Arawak language

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Arawak
Lokono
Native to French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
Region Guianas
Ethnicity Lokono (Arawak)
Native speakers
unknown (2,500 cited 1980–2000)[1]
Arawakan
Language codes
ISO 639-2 arw
ISO 639-3 arw
Glottolog araw1276[2]

Arawak (Arowak, Aruák) or Lokono (also called Lokono Dian "people’s talk" by its speakers) is an Arawakan language spoken by the Lokono (Arawak) people of South America in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana.[3] The term "Arawak" is often used to cover all members of the Arawakan language family.

Arawak has an active–stative syntax.[4]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Aspirated stops
Unvoiced stops t k
Voiced stops b d
Fricatives ɸ s h
Nasal m n
Approximant w l j
Trills r ɽ

William Pet observes that an additional /p/ does occur in loans.[5]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ
Mid e o
Open a

Pet notes that phonetic realization of /o/ varies between [o] and [u].[5]

Grammar[edit]

The personal pronouns are shown below. The forms on the left are free forms, which can stand alone. The forms on the right are bound forms (prefixes), which must be attached to a the front of a verb, a noun, or a postposition.[6]

singular plural
1st person de, da- we, wa-
2nd person bi, by- hi, hy-
3rd person li, ly- (he)

tho, thy- (she)

ne, na-

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arawak at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Arawak". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Pet, Willem J. A. A Grammar Sketch and Lixicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian). SIL International. 2011. p 2. http://www-01.sil.org/silepubs/Pubs/928474543236/e-Books_30_Pet_Arawak_Suriname.pdf
  4. ^ Aikhenvald, "Arawak", in Dixon & Aikhenvald, eds., The Amazonian Languages, 1999.
  5. ^ a b Pet, William (1988). Lokono dian: the Arawak language of Surinam: a sketch of its grammatical structure and lexicon. PhD dissertation, Cornell University. 
  6. ^ Pet, Willem J. A. A Grammar Sketch and Lixicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian). SIL International. 2011. p 12. http://www-01.sil.org/silepubs/Pubs/928474543236/e-Books_30_Pet_Arawak_Suriname.pdf