Ambadi seed oil
Ambadi seed oil is extracted from seeds of the Ambadi plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), also called kenaf. It is an annual or perennial plant in the Malvaceae family. It is related to the Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). It is believed to be native to Asia (India to Malaysia) or Tropical Asia.
Common names in Indian languages
- Sanskrit: Nalita
- Hindi: Ambani, pastan, pitwa
- Bengali: Mestapat
- Marathi: Ambadi, ambada
- Gujarathi: Ambariya, sheria
- Telugu: Gogu, gongura
- Tamil: Pulichhai, pulimanji, kasini
- Kannada: Pundi
- Malayalam: Kanjaru
- Oriya: Kanuria
In India, the tender leaves of the plant are used in the making of curries, but the plant is cultivated mainly as a fiber crop in drier regions. Moisture is required during the growing period, so rainfall should be at least 100 mm or more per month during the crop cycle with a fairly uniform temperature in order to properly cultivate the plant.
The plant is hermaphroditic, producing large cream coloured flowers characterized by a reddish purple or scarlet throat. The flowers are short lived, opening in the early hours of morning before sunrise and closing by noon of the same day. While cannabinus is generally self-pollinated, bees and other insects cause a small amount of cross-pollination. In India the plant is cultivated in the states of Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Maharastra, Karnataka, and Orissa.
So far Ambadi has been cultivated only as a fibre crop, but it has been found that the fibre quality will not be impaired even if seed is allowed to set. The fibre still can be used for pulp and other industries, while the seed yield will be 350-450 kg per hectare, and contain up to 18-22% protein. The annual potential for Ambadi in India is around 75,000 tonnes of seeds and around 13,000 tonnes of oil.
Extraction of Oil
Ambadi seeds are greyish or dull green in appearance and H. sabdiriffa plant seeds are brown or pink. Ambadi seeds are tetrahedral and contain 18-22% of oil. The seed has good storage stability but having a strongly adherent seed coat makes it difficult to separate from the kernel. The yield of oil from seeds is about 15%. To extract the oil, the seed is flaked, steamed and pressed. Residual oil in the cake can be extracted with hexane; alternatively all the oil can be extracted directly with the solvent.
Properties and composition of oil
Total phospholipids ranged from 3.9 to 10.3% of the oil, with a mean of 6.0%. Mean sterol percent was 0.9 and ranged from 0.6% of the total oil for 178-18RS-10 accession to 1.2% for Everglades 71. Palmitic (20.1% of the total fatty acids), oleic (29.2%), and linoleic (45.9%) were the major fatty acids, and palmitoleic (1.6%), linolenic (0.7%), and stearic (3.5%) were the minor components. Medium (C12–C14) and long (C22–C24) chain fatty acids were less than 1%. Sphingomyelin (4.42% of the total phospholipids), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (12.8%), phosphatidyl choline (21.9%), phosphatidyl serine (2.9%), phosphatidyl inositol (2.7%), lysophosphatidyl choline (5.3%), phosphatidyl glycerol (8.9%), phosphatidic acid (4.9%), and cardiolipin (3.6%) were identified in the nine genotypes. Phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidyl glycerol were the dominant phospholipids. In addition, eight unidentified phospholipids were also found, β-sitosterol (72.3% of the total sterols), campsterol (9.9%), and stigmasterol (6.07%) were prevalent among kenaf genotypes. Kenaf's relatively high oil content and its similarity to cottonseed oil suggest that the seed oil may be used as a source of edible oil. The variation among genotypes indicates potential for genetic improvement in oil yield and quality.
Table-Physical and chemical properties of oil
|Refractive index at 40 °C||1.465–1.471|
|Acid value||< 6.0|
|Unsaponifiable matter||< 2.5% by mass|
Table-Fatty acid Composition of oil
|Palmitic acid (C16:0)||20–35|
|Stearic acid (C18:0)||2.0–4.0|
|Oleic acid (C18:1)||25–34|
|Linoleic acid (C18:2)||15–47|
|(12,13)-epoxy acid (C18:1)||3.3–4.5|
|Cyclopropenoic2 acid (C19:1)||1.2–2.9|
|Cyclopropenoic3 acid (C19:1)||2.3–3.4|
- Ambadi seed oil can be used as Biodiesel.
- Its similarity to cottonseed oil suggest that the oil may be used as an edible oil. The variation among genotypes indicates potential for genetic improvement in oil yield and quality.
- The oil is suitable for use as a lubricant, lamp oil, in the manufacturing of soap, linoleum flooring, and in paints and varnishes.
- The green leaves are common in Indian food, similar to the use of other leaves in curries.
- "ambadi". Marani to English Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn". nopr.niscair.res.in/. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- "specification for ambadi oil". standardsbis.in/. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Chemical composition of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil". sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Evaluation of performance and emissions of Hibiscus cannabinus (Ambadi) seed oil biodiesel". http://connection.ebscohost.com/. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Chemical Composition of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) Seed Oil". ars.usda.gov/. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Hibiscus cannabinus". http://database.prota.org/. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
Mahadevan, N., Shivali Kambojo, and Pradeep Kambojo. "Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn. - An Overview." Natural Product Radiance 8.1 (2007). ISF College of Pharmacy. Web. <http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/3769/1/NPR 8(1) 77-83.pdf>.
Mohammad, Ali, Harbans Bhardwaj, Anwar Hamama, and C. Webber Ill. "Chemical Composition of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) Seed Oil." Science Direct: Industrial Crops and Products. Elsevier B.V., 1 Oct. 1995. Web. 29 Jan. 2015. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/092666909500027A>.
Jindal, S., and K. Goyal. "Evaluation of Performance and Emissions of Hibiscus Cannabinus (Ambadi) Seed Oil Biodiesel." Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy 14.4 (2012). EBSCO Host Connect. Web. <http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/78163961/evaluation-performance-emissions-hibiscus-cannabinus-ambadi-seed-oil-biodiesel>.
Bukenya-Ziraba, R. "Hibiscus Cannabinus L." Prota 2: Vegetables/Légumes Record Display 10.2 (2004). PROTA. Web. <http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Hibiscus cannabinus_En.htm>.