use the complete "Ferguson Formula" (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system from Britain's Ferguson Research.[14] Other four-wheel-drive automobile-type vehicles - the Subaru DL/GL (1972 for the Japanese domestic market and two years later in the U.S.[15][16]), and much later the Toyota Tercel SR5 Wagon (1983) - only had part-time four-wheel-drive systems that could not be engaged on dry pavement.[17] The Eagle was also years ahead of Subaru's simplistic, part-time front-drive/4WD system, due to Roy Lunn's creativity and Jeep's experience producing 4WD vehicles.[4] Another feature was the Eagle's independent front suspension, accomplished by mounting the front differential to the engine block with universal joints and half shafts to drive the front wheels.

As the first mass-produced American passenger car with four-wheel-drive of any type, automotive industry analysts were taken by surprise at the fact that AMC, a company most had deemed past its ability to produce competitive vehicles, turned the best of what they had into a revolutionary, novel, and all-around competent vehicle.[11] In doing so, the small American manufacturer was seen as having cleverly pioneered a new market segment - one that would grow wildly over the next 25 years and beyond, as evinced by Four Wheeler magazine's conclusion in 1980 that the new AMC Eagle was, indeed, "The beginning of a new generation of cars."[18] Even as the automaker was struggling financially, "AMC's reputation for developing vehicles on the cheap is only exceeded by its legacy of midwifing the SUV", including the Eagle to be the precursor to one of the most popular vehicle types on the market.[19] Indeed, the Eagle's basic concept - that of a station wagon with AWD, raised ground clearance, full range of power options and automatic transmissions, as well as rough-road capability - has inspired vehicles like the Subaru Outback and Forester lines, the Audi Allroad, the Volkswagen Passat Alltrack, the Volvo XC range, and many others.[4][11] Similarly, motoring journalist Marty Padgett described AMC's car-based 1980 Eagle, combining all-weather capability with better gas mileage, as "the first crossover," that was succeeded by whole generations of Subaru vehicles and other models.[20]

In a road test of a 2009 crossover vehicle, the AMC Eagle "combined two disparate personalities — rugged childlike playfulness and staunch paternal responsibility — in a way that few thought possible in 1980. And for all the Eagle's lowly heritage, it has set a lasting standard for utility and a friendly, innovative spirit that has eluded most of the compact crossovers on the market today."[21] An article in a series about innovations and icons, the BBC wrote "the Eagle was, in essence, the kind of segment-busting product that engineers and marketers spend entire careers trying to create."[22]

Model years[edit]

All AMC Eagles featured four-wheel drive

1980[edit]

Based on the AMC Concord, the 1980 AMC Eagle was available as a four-door sedan and station wagon, as well as a coupe. Standard equipment included power steering and power front disk and rear drum brakes, as well as 15-inch wheels with fiberglass belted radial whitewall tires.[23] The Eagle came base and upscale Limited trims, both of which carried the same features as the Concord DL and Limited, respectively. A sports package was available only on the 2-door and wagon models featuring in addition to "Sport" emblems the following items: Durham Plaid fabric seat trim, leather-wrapped sport steering wheel, P195/75R15 Tiempo steel belted radial tires, sport fog lamps, halogen highbeam headlamps, dual black remote mirrors, 4X4 sport graphics, black bumpers with nerf strips, black lower body moldings, blackout grille, taillamp paint treatment, side tape stripes, and black moldings on the windshield, rear window, door frames, and B-pillar.[24]

All Eagles came with "Ziebart Factory Rust Protection" as standard that included a five-year "No Rust Thru" transferable warranty. The cars were built using aluminized trim screws, plastic inner fender liners, galvanized steel in every exterior body panel, and the body went through an epoxy-based primer bath (up to the window line). Eagles were backed by the AMC Buyer Protection Plan, a 12 month/12,000 mi (19,312 km) warranty on everything except the tires.[25]

The drivetrain consisted of one engine, the 258 cu in (4.2 L) straight-6-cylinder, in conjunction with a three-speed automatic transmission (a version of Chrysler's A998), with Dana 30 and Dana 35 differentials. All 1980 Eagles came standard with a permanent four-wheel-drive system that employed a New Process 119 transfer case that had a viscous fluid coupling that allowed the four-wheel-drive system to operate on wet or dry pavement without causing undue suspension and drivetrain wear. Optional trailer towing packages were available for handling trailers weighing up to 3,500 lb (1,588 kg) that included a weight distributing (equalizing) tow hitch, seven-connector wiring harness, wiring, auxiliary transmission oil cooler, 3.54 axle ratio, and required the optional heavy-duty battery and automatic load-leveling air shocks.[26]

