Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
X-SAMPA e
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is e.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Egyptian ليه [leː] 'why' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Levantine ليش [leːʃ] See Arabic phonology
Catalan[1] séc [s̠ek] 'fold' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese bei6 [pei˨˨] 'nose' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin fēi [feɪ̯˥] 'to fly' See Mandarin phonology
Wu ge [ɡe˩˧] 'lean'
Danish Standard[2] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Often transcribed /ɛ/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[3] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
Northeastern
Standard
Netherlandic
English Australian[4] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
New Zealand Can be closer to [ɪ] for some speakers.
South African Can also be lower [ɛ], or higher [e̝~ɪ̞], depending on the dialect.
North American play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play' Some dialects. Many speakers have a diphthong of the type [eɪ] instead.
Irish Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on the dialect.
General Indian[5]
General Pakistani[6] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Scottish[7]
Singaporean[8]
Tyneside[9]
Ulster[10] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Cardiff[11] kit [kët] 'kit' Centralized; corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects.
Faroese eg [eː] 'I'
French[12] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Galician tres [t̪ɾes] 'three'
Georgian[13] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[14] Seele About this sound [ˈzeːlə]  'soul' See German phonology
Hindustani दे/دے [d̪eː] 'give!' See Hindustani phonology
Italian[15] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Korean 베다 beda [ˈpeːda] 'to cut' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[16] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].
Malay bebek [bebek] 'duck' See Malay phonology
North Frisian ween [ʋeːn] 'blue'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[17] le [l̪eː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[18] dzień About this sound [ˈd͡ʑeɲ̟]  'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[19] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਸੇਬ [seːb] 'apple'
Russian[20] шея About this sound [ˈʂejə]  'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Swedish se About this sound [s̪eː]  'see' See Swedish phonology
Vietnamese tê [te] 'numb' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian skeel [skeːɫ] 'cross-eyed'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] [example needed] Occurs mostly after [i], otherwise the vowel is central [ɘ].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, p. 93, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Deterding, David (2000), "Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Low, Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Harrington, Jonathan; Cox, Felicity; Evans, Zoe (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17 (2): 155–184, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Mahboob, Ahmar; Ahmar, Nadra H. (2004), "Pakistani English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W., A handbook of varieties of English 1, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1003–1015 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 
  • Wells, J. C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0