Arameans

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This article is about the ancient people. For the modern group, see Aramaean identity.
For other uses, see Aramean (disambiguation).

The Arameans, or Aramaeans, (Aramaic: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ‎, ארמיא ; ʼaramáyé) were a Northwest Semitic people who originated in what is now modern Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.[1][2] Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia, where they intermingled with the native Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) population. Some Syriac Christians in modern Syria still espouse an Aramean identity to this day and speak the Aramaic language.

The Arameans never had a unified nation; they were divided into small independent kingdoms across parts of the Near East, particularly in what is now modern Syria. After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC.

By contrast, the Aramaic language came to be the lingua franca of the entire Fertile Crescent and Bahrain, by Late Antiquity developing into the literary languages such as Syriac and Mandaic. Scholars have used the term "Aramaization" for the process by which the Assyro-Babylonian Akkadian-speaking peoples became Aramaic-speaking during the later Iron Age.[3]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Basalt funeral stele bearing an Aramaic inscription, ca. 7th century BC. Found in Neirab or Tell Afis (Syria).

There are limited mention of Arameans in Mesopotamian inscriptions supplemented by a few descriptive situations associated with Rebekah from Aram-Naharaim in the book of Genesis in the Bible, which lists Aram, the son of Shem, and grandson of Noah, as their forbear.

The toponym A-ra-mu appears in an inscription at Ebla listing geographical names, and the term Armi, which is the Eblaite term for nearby Aleppo, occurs frequently in the Ebla tablets (ca. 2300 BC). One of the annals of Naram-Sin of Akkad (c. 2250 BC) mentions that he captured "Dubul, the ensí of A-ra-me" (Arame is seemingly a genitive form), in the course of a campaign against Simurrum in the northern mountains.[4] Other early references to a place or people of "Aram" have appeared at the archives of Mari (c. 1900 BC) and at Ugarit (c. 1300 BC). There is little agreement concerning what, if any, relationship there was between these places, or if the Aramu were actually Arameans; the earliest undisputed mention of Arameans as a people appears in the inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser I (c. 1100 BC).[5]

Nomadic pastoralists have long played a prominent role in the economy of the Middle East, but their numbers seem to vary according to climatic conditions and the force of neighbouring states inducing permanent settlement. The period of the Late Bronze Age seems to have coincided with increasing aridity, which weakened neighbouring states and induced transhumance pastoralists to spend longer and longer periods with their flocks. Urban settlements diminished in size, until eventually fully nomadic pastoralist lifestyles came to dominate the region. These highly mobile, competitive tribesmen with their sudden raids continually threatened long-distance trade and interfered with the collection of taxes and tribute. In the early 14th century BC, much of Israel came under Aramean rule for eight years according to the Biblical Book of Judges, until Othniel defeated the forces led by Chushan-Rishathaim, the King of Aram-Naharaim. Other entities mentioned in the Hebrew Bible include Aram Damascus and Aram Rehob.

The Ahlamû (= wanderers) are first mentioned in the el-Amarna letters alluding to the king of Babylon; the presence of the Ahlamû are also attested in Assyria, Nippur and even at Dilmun (Bahrain); Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 BC) defeated the Shattuara, King of Mitanni and his Hittite and Ahlamû mercenaries are mentioned in the Jazirah. The term appears equivalent to the Egyptian term Shasu (Shsw = wanderer), who replaced the outlaw 'Apiru (cuneiform SA.GAZ) as the major source of instability in the Egyptian Levantine empire from the reign of Tutankhamun onwards. In the following century, the Ahlamû cut the road from Babylon to Hattusas, and Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1208 BC) claims that he conquered Mari, Hana[disambiguation needed] and Rapiqum on the Euphrates and "the mountain of the Ahlamû", apparently the region of Jebel Bishri.

Bronze Age collapse[edit]

Funeral stele of Si` Gabbor, priest of the Moon God. Basalt, early 7th century BC, found in Neirab (Syria), bears an Aramaic inscription.

For the first time, an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1077 BC) refers to the "Ahlamû-Aramaeans" (Ahlame Armaia) and shortly after, the Ahlamû rapidly disappear from Assyrian annals, to be replaced by the Aramaeans (Aramu, Arimi). "Ahlamû-Aramaeans" would consider the Arameans as an important and in time dominant faction of the Ahlamû tribes, however it is possible that the two peoples had nothing in common, but operated in the same area.[6] It is conceivable that the name "Aramaeans" was a more accurate form of the earlier ethnonym Martu (Amorites, westerners) in the Assyrian tablets.[citation needed]

The Arameans were, in the 11th century BC, established in Syria. The Bible tells us that Saul, David and Solomon (late 11th to 10th centuries) fought against the Aramean kingdoms across the northern frontier of Israel: Aram-Sôvah in the Beq’a, Aram-Bêt-Rehob and Aram-Ma’akah around Mount Hermon, Geshur in the Hauran, and Aram-Damascus. An Arameans king's account dating at least two centuries later, the Tel Dan Stele, was discovered in northern Israel, and is famous for being perhaps the earliest non-Israelite extra-biblical historical reference to the Israelite royal dynasty, the House of David. Farther north, the Arameans were in possession of Hamath on the Orontes and were soon to become strong enough to dissociate with the Neo-Hittite bloc.

Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit]

The Arameans conquered, during the 11th and the 10th centuries BC, Sam’al (Zenjirli), also known as Yaudi, the region from Arpad to Aleppo which they renamed Bît-Agushi, and Til Barsip, which became the chief town of Bît-Adini, also known as Beth Eden. At the same time, Arameans moved to the east of the Euphrates, where they settled in such numbers that the whole region became known as Aram-Naharaim or "Aram of the two rivers." One of their earliest kingdoms in Mesopotamia was Bît-bahiâni (Tell Halaf). North of Sam'al was the Arameans state of Bit-Gabari, sandwiched between the Neo-Hittite states of Carchemish, Gurgum, Tabal, Khattina and Unqi. While these later states maintained a Neo-Hittite hieroglyphic for official communication, it would seem that the population of these small states was progressively Aramaeanized.