The 1980 Eagle's appearance differed from the Concord's in that the bodies were raised 3 in (76 mm) further off their suspension to afford better ground clearance.[2] To fill in the increased visual space between the tires and wheel wells, AMC used durable Kraton (polymer) plastic wheelarch flares that flowed into rocker panel extensions. The grille was similar to the 1980 Concord's, but with the horizontal bars spaced slightly further apart, and the Eagle graphic mounted to the driver's side-center. Because coupes and sedans carried Concord DL equipment as standard, they also carried the Concord DL coupe and sedan roof treatments, featuring vinyl coverings, and opera windows. However, bumpers were pulled closer to the body than those seen on Concords, due to the Eagle having been classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a light truck, and was therefore exempt from passenger car regulations that required front and rear bumpers that could sustain a 5 mph (8 km/h) impact with no damage. However, as seen on the Concord, black plastic end caps were featured on 1980 Eagle bumpers.

Demand for the innovative four-wheel-drive models caused AMC to discontinue the slow-selling Pacer in December 1979, to allow for increased Eagle production capacity at its assembly facility in Kenosha, Wisconsin.[27] Production for the 1980 model was: 9,956 4-door sedans, 10,616 2-door sedans, and 25,807 station wagons with a grand total of 45,379 units.[28] The Eagle models helped AMC increase total car production to 199,613 units, an increase of 18% over the previous year.[27]

1981[edit]

1981 AMC Eagle SX/4 liftback
AMC Eagle Kammback
1981 AMC Eagle Wagon

Changes to the standard (Series 30) Eagle lineup for 1981 were notable. The GM 151 cu in (2.5 L) "Iron Duke" inline-four engine became standard equipment, as AMC's 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 became optional. The AMC I6 was redesigned to produce more low-end torque, as well as made smoother running, more economical, and required less maintenance.[29] The engineering improvements to the venerable AMC engine also reduced its weight by 90 pounds (41 kg) to 445 lb (202 kg), thus making it "the lightest in-line Six in the domestic industry".[30]

All Eagles took on a new plastic eggcrate-style grille divided into 24 squares at the front. The Eagle name moved to the grille header bar. Bumpers were updated so that their end caps flowed smoothly into the Kraton plastic wheelarches and rocker panel trim. The Sport package, carried over from 1980 on all three body styles, used the Spirit's hood and grille header bar trim starting in 1981.

Two smaller subcompact models, the AMC Eagle Kammback, based on the AMC Spirit sedan (née Gremlin), and the sporty Eagle SX/4, based on the Spirit liftback, debuted as "Eagle Series 50" models. The Kammback and SX/4 came standard with GM's 151 cu in (2.5 L) "Iron Duke" four-cylinder engine, four-speed manual transmission, and power steering. The Series 50 Eagles reflected the styling updates that the larger Series 30 models showed for 1981. The SX/4 model was available with a Sport package, as well. "Billed as 'the sports car that doesn't always need a road' the SX/4 two-door hatchback had a sporty look, but hardly qualified as a sports car."[31]

At the beginning of the model year, all Eagles carried over the new-for-1980 permanent all-wheel drive system with viscous fluid coupling that protected the suspension or driveline components from wear during dry pavement use. A "Select Drive" option, which allowed the Eagle to run in two-wheel-drive (RWD) mode and be switched to four-wheel-drive via a dashboard switch, was offered as a fuel economy measure at midyear. However, Select Drive required the vehicle to be stationary when switching between two-wheel and four-wheel-drive.

Road tests by Gary Witzenburg in Popular Mechanics described the 1981 "Sport" model station wagon as "Snowbird Supreme" after driving it in Detroit's worst winter weather and noting the numerous improvements that were incorporated for the new model year building on the AMC Eagle's "soundness of design and originality of its concept."[32]

Production was: 5,603 Kammbacks, 17,340 Liftbacks, 2,378 two-door sedans, 1,737 four-door sedans, and 10,371 station wagons for a total of 37,429 units.[33]

1982[edit]

1982 AMC Eagle SX/4

New low-drag disc brakes were featured as standard equipment. A five-speed manual transmission joined the options list. The optional automatic transmission received wider gear ratios for better fuel economy. All received as standard equipment the "Select Drive" system that could be changed between all-wheel drive and two-wheel drive for a potential increase in fuel economy. The system put the front axle and prop shaft into the gas-saving freewheeling mode from the driver's seat. The Series 30 sedan was no longer available with the Sport package.

Even with the choice of two wheelbase versions and five body styles, the most popular model was the wagon with 20,899 built out of total Eagle production of 37,923 for the 1982 model year. Other production was: 520 Kammbacks, 10,445 Liftbacks, 1,968 two-door sedans, and 4,091 four-door sedans.[34]

1983[edit]

AMC Eagle 2-door sedan

Few changes were seen for 1983. The Series 50 Eagle Kammback and Series 30 Eagle coupe were both dropped from the line, due to slow sales. The Series 30 Eagle sedan lost its Limited trim line, leaving only the base model in the Eagle sedan line. The Series 50 SX/4 and Series 30 wagon continued basically unchanged. All were measures to save production costs by pruning the slow-selling models from the line, thereby streamlining their processes by reducing production variations, and therefore, complexity.

