Close central unrounded vowel

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Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, but does occur as an allophone in many Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know Asyik[1] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[2] describe this sound as such while Durie[3] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Amharic ሥር [sɨr] 'root' Often transcribed ə
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects był [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì About this sound [ʐɨ̋]  'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Cockney[4][5] rude [ɹɨ̹ːd] 'rude' With little lip rounding. May be fully rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Southeastern English[6] [ɹɨːd] May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Irish saol [sɨɫ] 'life' See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Mapudungun trukür [ʈ͡ʂuˈkɨɻ] 'fog' See Mapudungun phonology
Mongolian[7] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[8] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[9] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ]  'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[10] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sirionó[11] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tupi yby [ɨβɨ] 'earth'
Udmurt[12] ургетэ, ыргетэ[13] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[14] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[15] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

Polish y is often transcribed as /ɨ/, but actually it is a fronted and slightly raised close-mid central unrounded vowel, that could be narrowly transcribed as [ɘ̟˔].[16] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed e, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese", Mon-Khmer Studies 11: 1–33, retrieved 9 November 2012 
  2. ^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities 15: 9–21 
  3. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  4. ^ Matthews (1938:78)
  5. ^ Wells (1982:306–307)
  6. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  7. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  8. ^ González de Perez (2005:50)
  9. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  10. ^ Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  11. ^ Firestone (1965:?)
  12. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  13. ^ ургетыны [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian) 
  14. ^ Ball (1984:?)
  15. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  16. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  17. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language 62 (3): 530–570, doi:10.2307/415477, JSTOR 415477 
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co 
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics 68 (3): 316–340, doi:10.1086/466492 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press