Aramean kingdoms, like much of the near east, were subjugated by the Neo Assyrian Empire, beginning with the reign of Adad-nirari II in 911 BC. This process was continued by Ashurnasirpal II, and his son Shalmaneser III, who destroyed many of the small tribes, and gave control of Aramea (modern Syria) and local trade and natural resources to the Assyrians. The portion of the Arameans population that had migrated to or were deported to Assyria and Babylonia intermixed ethnically with the indigenous Akkadians of Assyria and Babylonia. This process, and the adaptation of Assyro-Babylonian culture, religion, customs, and identity, led to the political absorption of the Arameans in Mesopotamia, and its immediate surrounding regions. Conversely, the eastern Aramaic language was adopted as the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as the lingua franca of the the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Empires that succeeded it, leading to the Assyro-Babylonian population eventually speaking an Akkadian-influenced dialect of Aramaic.

Aramaeans in later antiquity and modern times[edit]

Arameans continued to be the majority population in their homeland (most of modern Syria and part of south central Asia Minor) until well after the Arab Islamic conquest of the 7th century AD. A number of Aramaean kingdoms sprang up in the region, the most important being Palmyra and to a lesser degree the Osroene kingdom.

There was probably some synthesis with pre Islamic Arab migrants (and possibly Greeks and Phoenicians also), and the Nabatean civilisation of what is today Jordan and southern Syria had a mixed Aramean-Arab identity. From the 2nd century AD they began to adopt Christianity in increasing numbers, and by the 4th century the population was largely Christian.

After the Arab Islamic conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, Arameans gradually became a minority in their homelands, the language was gradually replaced by Arabic, as ever increasing numbers of Arabs, (together with Turkic and Iranian peoples) began to move into the region. Those indigenous Arameans who converted to Islam rapidly lost their Aramean identity, intermixed with the Arab rulers and essentially became culturally Arabs.

However, a small minority of the population of Syria and Mesopotamia retained Syriac Christianity and still identify as Arameans-Syriacs, retaining Aramaic as a liturgical language. A small section of these people, now limited to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in Syria, has remained Western Aramaic speaking to this day.

Language[edit]

Main article: Old Aramaic language
Further information: Aramaic language

Arameans are mostly defined by their use of the West Semitic Old Aramaic language (1100 BC–AD 200), first written using the Phoenician alphabet, over time modified to a specifically Aramaic alphabet.

As early as the 8th century BC, the Aramaic language competed with the East Semitic Akkadian language and script in Assyria and Babylonia, and thereafter it spread throughout the Near East in various dialects. By around 800 BC, Aramaic had become the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire. Although marginalized by Greek in the Hellenistic period, Aramaic in its varying dialects remained unchallenged as the common language of all Semitic peoples of the region until the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the 7th century AD after which it was gradually superseded by Arabic.

The late Old Aramaic language of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire and Achaemenid Persian Empire developed into the Middle Aramaic Syriac language of Persian Assyria which would become the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity. The descendant dialects of this branch of Mesopotamian Aramaic (which still retains a number of Akkadian loan words) still survive as the spoken and written language of the ethnically Mesopotamian Assyrians to this day, and is found mostly in northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, as well as in diaspora communities in the west, particularly the USA, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Great Britain and Russia. The Western Aramaic dialect of the Arameans themselves is now only spoken by tiny minorities in one or two villages in Syria. Mandic is spoken by up to 75,000 speakers of the ethnically Mesopotamian Gnostic Mandean sect, mainly in Iraq and Iran. A small number of Israeli Jews, particularly those originating from Iraq, and to a lesser degree from Iran, retain Aramaic as a spoken tongue, however this is largely being eroded by Hebrew, especially within the Israeli born generations.

Religion and art[edit]

It appears from their inscriptions as well as from their names that Arameans worshipped Assyro-Babylonian gods such as Haddad (Adad), Sin, Ishtar (whom they called ‘Attar), Shamash and Nergal, and Caananite-Phoenician deities such as the storm-god, El, the supreme deity of Canaan, in addition to Anat (‘Atta) and others.

The Arameans who lived outside their homelands apparently followed the traditions of the country where they settled. The King of Damascus, for instance, employed Phoenician sculptors and ivory-carvers. In Tell Halaf-Guzana, the palace of Kapara, an Arameans ruler (9th century B.C.), was decorated with orthostats and with statues that display a mixture of Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Hurrian influences.

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • S. Moscati, 'The Aramaean Ahlamû', FSS, IV (1959), pp. 303–7;
  • M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Der Tell Halaf, Leipzig, 1931 pp. 71–198;
  • M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Tell Halaf, III, Die Bauwerke, Berlin, 1950;
  • A. Moortgat, Tell Halaf IV, Die Bildwerke, Berlin, 1955;
  • B. Hrouda, Tell Halaf IV, Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit, Berlin, 1962;
  • G. Roux, Ancient Iraq, London, 1980.
  • Beyer, Klaus (1986). "The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions". (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht). ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  • Lipiński, Edward (2000). The Aramaeans: their ancient history, culture, religion (Illustrated ed.). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-0859-8. 
  • Spieckermann, Hermann (1999), "Arameans", in Fahlbusch, Erwin, Encyclopedia of Christianity 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, pp. 114–115, ISBN 0802824137 

External links[edit]