Starting in February 1983, the AMC 150 cu in (2.5 L) I4 theoretically replaced the GM Iron Duke 151 under Eagle hoods as the standard engine, though the installation rate is unknown. The 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 was improved for better performance by increasing the compression ratio to 9.2 to 1 (from the previous 8.2 to 1), as well as a fuel feedback system, a knock sensor, and the CEC; thus allowing the continuing use of regular-grade fuel.[35]

A long-term road test by Popular Mechanics began with the editors describing that the "Eagle is best when working hard" and "you can feel the tremendous traction" of its big all-weather tires in four-wheel drive giving "a great feeling of security."[35]

Production was: 2,259 Liftbacks, 3,093 four-door sedans, and 12,378 station wagons for a total of 17,730 units in 1983.[36]

1984[edit]

AMC Eagle 4-door sedan

The Series 50 SX/4 was dropped for 1984. This left only the base Series 30 Eagle sedan and wagon, and a Limited wagon. Now that the SX/4 was gone, only the wagon carried the Sport option package.

For 1984, the 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 was optional in place of the 150 cu in (2.5 L) AMC I4, and was more popular. The four-cylinder engine was installed in only 147 Eagles, but allowed AMC to advertise its fuel economy of 24 mpg-US (9.8 L/100 km; 29 mpg-imp) city and 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp) highway with the four-speed transmission and 32 mpg-US (7.4 L/100 km; 38 mpg-imp) with the five-speed on the highway.[37] The Select Drive system was redesigned to allow Shift on the Fly. (Prior model-year Eagles required two hands to operate the shifting switch, making it difficult, if not impossible, to change while the car was in motion.)

All Eagle models were now built in AMC's original factory in Brampton, Ontario, Canada because the automaker's main Kenosha plant was used for the Renault Alliance and Encore models.

Production was: 4,241 four-door sedans and 21,294 station wagons totaling 25,535.[37]

1985[edit]

AMC Eagle's "Shift on the Fly" dashboard switch mounted near the steering column

Exterior styling was slightly revised as all models used the "power bulge" hood, seen previously on the 1981-83 Eagle Series 50 models. The grille header bar and hood ornament/trim strip were deleted in the process. "Shift-on-the-Fly" capability was added to the Select Drive 4-wheel-drive system as standard equipment. A new key-fob-activated infrared remote keyless system with power locks was newly available as an option. Radios with digital tuning were also introduced.

The standard powertrain was now the previously optional five-speed manual, with the wide-ratio three-speed automatic still available as a popular option. The AMC 258 I6 became standard. However, Eagle sales began to drop as AMC was no longer aggressively promoting the models.[38]

Production was for the 1985 model year: 2,655 four-door sedans and 13,335 station wagons, for a total of 16,990 units.[38]

1986[edit]

American Motors introduced the open differential Model 128 transfer case for the Eagle. The automatic transmission no longer had a lockup torque converter. Eagle sales would drop beneath the 10,000 annual unit mark for the first time for 1986 (and would slide further for its remaining two seasons on the market), as the car was aging due to its seven-season life atop a platform that debuted for 1970.

Production was: 1,274 four-door sedans and 6,943 station wagons, for a total of 8,217 units.[39] The Eagles were now built in AMC's Brampton Assembly in Canada alongside AMC's new Jeep Wrangler.[40]

1987[edit]

Though AMC debuted its new fuel-injected 242 cu in (4.0 L) I6 engine for 1987, the new engine did not make it under the venerable Eagle's hood. The 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 remained the sole engine available in the eight-season-old Eagle sedan and wagon. No major changes were seen on the 1987 Eagle, as American Motors turned its attention to the debut of the imported Renault Medallion. The buyout of the company by Chrysler Corporation took effect officially in August 1987.

Production for the 1987 model year was: 454 four-door sedans, and 5,468 or 4,564 (varies with source) station wagons, for a total of 4,564 to 5,922 (varies with source) units.[41]

1988[edit]

1988 AMC Eagle Wagon
1988 Eagle door plaques continued to use AMC branding

The sedan and Limited wagon were dropped after the 1987 model year, leaving the base wagon as the only available Eagle in 1988, its final season and now under Chrysler's ownership. The car's name was officially changed from AMC Eagle to Eagle Wagon; however, all of the AMC badges, build sheets, and door plaques were carried over. The VIN was no different under the new corporate owner, other than the digit for the year. Although the paperwork that came with the 1988 Eagles continued to indicate that American Motors Canada, Ltd. built them, the company as named ceased to exist, since it became a subsidiary of Chrysler in the buyout, as did all AMC properties. The final car rolled out of AMC's original Brampton Assembly Plant in Brampton, Ontario on December 14, 1987.

Standard equipment in 1988 that was previously optional included air conditioning system, rear window defroster, halogen headlamps, AM/FM stereo radio, light group (glove box, dome, and engine lights), and adjustable steering wheel. The following remained optional equipment for the 1988 production: power windows, power seats, power mirrors, radio with cassette player, cruise control, rear window wiper, wood grain side panels, floor mats, headlamp warning buzzer, and intermittent wipers.[42]

Total 1988 model year production was 2,306 units, all station wagons.[43]

Sundancer convertibles[edit]

1981 AMC Eagle convertible

In 1980, AMC entered into an agreement with the Griffith Company for a convertible body style Eagle, and a prototype version was developed.[44] The cars were marketed during the 1981 and 1982 model years as the Sundancer conversion. The Eagle's monocoque (unibody) body was reinforced and a steel targa roll bar was welded to the door pillars for passenger compartment protection. The front portion of the roof was a removable lightweight fiberglass hatch, while the rear section of polyvinyl material and the back window folded down and had a boot cover when in the down position.[45]

The conversions were approved by AMC with the cars ordered through select AMC dealers in the customer's selection of options and exterior colors.[46] The conversion cost approximately $3,000 and the dealer's list price was $3,750.[47] The conversion was performed by Griffith, which was originally established to build race cars based on the English TVR sports car.[44] Headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, the cars were shipped from Kenosha for the conversion.[44] The company was also responsible for the similar "Sunchaser" Toyota Celica convertible.[48] Both of these Griffith conversions are considered coach convertibles.

Turbo diesel[edit]

Another factory-approved conversion was the 1980 turbo-diesel.[49] The 219 cu in (3.6 L) engines producing 150 hp (112 kW; 152 PS) and 224 pound force-feet (304 N·m) of torque were supplied by VM Motori. Only about seven are thought to have been manufactured; two are accounted for in one of the AMC Eagle clubs.[50] The literature for the conversions noted the cars would be equipped with larger fuel tanks, which together with diesel economy and an optional overdrive transmission, would give the cars up to 1,500-mile (2,414 km) range.[50] The $9,000 price tag for the conversion limited its market appeal and it was discontinued.[50]

Racing[edit]

AMC Eagle SX/4 badge

The AMC Eagle was campaigned in the SCCA ProRally racing series, organized by the Sports Car Club of America, a sanctioning body supporting road racing, rallying, and autocross events across the U.S.

1981 ProRally series[edit]

Drivers Guy Light and Jim Brandt finished the 1981 Northern Lights rally just three minutes behind first place in the Production Class "in spite of nailing a tree dead center with their brand new AMC Eagle SX/4."[51] Two weeks later at the Chisum Trail rally, the Light and Brandt SX/4 captured fifth place overall, as well as won first in the Production Class, "only the second rally for the Michigan team in their new Eagle."[52] The next event was the Susquehannock Trail rally that saw the first place winner face "a stiff challenge" from Light and Brandt's SX/4 that captured second less than a minute later.[53] At the Centennial rally held in Monument, Colorado, the Light and Brandt team in their AMC Eagle SX/4 placed third in the Production class and seventh overall.[54] There were three entries with AMC Eagle SX/4s in the Sunriser 400 rally. Light and Brandt won the Production Class and finished seventh overall, followed by drivers Gene Henderson and Jim Kloosterman placing fourth in Production and eleventh overall, but Steve Dorr and Bob Lyle did not complete the race.[55] With only 33 cars finishing out of 71 that entered, the grueling Press-on-Regardless Rally held in Michigan. Light and Brandt placed their SX/4 just two minutes behind the winning team in the Production Class.[56]

The AMC Eagle SX/4 cars captured both second and third place the 1981 Sno*Drift Production Class rally held on Michigan's snow-covered gravel surface roads in January.[57] Second in the Production Class and sixth overall were Henderson and Kloosterman. "They were robbed of a nearly certain win in the class when the route was blocked on the 12th stage by John Woolf ... [who] was in second place when the car slid on the ice and went straight into a bank tearing off the right front strut and setting the car straight across the road. Henderson was blocked and had to help clear the car from the road before he could continue. They lost two minutes, two places and a win in the class."[58] Third place Production and seventh overall in this two-day race in Grayling, Michigan, went to Guy Light and Jim Brandt.[58] The finale of the 1981 SCCA ProRally season was held in Reno, Nevada. This is where Light and Brandt drove their AMC Eagle SX/4 to an eight minute victory over the second place finisher in the Production Class, as well as placing tenth overall.[59][60]

The Light and Brandt team ended 1981 with second place in total points for both driver and co-driver, as well as helping put AMC third in the Production Manufacturer standings for the ProRally season.[60]

1982 ProRally series[edit]

The first event of 1982 was the Big Bend Bash rally in Alpine, Texas, with Gene Henderson and Jim Kloosterman taking Production Class in their AMC Eagle SX/4, "but even that car's four-wheel-drive couldn't save it from trouble in the deep water... They got stuck in the middle of a water-filled wash on stage four and had to be pushed and pulled out."[61] The next event, the 100 Acre Wood rally saw "the Production Class battle was as exciting as the Overall warfare with four Production Class cars finishing in the top ten, all within a minute and a half, after a full night of rallying."[62] The Henderson and Kloosterman team placed their SX/4 third in the Production Class and ninth overall. The AMC Eagle of Henderson and Kloosterman "in the lead ... but that didn't last... On stage 10 the car rolled, ending wheels up on the stage" at the Olympus rally in Tumwater, Washington.[63] At the next event, the Northern Lights rally, the Henderson and Kloosterman SX/4 ended in sixth place in Production and tenth overall.[64] The Budweiser Forest rally held in Circleville, Ohio, put the Henderson and Kloosterman SX/4 in second place for production cars and eighth overall.[65] The Centennial rally was held in Colorado with of many of the rally's stages at a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, but the Henderson and Kloosterman AMC Eagle SX/4 was just a minute and a half behind the winner with a turbocharged engine in the Production Class and placed seventh overall.[66] The next event, the Tour de Forest rally in Washington State saw the SX/4 of Henderson and Kloosterman finish in fourth place for Production and eighth overall.[67] The SX/4 took second place driven by Henderson and Kloosterman in the 1982 Sno*Drift Production Class in Michigan.[68] "Henderson and his AMC Eagle used the car's 4wd to good advantage and chipped away at [the] lead[er] after the rains started early Sunday morning. The rally ended, however, before Henderson could pull it off" just 24 seconds behind first place.[69]

American Motors was awarded third place among Production Manufacturers for the season.

1983 ProRally series[edit]

The 100 Acre Wood rally in Salem, Missouri, started the season with Gene Henderson and Jim Kloosterman placing their SX/4 second in the Production Class and seventh overall.[70] At the Budweiser Forest rally in Chillicothe, Ohio, "Henderson was the leader in the class in his AMC Eagle SX/4 through the first two thirds of the 12-hour rally... Some seven stages from the end, Henderson's Eagle began to have engine trouble and lost one cylinder.[71] The Nor'wester rally held in Tumwater, Washington, had perfect weather (cold, rain, and 11 stages covered with more than six inches of snow) that "helped Production Class winners [and fourth place overall] Gene Henderson and Jim Kloosterman since, "It was perfect conditions for our 4wd (AMC) Eagle. We love that slop".[72] At the next event, the Olympus International, Henderson and Kloosterman was an early leader, but retired with a blown engine in his AMC Eagle SX/4; however, Gene's son, Garry Henderson, in another SX/4 with co-driver Mike Van Leo, placed second in the Production Class and sixth overall.[73] The inaugural three-day Michigan International rally should have been easy for the AMC Eagle SX/4, but "several of the very sandy stages that would have been to Henderson's advantage were cancelled" so with co-driver Jon Wickens, the team finished second in the Production Class and tenth overall.[74] The next event with the SX/4 was the Manistee Trails rally in Michigan, where Henderson and Kloosterman won the Production class and finished fifth overall.[75] At the November Press-on-Regardless rally, Henderson was "dominating things in the early going until a big rock took a bite out of the AMC Eagle's transfer case putting it out of the rally."[76] The Henderson and Kloosterman team finished the 1983 Sno*Drift in third place for Production Class and sixth overall.[68][77]

For the 1983 season, Henderson and Kloosterman ranked second as drivers, while AMC was third among the Production Manufacturers.[78]

1984 ProRally series[edit]

There were two AMC Eagle SX/4 entries in the 1984 Press-on-Regardless rally with Gene Henderson and Mike VanLoo car finishing in third place."[79] At the next event, the Oregon Trail rally in Beaverton, Oregon, also had two AMC Eagles with the SX/4 driven by Gene Henderson and Doug Foster finishing in tenth position.[80]

1985 ProRally series[edit]

The team of Daniel and Betty-Ann Gilliland took their SX/4 to tenth place, while Bob Lyle and Dan Way in an AMC Eagle finished 37th in the Susquehannock Trail rally held in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania.[81] The Gillilands then went on to finish in seventh place, one of two AMC Eagles that were entered in the Dodge ProRally event in Battle Creek, Michigan.[82] In the next event, the Sunriser 400 Forest rally in Chillicothe, Ohio, where the Gilliland's finished in eighth place.[83]

1986 ProRally series[edit]

The opening event of 1986, the Tulip 200 Forest rally, had four AMC Eagles racing, with Daniel and Betty-Ann Gilliland driving their SX/4 to fifth place overall, while Dave Sampson and Mike Puffenberger finished in 33rd.[84] The Susquehannock Trail rally included three AMC Eagles, with Wayne and Karl Scheible finishing 32nd overall, while Bob Lyle and Dan Way completed the race in 43rd, both running in the Production Class.[85] The Dave Sampson and Mike Puffenberger team drove their SX/4 to 34th finish in the Sunriser 400 Forest rally.[86]

1988 ProRally series[edit]

The Susquehannock Trail rally in 1988 saw Bob Lyle and Art Mendolia in their AMC Eagle finish in 29th place overall.[87]

Legacy[edit]

The AMC Eagle "was arguably a decade ahead of its time."[88] Introduced for the 1980 model year, it "was unlike anything on the market" and in the 2000s "the somewhat traditional SUV has given way to the 'crossover utility vehicle' ... the market has become saturated with these new crossovers that provide a car-like driving experience with the security of a little more ground clearance and all-wheel drive" making the AMC Eagle "about 30 years ahead of the curve."[89] Total production was 197,449 units in one generation.[28]

Although the original AMC Eagle was not produced after 1988, the Eagle brand, as part of the newly formed Jeep-Eagle division of the Chrysler Corporation, would soldier on.[90]

After buying out AMC, Chrysler gained the lucrative Jeep operation, but it was also "saddled with a largely unsuccessful assortment of cars AMC was bringing in from French affiliate and part owner" Renault.[91] The new Jeep-Eagle division included a combination of the Renault-based vehicles, the imported Eagle Medallion and the North American built Eagle Premier, as well as re-trimmed Japanese Mitsubishi models: Eagle Summit, Eagle Summit Wagon, Eagle Talon, Eagle 2000GTX (Canada only), and Eagle Vista (Canada only). A Chrysler-designed vehicle, the Eagle Vision, was added in 1993.

After the AMC-based 4-wheel-drive Eagle wagon was dropped, Chrysler and Eagle officials were busy figuring out which type of vehicles would be best for the new division.[92] The four-wheel-drive sporty Eagle concept would continue in spirit by offering all-wheel-drive optionally on the Mitsubishi-based 1990-98 Eagle Talon, the Canadian-market 1989-91 Eagle Vista wagon, and 1992-96 Eagle Summit Wagon. However, the "Eagle car lineup for '90 differed significantly from the one that bowed in 1987, on the heels of Chrysler's buyout of AMC."[91]

The brand included vehicles from different companies with various characteristics that included economy, sportiness, and luxury. Due to poor marketing, sales never met expectations.[93] Chrysler discontinued the Eagle brand after the 1998 model year.

Collectibility[edit]

AMC Eagle Wagon with 5-speed manual

As used cars, the AMC Eagles were "not intended for heavy-duty boulder bashing" and established a reputation as unique 4-wheel-drive passenger cars "with proven AMC bodyshells and running gear".[94] AMC Eagles are collected for purposes of nostalgia, status, pleasure, investment as well as function.[11] They also have the distinction of being "a historically significant car."[95]

The Eagle shares many parts and components with other Jeep and AMC models. There are many active AMC car clubs and specialized vendors for service and reproduction parts. While surviving Eagles are no longer depreciating, they do not seem to be appreciating rapidly – except for the 1980-84 Sundancer convertible.[11]

In some regions, including the Pacific Northwest United States, Canada, and Alaska, AMC Eagles are still abundant and in service and available for sale after over 20 years since production ceased.[96][97]

Eagles that were built into SCCA Pro Rally cars have also been offered to collectors, such as a version powered by the 390 cu in (6.4 L) AMC V8 engine.[98] Well maintained examples from high-profile owners (such as Phoebe Hearst, William Randolph Hearst’s granddaughter) have also been sold.[99] Very rarely do well taken care of Sundancer convertible versions, that run as good as they look, come up for sale.[100]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "AMC a longtime loser starts to roar". Newsweek 94: 207. 1979. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Jacobs, Ed (September 1979). "4WD AMC Eagle - passenger comfort, all-weather capability". Popular Science 215 (3): 90–91. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Shepard, Doug. "The Egg - Development of the AMC Eagle". AMC Eagle Nest. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Sherman, Don (February 2001). "All-Wheel-Drive Revisited: AMC's 1980 Eagle pioneered the cross-over SUV". Automotive Industries. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c Lamm, Michael (April 1980). "PM Owners Report: AMC Eagle". Popular Mechanics 53 (4): 102–103 and 193–194. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  7. ^ Ackerson, Robert C. (1993). Standard catalog of 4 x 4's. Krause Publications. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-87341-203-2. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  8. ^ The Jensen FF, a low-volume (318 built between 1966 and 1971) right-hand drive grand tourer, was first with a full-time all-wheel-drive system and although it had sports car handling and an edge in safety, it was not commercially successful. Source: Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (25 July 2007). "1966–1971 Jensen FF". Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  9. ^ The full-time four-wheel drive in the Audi Quattro Coupe, which also debuted in 1980 in the European market (introduced in 1982 in North America with total sales of 287 units), was a limited production model available only with a five-speed manual transmission. Source: Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (17 July 2007). "1980–1991 Audi Quattro Coupe". Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Schuon, Marshall (11 March 1984). "Teaching the skills of driving on ice". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Sass, Rob (9 March 2008). "A Breed of 4-by-4 Hatched on the Fly". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  12. ^ Kilpatrick, Bill (January 1980). "An Eagle of a Different Feather". Field & Stream 84 (9): 102, 122. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  13. ^ Dunne, Jim; Jacobs, Ed (August 1980). "4WD cars for all-weather mobility on and off road". Popular Science 217 (2): 39–43. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  14. ^ Rettie, John (August 1987). "Four-Wheeling Into Your Future". Popular Mechanics 164 (8): 58. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  15. ^ Petrany, Mate (12 June 2012). "40 Years Of Not Getting Stuck: A Subaru AWD History". jalopnik.com. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  16. ^ Robson, Graham (2007). Subaru Impreza. Veloce Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 9781845840426. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  17. ^ Niedermeyer, Paul (18 August 2009). "Curbside Classic: 1984 Toyota Tercel Wagon". thetruthaboutcars.com. Retrieved 31 March 2014. Toyota’s first-ever front wheel driver ... extend the output shaft out the back of the transmission, and connect it to a driveshaft for the solid rear axle ... Not on dry pavement, though, because like most 4WD systems of the time, it had no center differential 
  18. ^ Foster, Patrick R. "AMC Eagle 4wd: Underfunded before its time". Autoweek Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Padgett, Martin (2004). Hummer. Zenith. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7603-1863-8. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  20. ^ Padgett, pp. 242–243.
  21. ^ Magrath, Mike (15 January 2009). "2009 Suzuki SX4 Long-Term Test". Edmunds Inside Line. Retrieved 28 August 2010. [dead link]
  22. ^ Carney, Dan (26 September 2013). "AMC Eagle, the unlikely trail-blazer". BBC. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  23. ^ Rosa, Gerard. "EagleWeb". Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "AMC Data Book - Eagle Sport". American Motors - Merchandising/Sales Support Department (courtesy of oldcarbrochures.com). 1980. p. 20. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  25. ^ "The Beauty of 4-Wheel Drive. American Eagle. (advertisement)". Ski magazine 44 (6): 130–131. February 1980. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "Built for Today...Built to Last for Tomorrow: Eagle 4-WD". American Motors. 1980. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  27. ^ a b Ward's automotive yearbook 43. Ward's Reports. 1981. p. 213. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "1980 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  29. ^ Witzenburg, Gary (September 1980). "Driving the new AMC models". Popular Mechanics 154 (4): 100, 180. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  30. ^ Witzenburg, p. 180.
  31. ^ Flammang, James M. (1990). Standard Catalog of American Cars, 1976–1986. Krause Publications. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-87341-133-2. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  32. ^ Witzenburg, Gary (June 1981). "AMC's Snowbird Supreme - The Eagle Wagon". Popular Mechanics 155 (6): 77. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "1981 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  34. ^ "1982 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  35. ^ a b "PM long-term car tests". Popular Mechanics: 174, 176. June 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
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  37. ^ a b "1984 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  38. ^ a b "1985 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  39. ^ "1986 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  40. ^ Foster, Patrick R. (2004). The Story of Jeep (Second ed.). Krause Publications. p. 199. ISBN 9780873497350. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  41. ^ "1987 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  42. ^ Sources: American Motors 1987 dealer brochure and the 1988 addendum to the 1987 dealer brochure. Note: There was no separate sales booklet published for the 1988 model year.
  43. ^ "1988 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagles Den. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c "1981-82 AMC Eagle and Concord Sundancer Convertible". 15 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "American Motors". Cars & Parts 45: 31. 2002. 
  46. ^ Consumer's Guide, ed. (2005). History of the American Auto. Publications International. p. 532. ISBN 978-0-7853-9874-5. 
  47. ^ Lamm, Michael (July 1981). "Hardtops to ragtops; the rebirth of the convertible!". Popular Mechanics 156 (1): 72. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  48. ^ Lamm. p. 118.
  49. ^ Strohl, Daniel (26 October 2006). "turbo Eagle". Hemmings Daily. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  50. ^ a b c Shepard, Doug. "AMC Eagle Turbo Diesel". AMC Eagle Nest. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 15 June 2013. [dead link]
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  52. ^ "Chisum Trail PRO Rally 1981". Rally Racing News. 26 May 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
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  54. ^ "Centennial PRO Rally 1981". Rally Racing News. 12 September 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  55. ^ "Budweiser Sunriser 400 Official Results". Rally Racing News. October 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  56. ^ "Chisum Trail PRO Rally 1981". Rally Racing News. 9 November 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  57. ^ "Sno*Drift Results Through the Years - 1979–1981". sno-drift. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  58. ^ a b "Sno*Drift PRO Rally 1981". Rally Racing News. 7 December 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  59. ^ Koch, Rod (2011). When the Green Flag Drops. Xlibris. p. 382. ISBN 978-1-4568-5862-9. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  60. ^ a b "Reno International PRO Rally 1981". Rally Racing News. 17 December 1981. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  61. ^ "Big Bend Bash PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 22 February 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  62. ^ "100 Acre Wood PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 8 March 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  63. ^ "Olympus PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 19 April 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  64. ^ "Northern Lights Pro Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 3 May 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  65. ^ "Budweiser Forest PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 30 August 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  66. ^ "Centennial PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 13 September 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  67. ^ "Tour de Forest PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 4 October 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  68. ^ a b "Sno*Drift Results Through the Years - 1982–1996". sno-drift. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  69. ^ "Sno*Drift PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 5 December 1982. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  70. ^ "100 Acre Wood PRO Rally 1982". Rally Racing News. 14 March 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  71. ^ "Budweiser Forest PRO Rally". Rally Racing News. March 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  72. ^ "Nor'wester PRO Rally 1983". Rally Racing News. April 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  73. ^ "Olympus PRO Rally 1983". Rally Racing News. April 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  74. ^ "Michigan International PRO Rally 1983". Rally Racing News. April 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  75. ^ "Manistee Trails PRO Rally 1983". Rally Racing News. 12 September 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  76. ^ "Press On Regardless 1983". Rally Racing News. 7 November 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  77. ^ "Sno*Drift PRO Rally 1983". Rally Racing News. 5 December 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  78. ^ "Carson City International 1983". Rally Racing News. 12 December 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  79. ^ "Press On Regardless 1984". Rally Racing News. November 1984. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  80. ^ "Oregon Trail Rally 1984". Rally Racing News. 17 November 1983. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  81. ^ "Susquehannock Trail Pro Rally". Rally Racing News. June 1985. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  82. ^ "Dodge PRO Rally Michigan". Rally Racing News. August 1985. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  83. ^ "Sunriser 400 Forest Rally". Rally Racing News. September 1985. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  84. ^ "Tulip 200 Forest Rally". Rally Racing News. 12 April 1986. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  85. ^ "Susquehannock Trail PRO Rally". Rally Racing News. June 1986. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  86. ^ "Sunriser 400 Forest Rally". Rally Racing News. September 1986. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  87. ^ "Susquehannock Trail Rally". Rally Racing News. 5 June 1988. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  88. ^ Shier, Will (2006). Roadside Relics: America's Abandoned Automobiles. Motorbooks BMI. p. 132. ISBN 9780760327487. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  89. ^ Stocksdale, Joel (25 June 2013). "Unique and memorable AMC Eagle was a pioneer". Hagerty - Car Profiles. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  90. ^ "Chrysler Planning Eagle's Phase-Out". The New York Times. 20 September 1997. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  91. ^ a b "Jeep-Eagle Division". Ward's automotive yearbook, 52. Ward's Reports. 1990. p. 102. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  92. ^ Dunne, Jim (March 1988). "Inside Detroit". Popular Mechanics 165 (3): 38. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  93. ^ "Why Chrysler's Eagle Isn't Soaring". Business Week (McGraw-Hill). 1988. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  94. ^ Gillis, Jack (1992). The Car Book 1993. HarperCollins. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-06-273006-0. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  95. ^ Martin, Murilee (11 May 2011). "Junkyard Find: Parade of Doomed Eagles Continues". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  96. ^ "For $3,500, put an eagle in your nest". Jalopnik. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  97. ^ Hafner, Chris (11 March 2008). "AMC Eagle". carlust. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  98. ^ "Stashed SCCA Rally Car: 1982 AMC SX/4 Project". Bring A Trailer. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  99. ^ Strohl, Daniel (8 April 2013). "Hemmings Find of the Day – 1985 AMC Eagle". Hemmings. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  100. ^ Joslin, Tom (13 August 2011). "Rare AMC Eagle Sundancer is ultra-weird fun in the sun". Jalopnik. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 

External links[edit]